Effect of bamboo shoot on functional and morphological status of Testis in Male albino rat

Toxicological Evaluation of Ingestion of Raw Bamboo (Bambusa arundinacea) Shoots on Male Reproductive System of Rat


Project Report, 2009

33 Pages, Grade: 1


Excerpt

Table of contents

1. INTRODUTTION

2. REVIEW OF LITERATURE

3. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

4. DESIGN OF STUDY

5. MATERIALS AND METHODS

6. RESULTS

7. DISCUSSION

8. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

9. BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. INTRODUCTION

Bamboo shook (Bambusa anindinacea) are the extremely young growth of bamboo plant usually harvested before they are two weeks old. It has been reported that many people of India specially north cast India consume bamboo shoot regularity as pickle chutney and it is considered as one of the important factor for the persistence of endemic goiter or thyroid problem. (Chandra et.al. 2008)

Bamboo shoot is low in fat and calories and it is very high potassium dietary fiber rich content food, which maintain normal blood pressure, steady heart rate, low cholesterol level and prevent colon cancer. ( 19)

Bamboo shoot (Bambusu arundinacea) contain as much as 1000 mg/kg cyanogenic glycosides which is hydrolyzed in gut and released cyanide which then converted to thiocyanate. Thiocyanate is an anion that produces the goiter by blocking the Iodine channel, thus thyroid hormone level fall resulting in goiter production. (23. 32)

As abnormal thyroid function may influence the normal functioning of the reproduction by regulating the testosterone level of blood. (Prince P, Wass JAH. Griffin JE, et al. 1984, 1496-1508) and thus the present investigation has been considered to evaluate the status of male reproductive system after feeding of bamboo shoots (Bambusa arundinacea) by replacing a portion of diet.

In the context the study have therefore been conducted to examine the effect of bamboo shoot on male reproductive system by measuring testicular weight, sperm count activity of steroidogenic enzyme viz Λ53β hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase.l7ß hydroxyl steroid dehydrogenase,serum testosterone level and by analyzing the histological changes of testis.

2. REVIEW OF LITERATURE

2.1.1 Development of testis

Testicular differentiation is controlled by genes on the Y chromosomes, the short arm of Y chromosomes contains genes responsible for testicular development, and additional Yencoded genes are essential for spermatogenesis. The region of short arm of Y chromosomes between the pairing segment and the centromere encode SRY gene which is responsible for testis determination. The SRY gene in Y- chromosomes is specific, conserved among mammals and expressed principally in the testis.SRY encodes a protein of the HMG(high mobility group) box type that probably acts to influence chromatin structure and other gene in the sex determination cascade, including steroidogenic facter I gene(SFI). Sexual dimorphism of gonad begins with 6&7 weeks of gestation with the development of seminiferous cords in the fetal testis. The somatic cell of the gonad can under go partial organization into ovary or testis as specified hy the sex chromosomes. ( 5.7 )

2.1.2 Anatomy of testis Location

In males the urinary and reproductive system share a single opening at the tip of penis, which is hidden in a fold of skin located between two prominent scrotal sacs which is the house of testis. Testis is located in the bags of skin called the scrotal sacs or scrotum that hangs below the hody. In many animal testis descents into scrotal sacs at hirth hut some animal do not descent until sexual mauiration.Some animals descent it temporarily during breeding season. (15. 26)

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The testis are made up of convoluted seminiferous tubule which are also composed of germ cell and sertoli cell, and a esterified cholesterol and lipoprotein containing interstitial cell of Leydig.Tight junction between sertorli celt separates the spermatogonia from primary spermatocyte and from a diffusion barrier that divides the testis into two functional compartment basal and adluminal .The spermatic arteries to the testis are tortous and blood in them runs parallel but in opposite direction to blood in pampiniform plexus of spermatic vein. Spermatogenesis takes place with in sertoli cell cytoplasm network, where as Leydig cell is necessary to testosterone bio synthesis. (15, 12, 26)

2.2.1 Hormonal regulation of testicular function

Role of FSH and LH

FSH and LH are the primary pituitary hormones that regulate testicular function. LH &FSH are secreted by same basophilic cell in the pituitary in response to Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH). Slow frequency GnRH pulse favor FSH secretion where as frequent pulses favor LH secretion. The primary site of action of FSH is the basal aspect of the plasma membrane of Sertoli cell to stimulate the synthesis of protein such as Androgen binding protein and aromatase .The precise role of FSH in the control of spermatogenesis remain uncertain and vary among species.FSH plays a indirect role in androgen biosynthesis by inducing maturation of Leydig cell during development, but does not play a major role in control of Leydig cell function. The primary site for LH is the Leydig cell. The LH receptor on the plasma membrane of Leydig cell bind to LH and initiate the Testosterone as well as androgen biosynthesis. (12)

Role of Growth hormone & Thyroid hormone

GH plays a major role in pubertal growth, effects mainly mediated by stimulation of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). However, the role of GH in the regulation of pubertal onset, spermatogenesis and fertility is still under debate Thyroid hormone especially thyroxin plays a major role in transport and metabolism of testosterone. In plasma testosterone is largely bound to protein. 54% is bound to albumin and 44% is bound to sex hormone binding globulin(SHBG)The permissive action of thyroid hormone is to regulate the SHBG production through a estrogen dependent pathway .Thyroid hormone plays a role to modulate the a-5 reductase activity by regulating the m-RNA synthesis. Alpha-5 redutase converts the testosterone to dehydrotesterone, which is known as potent andosteron because the affinity of human androgen receptor for testosterone is less than it is for dehydrotestosterone. (6. 9. 25, 28)

2.2.2 Other factors regulates testicular function

Environmental Factors

The potential toxicity of various chemicals i.e. pesticides and heavy metals caused alteration in spemi morphology, count, motility, as well as biochemical disruption of enzyme and hormones.

Pesticide. Lindane induced Testicular injury

Lindane the isomer of Benzene hexachloride was used as DDL resistant, pesucide controller in horticulture. Occupational exposed of lindane revealed the disintegration of germinal cell and peritubular membrane. Lindane induced injury in epidydimis. which cause decline the rate of sperm maturation and significant decline in succinic dehydrogenase (SDH), hyaluronidase,3ß-iV HSD and testosterone (20)

Effect of heavy metals (26)

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Antithyroid activity and Cyanogenic factors

Antithyroid include Goitrogen are those chemical agent, which is responsible for the goiter Goitrogen include cyanogenic glycoside metabolize in the gut and release cyanide which is then detoxified to thiocyanate (SCN ), Thiocyanate blocks the iodine channel and inhibit iodine transport, that lead to goiter and decrease thyroid hormone level.(l,23)

There arc some foods (radish, turnip) plants (spinach) that have antithyroid activity and contain cyanogenic glycoside; Bamboo shoot (Bambusa arwidinacea) is one of the foods that have antithyroid activity. (3)

2.3.1 Bamboo tree

The bamboos are a group of woody perennial evergreen (except for certain temperate species) plants in the true grass family Poaceae Some giant bamboos are the largest members of grass family Bamboos are the fastest growing woody plant in the world. Their growth rate (up to 60 centimeters/day) is due to a unique rhizome- dependent system, but is highly dependent on local soil and climate conditions. (10,11.18)

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The clumping types Fargesia spp.arc typically of tropical or subtropical origin and therefore have limited geographical suitability in the Unired States,since they cannot withstand freezing temperatures.Running bamboo.which includes the most important genus of temperate climate speciesfhyllostachys, can withstand occasional low winter temperatures between -10° and +15p F.Thc running type are typically top-hardy in sections of the Lower South,South west.and Pacific Coast, and root-hardy in northern climaies.(8,IO,18)

There are approximately 1200 species of bamboo, only a few have been used as human food in Asia and Australia. Those currently used in include:

- Dendrocalamus us per;
- Dendrocalamus latiflorus;
- Bambusa oldhamii; and
- Phyllostachys pubescens.

2.3.2 Bamboo shoot

Bamboo shoots (Bambusa arundinacea) arc the extremely young growth of bamboo plant, usually harvested before they are two weeks old. The shoots have a tough exterior but a tender inner core with a faintly sweet flavour: Bamboo shoots contain the cyanogenic glycoside taxiphyllin. which is a p-hydroxylated mandelonitrile tiglochinin. (19)

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(Edible bamboo shoot) (Whole bamboo shoot after harvested)

Taxiphyllin is hydrolysed to glucose and hydroxybenzaldehyde cyanohydrin. Benzaldehyde cyanohydrin then decomposes to hydroxybenzaldehyde and hydrogen cyanide. Bamboo shoots contain as much as 1000 mg/kg of hydrogen cyanide in the apical part. (32)

2.3.3 Nutritional data for bamboo shoot

Bamboo shoots are low in fat and calories. One cup of half-inch long slices contains a mere 14 calories and half a gram of fat. The shoots are a good source of fiber. The same serving size provides about 1.2 grams of fiber; which is approximately 10% of the recommended amouni needed in a day. Fiber helps keep Cholesterol levels in check and plays a role in preventing colon cancer. Bamboo shoots are also a good source of potassium . one cup provides 640 milligrams, which is 18% of the daily recommended amount. Potassium is a heart-healthy mineral. It helps to maintain normal blood pressure and a steady heart beat They contain phenolic acids.Phenolic acids have mild anti-inflammatory properties and are potent antioxidants. Antioxidants help prevent cancer and the blood vessel injury that can start atherosclerosis.

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2.3.4 Dietary exposure

Consumption of bamboo shoots in Australia and New Zealand is considered. Australian consumers of Bamboo shoot included 21 females and 10 males. The youngest consumer of bamboo shoots was a 3 year old female. Table I gives a more detailed breakdown of the consumer groups who recorded eating bamboo shoots in the Australia. (8)

Table 1: Dietary consumption data for bamboo shoots in Australia

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Details

Title
Effect of bamboo shoot on functional and morphological status of Testis in Male albino rat
Subtitle
Toxicological Evaluation of Ingestion of Raw Bamboo (Bambusa arundinacea) Shoots on Male Reproductive System of Rat
College
University of Calcutta  (University of science and technology)
Course
Msc.
Grade
1
Author
Year
2009
Pages
33
Catalog Number
V265091
ISBN (eBook)
9783656545316
File size
8606 KB
Language
English
Notes
E-Bood ist ein PDF-Dokument aus Scans der Original-Abgabe-Version
Tags
toxicology, bamboo shoot
Quote paper
Samrat Paul (Author), 2009, Effect of bamboo shoot on functional and morphological status of Testis in Male albino rat, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/265091

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