Table of Contents
1 Caring and Peaceful
1.1 Peaceful Animal Kingdom
1.2 Peaceful Cultures
1.3 Positive Anthropology
2 Martial Cultures
2.1 Patrisms and War
2.2 Theories of War
2.3 Children and Misogyny
3 Altruism instead of Selfishness
3.1 Morality and Consciousness
3.2 Early Childhood Education
3.3 Peace Education as a Principle
4 Education for Peace
4.1 Education for Masculinity
4.2 Sex Education
4.3 Education for Biophilia
5 Peace Aspects in Education
5.1 Animal Welfare Education
5.2 Human Rights Education
5.3 Alternative Education
6 Subjects of Peace
6.1 Physical Education
6.2 Arts Subjects
6.3 Science Subjects
6.4 History and Politics
6.5 Philosophy and Religious Studies
The worldwide peace demonstrations with millions of participants around the turn of millennium show the desire of a large part of humanity for peace. The activity of hundreds of thousands of young people for peace in Europe is a new phenomenon that can be interpreted in part as a result of decades of peace education in parental homes , kindergartens , schools and colleges.
Balance of the First World War (1914 - 1918)
Approx. 17 million deaths. Approx. 30 million wounded . Approx. 3 thousand German blind .
Approx. 90 thousand German war veterans .
Balance of the Second World War (1939 - 1945)
Approx. 27 million war dead in the former USSR. Approx. 5 million German soldiers killed . More casualties by devastation , deprivation , starvation, epidemics. Millions of deaths from deportation , extermination camp , Holocaust, air attacks. In Europe alone are to complain, an estimated 200 million loss in the First and Second World Wars according to BOUTOUL to ( See BOUTOUL 1973). By the expansion of world wars in Asia there are other millions of dead and wounded. Since the end of World War II, millions of people have died in limited regional wars. The world is preparing for new wars . Samuel P. HUNTINGTON (1996 ) predicts a war of cultures for the future. There is an urgent need for Peace education.
A survey from the year 1998 on the global issues of the nations is thought-provoking . Recent comparative data from the year 2013 are not available to me. In 1998 6 billion U.S. dollars have been invested worldwide in Basic education . 780 billion U.S. dollars for military , however, were spent worldwide at that time . Ice cream for 11 billion U.S. dollars were spent in Europe during the summer months . For the United Nations , including all related agencies 10 billion U.S. dollars were applied . The health and nutrition spending in 1998 amounted to U.S. $ 13 billion worldwide . This was offset by spending on cigarettes in Europe with 50 billion U.S. dollars, of alcoholic beverages in Europe with 105 billion U.S. dollars and for narcotic drugs worldwide with over 400 billion U.S. dollars. Is it not strange that the world's population spends more on cigarettes , alcohol, drugs and military than on anything else ? According to studies from the year 2013 , there are 17,000 nuclear warheads worldwide . In addition, we have Biological , Chemical and Unmanned weapons additional to conventional weapons systems , which are continuously perfected .
But also - like a pair of scissors - opens a positive ray of hope : In 1790, there were only three countries worldwide where the governments were democratically elected by the male part of the population , the United States of America , Switzerland and France . One hundred years later, the globe already had thirteen democracies - including Argentina , Chile, Denmark , Greece , the UK and Canada . In 1920, the number of democracies had increased to 25 countries worldwide . And today , at the beginning of the 21st Century, there are already 119 countries in which the people may more or less democratically choose their governments . However democracies may be imperfect through electoral fraud , mass media and propaganda - there are historically significant steps in the right direction towards democratization and participation of the population .
There are voices that recognize Europe as a phalanx , as the spearhead of global peace. In Europe generally there is a spirit of reconciliation and peace readiness . It seems to have been an increase in empathy, which also led to the abolition of slavery , to strengthen women 's and children's rights, democracy and the welfare state. Weapons exports come across more and more criticism among the population of the European export country. The peoples of Europe , including Germany , France, Spain, England, Austria and Russia, which for centuries had war against each other , have now met the peace for 65 years . Not without reason the European Union therefore has been awarded with the Nobel Peace Prize in 2012.
A positive interpretation of evolution is found in PINKER ( 2011). For Steven PINKER war and violence in politics and society overall are on the decline. Never before in the history of mankind violence, murder and war have played such a small role as in our present. Despite 's First and Second World War with its unimaginable suffering of the millions of victims of war , the Holocaust , the atomic bomb victims of Hiroshima and Nagasaki , despite the civil war in Yugoslavia , the war in Iraq, Afghanistan , civil war in Syria, PINKER believes in a global reduction of violence and war . He discovered an evolutionary progress of humanity for the better. Europe have taken to play a lead role in the world . Never the globe has been populated by so many people like living in the presence. Never have there been so many democratic states full of tranquility , where as today . The focus of the mass media is always focused on violence and military focal points , which gives the impression , as the world is burning in countless venues. The opposite is true . Never before trade and commerce , prosperity and peace have been as common as in the presence of 21th Century (cf. GUARINI / LIEDTKE 1999).
PINKER emphasizes the pacifying effect of the Age of Enlightenment, which he characterized as a truly humanitarian revolution. Violence and cruelty , torture and public executions as four parts ( See FOUCAULT, Discipline and Punish , 1977) or burn them alive, the moral legitimacy was withdrawn by the proclamation of the Universal Human Rights.
The time of the hitherto so -called " Cold War " between capitalism and communism since the end of World War II until 1989 has been designated by PINKER in the "Long Peace" . After the end of the East -West conflict arose since 1989 the "New Peace", as characterized by PINKER. Empathy , reason and self-control act as blockades of violence and war cries . Empathy , reason and self-control steer human evolution as the better angels of our nature to the increase of human rights and peacefulness ( See PINKER : The Better Angels of Our Nature : Why Violence Has Declined , 2011. ) Pacifism and altruism as the guiding principles of a postmodern pedagogy could be transported through the emphasis on empathy , reason, self-control and charity.
1 Caring and Peaceful
Heal the World,
make it a better Place,
for You and for Me
and the entire Human Race.
1.1 Peaceful Animal Kingdom
In discussions about the peace movement and peace education can be heard
often an objection such as the following : the objectives of peace education are indeed nice, but the good people that you attach are visionary , idealistic ,
dreamer , who lacked the observed nature. The dream of peace, opposition to the war, is a hopeless battle against immutable laws of nature . For each animal, think only of themselves and their families. Only those species could get their way , the other animals were outwitted and overpowered . In the animal kingdom, the "struggle of all against all " rule . Many people tend to think that in nature a ruthless struggle for existence is necessary for the development of life . And since man is a part of nature, there must be wars , civil wars, struggle for survival, power and oppression of the weak and over again.
It is a view which is the doctrine scientifically justified by DARWIN (1872 ). The evolution of plant and animal species has been most promoted by the struggle for existence by natural selection and by the perishing of the inferior creatures. Although Charles DARWIN has expressed differentiated ( The Descent of Man , 1872) , and he also sees the mutual assistance in the animal kingdom, his doctrine of the struggle for existence, particularly in the 19th Century has been generally accepted. Because the intuition that guided the struggle for egoistic self-assertion is necessary so that the ablest and most living things evolve and the inferior perish , corresponds to the selfishness , competition and social conditions in 19th Century on the basis of capitalism and colonialism.
Jeremy RIFKIN has done from today's perspective, a modern critique of Darwinism ( See RIFKIN / PERLAS 1986). According RIFKIN the general acceptance of DARWIN's theory is not due to their explanation and truth , but on their suitability as a legitimation for teaching the imperialist and colonialist interests and hegemonic western , industrially advanced societies.
DARWIN's theory abused by fascism in Germany has been called " Social Darwinism " , helped the ruthless national and racial egotism to victory , with every cruelty was justified . Of the subjugation and destruction of allegedly racially inferior peoples and faith communities to euthanasia of disabled people of Nazi crimes ranged against humanity.
A contrary view was represented by Prince Peter KROPOTKIN (1904 ) in his important but unfortunately little-known work on the " Mutual Aid in the animal and human world " ( first published in 1902 ) . KROPOTKIN demonstrates in his work that the value of the struggle for the development of species is very overrated and mutual aid is very underestimated. KROPOTKIN points out that those animals have not developed the highest and happiest life and safest guide that practise the fiercest battle , but those who avoid the fight, particularly through mutual support and collective action , but also by emigration , escape through the winter air in warm countries , hibernation and other means.
Often one hears the opinion that the war was a " relapse of the people in the animal kingdom ." This opinion is not correct according to KROPOTKIN, as indeed almost all animal species live without war. While most animals must often fight, but every fight is not war. War is only planned and carried out aimed at killing of an association fighting against an association of individuals who belong to the same genus .
Konrad LORENZ (See LORENZ 1963) speaks in this case of the so-called intraspecific aggression. So war is therefore not struggle between individuals (eg, territorial defense ) , not the struggle between members of different genera ( feeding hostility ) and not the fight that is not aimed at the destruction , so , for example, rank battles with inhibition to kill . It seems that in the animal world battles take place only in ants , which are comparable to the war in the human kingdom .
By the now widely held view that in nature only the " survival of the fittest " applies , according to KROPOTKIN the spread of an altruistic world view is very inhibited and especially the view supported that efforts to end war between the people are a hopeless struggle against an immutable law of nature .
E ducational consequences
From here, the consequences for peace education reorientation of the natural history and biology lessons , environmental education and peace education arise as a cross-curricular principle, which should be reflected in all subjects . Education and pedagogy should teach more than ever , that mutual aid, symbiosis , ecological circulation, joint work , sociability, altruism and peacefulness are more important factors of the natural evolution of organisms than the Darwinian struggle for existence.
It can be prospects find an ethical education , to " reverence for life " by Swiss Albert SCHWEITZER ( See SCHWEITZER 1991) , for animal welfare education to nature protection , environmental education , for anti -racism education , human rights education through for disability integration pedagogy.
Konrad LORENZ and Erich FROMM
A 1963 published work entitled " On Aggression " by German Konrad LORENZ shortly after its publication became a world - bestseller.According to LORENZ human aggression is a primary drive which is constantly fed by an endogenous source of excitation . The aggression is not only according to LORENZ the result of a reaction to frustration in contrast to the view of the Frustration- Aggresssions- Hypothesis of DOLLARD / MILLER and BANDURA / WALTER . The aggression of LORENZ’ model is also known as a hydraulic model in analogy to the pressure of a jammed water or steam in a closed container . LORENZ hypothesizes that in the animal world intraspecific aggression fulfill a useful function by effecting the selection of the " best " male , which is in terms of the defense of the female and the young of importance .
For several millennia , ever since the early Stone Age ( 40,000 years ) , a nasty intra-specific selection is now used in the human kingdom . The readout driving factor was the war that began hunting and gathering hordes. 40,000 years long belonged to the organized war and the history of human development led to a ruinous level of aggression . The scientific method of LORENZ is the analogy between animal and human behavior . Become particularly well known are the domestic animals of the gray geese of the researcher. With the triumph chatter conflicting gray geese Konrad LORENZ is on the posturing of the U.S. and the former USSR as regarding the nuclear arms race , recalls.
Erich FROMM criticized inter alia in his book " Anatomy of Human Destructiveness " (1974) at LORENZ its quasi- religious attitude towards Darwinism . Founded by Darwin 's theory of evolution is replacing for many scientifically minded people and scientists to previous belief in God as Creator of the world and of life. God was deconstructed in modern times as the creator of the world : in the new world is the creator now the "evolution." FROMM criticized LORENZ that he talks about the mechanisms of selection and mutation as the great designers of evolution , same as an Orthodox Christian speaks from God . Horst -Eberhard RICHTER has continued this idea in his work " The God Complex" and " Everybody was talking about peace ."
The reasons for the former popularity of LORENZ are probably also the fact that many people believed then and still believe that our propensity for violence, war and nuclear extermination of mankind let traced back to basic biological constants that prevail invariably , almost laws of nature . Biological human nature and thousands of years of evolution would escape our control. Only for the smallest part of it were at war readiness for violence and aggression caused by ourselves at social, economic and political circumstances . The human seems just bad by nature .
Horst Eberhardt RICHTER : Psychoanalysis of War and Peace
German RICHTER has presented various works on psychoanalysis of unpeacefulness , of war and peace. Among other things RICHTER analyzes the God complex , the deification of the destruction and the cult of masculinity (see RICHTER 1979 , 1982, 1996, 2002 , 2005). RICHTER diagnosed with a God complex for the people of the industrial civilizations. In the western societies men are disbelieving . But they are now possessed by a God complex. It is an ideal of size, strength , power, almightyness , eternal progression , likeness to God . We pray to the technique as idols . With the increasing awareness of technical feasibility, we have lost our balance with nature. Our illusion is that the greatness of our technology reflects our own magnificence. The power of science and technology has led to the presumption of being self godlike .
The Americans baptize their huge rockets equipped with the genocidal nuclear warheads , for example, the names of ancient German , Greek and Roman deities. RICHTER considers it a blasphemous delusions of grandeur , that the men of the industrial civilization imagine now as ATLAS , PLUTO , THOR, TITAN , NIKE. HERCULES and POSEIDON can be send into the sky and loaded with immense death energies. One intoxicated by the idea that only the POSEIDON of a single submarine would be sufficient to destroy all major cities and medium cities of the opposing power. Displaced here is that the apparent power of the Victory in reality is the power to eradicate all human and natural life on our planet .
The deification of modern weapons can be interpreted from deep psychological point of view as a relic of the phallic phase of early childhood development . In a documentary television film from the seventies of the 19th Century are shown western German soldiers who train the firing of rockets in the USA. A rocket is launched and you can see how the operating crew erupts like a football team after a successful shot on goal in bright jubilation. Enthusiastically tearing the soldiers up the arms , while a flint launched the rocket that flies like a fire-breathing monster with meteoric white smoke trail in the sky.
RICHTER interprets this scene as the desire for a huge phallic potency -show: " The power of this Rocket-Monster , the highly stretched himself against the force of gravity into the sky and seemingly flying into infinity , can be seen clearly as a substitute fulfillment of old phallic size dreams. There seems to be an intoxicating happiness , as were all those experienced phallic insults from childhood phase and all potency doubt currently to pay back that you can put such a magnificent spectacle in motion or can only participate voyeuristic mind " ( RICHTER , . To psychology. .. 1982, p 96)
It is almost a commonplace of folk psychology that the Horse Power / Kilo Watt of motorcycles and sports cars or the wattage of stereo music systems or the services of computers often represent a kind of replacement power . Also the weapons cult unconsciously serves the same purpose. It begins with the guns and machine-gun games, the little boy who mutually or scare the girls with " Tak, tak, tak ! " And streches his finger like a gun. The toy gun , the knife rides , finally, the real weapon for many male children and adolescents are the most important symbol of virility . In the cowboy movie gun and Colt seem typical , central symbols of masculinity.
On this phallic experience stage created the fantasies than it go at today arms race is not about destruction , annihilation hundred , thousand or even millions of lives, but only to something like a sporting champion title : Who has the largest phallic surrogates ? The record performance of modern , "smart" missiles are often considered completely separate from the effects on the people killed and wounded as a sporting glorious deed . RICHTER has been hypothesized that our civilization as a whole was significantly influenced by magical ideas of omnipotence and suppression of infantile helplessness fantasies. If it were a collective neurosis of men .
Patriarchal masculinity stereotypes
The still - prevailing dominance of men in our society have led to this magical ideal of omnipotence .
1 the glorification of strength ,
2 the promotion of selfish rivalry at the cost of social assistance,
3 the will to power and
4 the pursuit of aggressive megalomaniac goals .
As contrast, the women were and are culturally attributed " negative characteristics" such as anxiety and weakness . Tenderness , gentleness , social sensitivity , solidarity with the weak and the poor nations , loosening expansionist rivalries are considered unmanly . Blind optimism is glorified as bravery. The coward , the squeamish , the self-pitying is ridiculed or condemned. Where an external fear of death dangers challenges to escape the inner fear of death , we praise him as foolhardy. Recklessness is all too clear to the challenge of death, we speak of fearlessness , yours sincerely , although it is often just the inability to endure death anxiety. To settle down and press unsubscribe suffering appears as a failure . Anxiety , suffering, disease , infirmity and death appear as losses that do not fit our delusions of grandeur. Fear, sadness , pain and suffering are only for losers , weaklings and inferior - or for women.
The limitless expansionism of the male-dominated industrial society lives by the belief that ultimately the mastery of all the causes of suffering was feasible .
Women are less educated than men to the dubious heroism of a harmful feeling repression. More Women than men live by fear, pain , grief , facing the most - courageous in the superficial sense - men are constantly on the run . This flight attitude makes the majority of men unable to bear the vision of a nuclear war every day and night . Most bring the disaster , like an abstract , mathematical problem far away from him .
Günter ANDERS` cultural criticism
German Günter ANDERS has called in his " Theses on the Atomic Age " the courage to fear : "Nothing is more false than the popular phrase of the half-educated , we already lived in the ' Age of Anxiety .'
Rather ... we live in the age of trivialization and the inability to fear. The commandment to expand our idea , but means in concrete : We have to expand our fear.
Postulate : Have no fear of fear , have courage to fear.
The courage to make afraid. Frightens your neighbor as yourself is true, our fear must be of a special kind :
1) A fearless fear , because they all fear from those who might scoff at us as cowards exclude .
2 ) An invigorating fear , because they take place in the room corners in, in the streets is to drive us out .
3 ) A loving fear that should frighten the world, not of what might happen to us .
( ANDERS , quoted by RICHTER . Psychology ... 1982, pp. 87 f )
In contrast to life-friendly , " biophilic " companies prevail in societies destructive aggression, destructiveness and necrophiliac . As " necrophilia " means FROMM the love of dead things (see FROMM 1974). According to FROMM's critique of culture exist in modern industrial societies a tendency towards deification of technology, a love of dead matter , a fusion of technology and destructive potential. The clearest example of FROMM's thesis of the necrophilia of industrial societies is the nuclear weapons technology and the Tools that are developed as far as today , that all life can be extinguished on our planet. FROMM writes : " The symbols of death are now clean, shiny machines ... But the reality behind this aseptic facade is ever more visible . In the name of progress , man transforms the world into a stinking , poisonous place ... He poisoned the air , the water, the soil, the animals - and himself. He does this to an extent that it is doubtful whether the earth will be habitable in a hundred years ... The same goes for the preparation of nuclear war . The ... superpowers constantly increase their ability to destroy each other and at the same time at least large parts of the human race too . Strategic considerations - for example, in Herman KAHN's work > On Thermonuclear War ( 1960) <- left to deal with the question of whether fifty million dead still would be > acceptable < . That we have here to do with the spirit of necrophilia , can hardly be doubted. " ( FROMM 1974, p 318). Nevertheless, they have done nothing serious to eliminate the risk - and that would be the destruction of all nuclear weapons really serious . In fact, the leaders were already several times on the point of using nuclear weapons - and they have played with danger .
T heory of evolution
Charles DARWIN was born on 12 February 1809 , traveled from December 1831 to October 1836 on board of the ship " Beagle " on a research trip to South America, the Galapagos Islands and Australia , and discovered that in plants and animals , the unequal ability of individuals to survive and reproduce slowly produces a change in the populations , because properties which endanger and impede the survival disappear in the long run . He called this the "natural selection " and the " survival of the fittest ", which is not the same as " survival with right fist” , but with adaptation to each habitat.
DARWIN published on 24 November 1859 his research results in the famous book "On the Origin of Species " : All living things , humanity included , are the result of a natural process . All living things are related, all life is descended from a few forms or of a single form of a common origin. He called this " descent with variation " ( descent with modificaton ) . But never are two individuals of a species completely identical , see for example the diversity of siblings (see DARWIN 1946).
An example of " survival of the fittest " is the birch Spinner ( peppered moth ) from the family of butterflies. About 200 years ago were mainly birch Spinner with bright wings because they did not attracted attention on light tree trunks. In England most of these moths died about 100 years ago from air pollution caused by industrialization , because they were of their whitish-yellow wing immediately spotted on the now dark birch trunks and eaten by the birds . At the same time , however, the butterflies multiplied with dark brown wings that were invisible to this sooty birch trunks . Since pollution has become smaller again , it reflects more light birch spinner.
DARWIN's book of 1859 met with objections from religious groups. And this resistance is far from over . As German Religious Scientist RANKE-HEINEMANN 1949/50, one years studied at Oxford and lived in the St. Michael's Evangelical college , she found to her surprise the opinion there, that the earth existed only since about 6000 years. The resistance of religious groups , especially in the U.S., was recently once again stepped up by Cardinal RATZINGER, later Pope BENEDICT, with his " Intelligent Design " campaign , in which his voice , Cardinal SCHÖNBORN , though not directed against evolution , but those designed to that sufficient space remains for papal belief in miracles , according to which the Virgin Mary received her son by the Holy Spirit . And so is the Virgin Mary, as Cardinal Tarcisio BERTONE , the Secretary of State of Pope BENEDICT, at his inauguration on 13 September 2006 at the TV station Tele Pace said, " but fertile and pure ."
2009 the 200. birthday of Charles DARWIN was celebrated . The worldwide acceptance shows that his theory of evolution has been scientifically recognized . DARWIN's theory is rejected only by fundamentalist Christians in the United States and in much of the Muslim world.
The Bonobo Chimpanzee
Why, asks American Psychiatrist PRESCOTT (2001 ) , Homo sapiens - the most advanced primate on the planet – is the most violent and destructive primate on this planet? Why is our most genetically close relative, the bonobo chimpanzee, the most peaceful and nonviolent primate on the planet with which we have 99.1 percent of our DNA in common?
Violence against females and offspring are not in the bonobo practical. The opposite is true of Homo sapiens. What may have happened in the course of evolution, which has enabled these extreme differences in behavior, despite so little genetic difference and what can we learn from the bonobo chimpanzees as Homo sapiens could be peaceful and non-violent ? ( see DIAMOND , 1992, De WAAL and LANTING 1997).
The bonobo chimpanzee (Pan paniscus ) , which is often called pygmy chimpanzee, was discovered in 1929 , as a differentiated , second species of chimpanzees , in contrast to the general chimpanzee (Pan troglodyte ) ( see SCHWARTZ 1929). The bonobo chimpanzee has many unique rearing and socio - sexual behaviors that distinguish it from general chimpanzee and man ( see SAVAGE /RUNBAUGH and WILKERSON , 1978; KANO 1980 , 1992; NISHIDA and HIRAIWA - HASEGAWA 1986, BLOUNT 1990 DIAMOND 1992, De WAAL and LANTING 1997).
From an evolutionary perspective, the ape lineage and the lineage of Homo sapiens from the other monkeys generally split off about 30 million years ago . There has been developed a DNA clock, which enables to estimate the genetic similarity of DNA ( DesoxyriboNucleinAcid , winner of the genes ) between species and the percentage of time to determine to which various species developed differently from each other by mutations .
The human primate diverged from chimpanzees generally about 6 to 7 million years from a DNA difference of about 1.6 percent. DIAMOND (1992 ) notes that the Common and pygmy chimpanzees differ in about 0.7 percent of their DNA and parted around 3 million years ago , which resulted in a difference of almost 1 percent identical DNA, a 4.3 million years long evolution corresponds . It has been calculated that the difference in the DNA between the bonobo chimpanzees and humans accounts for only 0.9 percent, which corresponds to a different development of bonobos and humans over 3.9 million years.
The bonobo chimpanzee is clearly our most close genetic relative. The crucial factor is how much DNA is present together , and we know that 1 percent difference in DNA is equivalent of 4.3 million years of primate evolution . From an evolutionary - genetic perspective, the 99.1 percent commonality of DNA and the differences in the DNA between the matrifocal bonobo chimpanzees and patrilineal human primates is of great interest at only 0.9 percent. This focus is particularly the similarities between the matrilineal and matrifocal bonobo human cultures , as the patrilineal human cultures have the matrifolalen Bonobo communities and matrist human cultures opposite characteristics in the socialization procedures in social behavior and sexuality .
When we realize that there are only 0.9 percent difference in DNA that are responsible for the extraordinary differences between the bonobo and Homo sapiens in physical, emotional , social and sexual behavior, language and cognitive- rational faculties , so are the cause for reflection. The extraordinary similarities and differences between the bonobo chimpanzee and the human primates are still in need of explanation because of only 0.9 percent difference in DNA. Can one missing gene to be crucial for the pathological violence of Homo sapiens ? So PRESCOTT asks . There must be something other than a missing gene that is responsible for the pathological violence of Homo sapiens , and that triggers a clear difference in the peaceful and non-violent behavior containing between bonobo chimpanzee and the human primates . According to the present state of research , it is extremely unlikely that a gene for peacefulness and love can be found , just as a gene for hatred and violence can not be found , because genes are code for proteins and are not behaviors ( see LEWONTIN 1991).
The Bonobo chimps have a long lasting bond between mother and child - and especially between mother and son. Even after running the first year of life and climb the little bonobo children and the mother keeps them very close to it. The Bobono child does not start to play before the age of one and a half years with other chimpanzees children. Breastfeeding takes about until about four years and the monkey child is taken by his mother to adolescence . Another feature of the bonobo chimpanzee is the absence of infanticide , which can be commonly observed in other primates including human primates ( see DeWAAL and LANTING 1997). HRDY (1999 ) has described the predominant nature of the mother - infant bonding in primates . The mothers of the apes carry their children wherever they go. The fathers , however, are only sparsely in direct contact with babies . It is always the mother who carries her child continuously in skin-to -skin contact . Reassured by her heartbeat , protected in the warmth of her body , cradled by her movements , the whole world of the monkey child is his mother. Never has been in wild monkeys, chimpanzees or apes ever observed that a parent has voluntarily harmed her own baby .
What may have happened in the course of evolution, where infanticide , child abuse and child injuries are suddenly occurred among the primates Homo sapiens ? Why is sexual abuse of prepubescent unknown in the evolution of bonobo chimpanzees , but widespread in Homo sapiens ? Which genetic or cultural factors could be responsible for these differences ( See PRESCOTT 2001) ?
The emotional bonds between the bonobo females are very strong. They sit together , interact and play with each other much more often than male bonobos . The females follow each other seven times more often than they join male. This cohesion of the females is undoubtedly influenced by the long communion with their boys. The female is the central and dominant , but not authoritarian power in the bonobo society , which is characterized by comprehensive care for the boys and egalitarian relationships , which is primarily funded by the division of food and sex. It occur some rivalry aggression between the males , but they are not significant. The mother - son bond is very strong in the bonobo . They are still living together when the son is already grown up. Female adolescents separate from the mother rather than their sons. It was observed that the sons affectionate and loving more to her mother than the daughters . The males remain in their group of origin , have strong ties to their brothers and other males . The females , however, turn to another bonobo groups that do not belong to the family and are sometimes even repellent. This will avoid incest in their original family . Additional to this principle, the behavior of prepubertal females are sexually inactive. You avoid sexual relations with brothers or related males. Usually, the females emigrate from natal colony at the age of 7 years , when puberty begins at them . At the age of 10 years they are sexually mature. The first babies appear at the age of 13 and 14 years (see De WAAL and LANTING 1997).
DeWAAL and LANTING (1997 ) note : If the bonobo chimpanzees would have been discovered sooner , who knows, the reconstruction of human evolution might have uses more attention to the sexual relations , the equality of men and women , as well as to the origins of the family rather than for war , hunting, tool technology , and other masculine strengths . The Bonobo society seems much more likely to be determined by the slogan " Make Love, not War " of the Hippie movement of the 1960s, then to the myth of the bloodthirsty killer monkey as in the last thirty years, in our biology books and horror movies as King Kong dominated.
DARWIN's theory of the descent of man from the animal kingdom and common ape ancestor of apes and humans is a gross insult and shake of their imaginary self-image of many contemporaries. In numerous patristic cultures and religions we know mythologies emanating from a special position of man in the cosmos and have spread a doctrine of divine descent of man . In Judaism, Christianity , Islam , Buddhism , Japanese Shinto religion and in many other religions - even in modern religions such as the Church of Scientology - the emergence of humanity is derived from divine acts of God or of divine origin or similar Aliens . The man understands himself as ruler of the animal kingdom , must constantly emphasize his superiority, and indignation to have obvious similarities of themselves . Many swear words disparaging scolded with animals : " You bastard ! ", " Silly Goose ! " You Deer ", " You idiot " , " You snake, " murderers are accused to behave like " animal cruelty " , minorities were vilified called" Germs ! , lice or rats " . Political opponents are even now still abused in Germany as a " tick " . Anthropomorphic behavior of captive monkeys in the zoo induced laughter of the audience , particularly error- coated children. The more similar the behavior of captive monkeys with human behavior , the louder the laughter of the spectators on the bars .
The patriarchal mannered man perceives himself as the crown of creation , as ruler of the animals and nature as far behind the realm of nature . Each animal attitudes close to the top-heavy human being seems embarrassing. On the other hand, certain drugs and cosmetics are millions of times tested in animal experiments for human use. De facto according to DARWIN man comes from the animal kingdom . Therefore, humans and animals react comparable to chemical cosmetics cocktails, a fact which is used as a justification for the mass animal testing in laboratories. The knowledge of the relationship and similarity between animals and humans is displaced. The more a man has the commonality of the animal itself , the stronger the person the behavior of animals is perhaps even impelled by his arrest. Just think of the pecking order of chickens , the rank - fighting in wolf packs , the barking of the top dog , the collective noise of lemmings , the instinct -driven breeding season , the bullying of vulnerable etc. . Just as in the pack of dogs people with deficient self-identity need " underdogs " as subordinates or inferiors as their crutches otherwise weak personality. Men with low self-esteem feel safe, secure and strong in the pack , within the crowd. In many countries it has been observed that young men and dogs common form gangs, gangs or hordes and stray like the wolves in packs. This is the rear base to the stories about wolf children , beginning with ROMULUS and REMUS , the founders of the Roman Empire , said to have been suckled by a she-wolf , to KIPLING's boy MOWGLI from the " Jungle Book " template for the famous " TARZAN" - movies or the French savage of Aveyron, Victor , who was taken from ITARD ( See KOCH 1992).
An old gentleman , perhaps a vegetarian, vegan or animal rights activists , contributed to a peace demonstration at the turn of the millennium , in Hamburg , Germany , a poster with the words : "As long as there are slaughterhouses, there will always be battle fields! "
1.2 Peaceful Cultures
Erich FROMM has presented in his work on the " Anatomy of Human Destructiveness " an analysis of thirty -called primitive , preliterate cultures from the point of aggressiveness versus peacefulness .
30 indigenous peoples in comparison
The thirty cultures analyzed were from the ethnographic field research reputable scientists like Ruth BENEDICT , Margaret MEAD , MURDOCK and TURNBULL .
As a result of the research study, 3 different cultural systems were :
Peaceful , aggressive and destructive peoples
1 ) life-affirming social systems ,
2 ) Destructive social systems and
3 ) Non - destructive but aggressive companies.
The life-affirming societies are described as follows :
In this system, ideals , customs, and institutions are primarily geared to serve the preservation of life in all its forms.
Hostilities , acts of violence and cruelty are found in the population only to a minimal extent.
There are no harsh penalties , hardly crime , and war as an institution with all or only plays a very small role. The children are kindly treated , severe physical punishment does not exist.
The women are equal to men in general , or at least they are not exploited or humiliated.
The attitude to sexuality is generally tolerant and affirming .
One finds little envy , avarice , greed and exploitation.
There is hardly any rivalry or individualism , but a lot of cooperation .
Personal property only exists in relation to consumer goods .
In the general attitude of trust and confidence, believing this to not only the other is expressed , and , but especially towards nature ;
in general there is a good mood , and depressive moods are relatively rare. " ( FROMM , Anatomy ... 1974, p 150 )
Indians and Eskimos
To the life-affirming societies expects FROMM following people :
Zuni Pueblo Indians
In contrast to these life-friendly , " biophilic " companies, prevail in the other companies destructive aggression, destructiveness and necrophiliac .
Human societies are very different in their treatment of children. In some cultures, parents give their children physical affection while they physically punish in others. A study of anthropological data by PRESCOTT showed that less theft and violence among adults occurring in those societies which give their children the greatest amount of physical affection , thus supporting the theory that lack of physical pleasure during infancy significantly associated with a high rate of crime - and violence rate is linked. For example, seem cultures that inflict pain on infants for slavery , polygyny , that is, tend to polygamy , women's oppression and war lust.
James W. PRESCOTT , Ph.D., according to the Institute of Humanistic Science ( See PRESCOTT 1997) a mother - child bond through breastfeeding for the duration of 2.5 years and beyond prevents depression, suicide and violence , and encourages optimal brain development. A mother - child bond through two and a half -year or longer breast feeding , as has been proved , prevents depression and suicide among primitive peoples . 77 per cent of the cultures with weaning age of 2.5 years or beyond were so classified that depression and suicide is extremely low , or not occurred . This value increased to 82 Pozent when cultures were included , also supported the juvenile sexual manifestations . In a large sample of 65 cultures , which includes the data from TEXTOR (1967) and BARRY and PAXON (1971 ) , showed that 86 percent of the cultures that were so classified that suicide occurred slightly or was absent, a weaning age of 2, 5 years, or have beyond. These data , when combined with the MERCK MANUAL on the needs of the supply of essential amino acids in infancy and childhood , revealed that the supply is insufficient milk powder or milk products for healthy brain development.
The anthropological comparative studies also show that the infliction of pain in infancy and childhood leads to the increase of violence and crime . These comparative studies lead to recommendations on how a peaceful culture could be created .
The following primitive people treated their children with tenderness , love and care :
Andamanese , Arapesh , Balinese , Chagga , Chenchu , Chuckchee , Cuna , Hano , Lau, Lesu , Maori, Murngin , Nuer , Papago , Siriono , Tallensi , Tikopia , Timbira , Trobriand , Wogeo , Woleaians , Yaghan .
The Aborigines of Australia were extremely peaceful . In the few conflicts there were rituals in which blood flowed only slightly ( See LAWLOR 1999).
The Native Americans were mostly matristic and peaceful. The famous picture of us on horseback , Firearms and tomahawk swinging scalphunters applies only to the prairie Indians of the 18th and 19 Century . Especially the Indian tribes of the Sioux , Cheyenne and Pawnee warred with each other and fought against the European invaders. The anthropologist SERVICE ( See SERVICE 1966 ) emphasizes that it would be wrong to put the entire Indian cultures of North America alike with the warlike Plains Indians. The famous combat readiness of the Plains Indians was the result of cultural intrusion by the white conquerors and the migration of tribes due to expulsion by the settlers of European conquerors. Guns, horses and fire- water (alcohol) , all of European origin , played a large role in our well-known typical prairie Indians hits .
According to Steve TAYLOR ( See TAYLOR , St., 2009, pp. 136 ff ) , the American Indians tribes were peaceful in their vast majority , democratic and non- patriarchal. The Indians of California and the Pueblo Indians in New Mexico belonged according to JOSEPHY ( See JOSEPHY 1975, p 37) to the most peaceful nations on earth . There are numerous reports of the peacefulness , equality, communality and democratic sentiments of many Native American and indigenous peoples , for example, the Hopi Indians or the Eskimos . Anthropologists report that the Indians reacted to their aggression harmlessly through physical exercise , sports and competitions. The Eskimos , for example, derive their conflicts in singing competitions . The Community shall enjoy precedence over self-interest and private property and status-seeking . Commonality and sharing have been their top priority.
TAYLOR ( See TAYLOR 2009, pp. 140 ff ) has surprisinglydiscovered after very convincingly that the cradle of modern democracy is to be found not in Greece , but among the American Indians . Frequently, the ancient Hellas is regarded as the cradle of democracy, which is true in part. However, democracy was only for aristocrats while slavery and oppression of women existed. There are indications that we owe the ideas of modern democracy to the American Indians .
Thomas JEFFERSON and Benjamin FRANKLIN acknowledged in their biographies that they had taken the idea of a union of different states and the model of a democratic government with elected representatives of the Iroquois League in the drafting of the American Constitution. The Iroquois League had its own constitution and laws , which the leader learned by heart. The clan mothers had authority among the Iroquois .
JAIMES - GUERRERO ( See JAIMES - GUERRERO 2000) critizises that the U.S. Constitution neclected the existing influence of women among the Iroquois. The American idea of democracy was very imperfect accordingly . The proclamation of freedom and equality for all people supposedly limited to the male landowners. For women, slaves from Africa, Indians and landless immigrants democratic laws were not applicable .
The fathers of the French Revolution were inspired by reports of the Native Americans . Jean -Jacques ROUSSEAU's writings exerted great influence on the revolutionaries. ROUSSEAU got information about the North American Indians and reports of islanders of the Pacific Ocean , to assist with the creation of his famous writings , for example, influenced " The Social Contract " ,( See RYAN 2003). ROUSSEAU took the view of the noble savage who lived in contrast to the civilization of the city and the absolutist monarchy in the state of original nature with inalienable human rights , the law of nature (see ROUSSEAU 1997).
1851 Lewis Henry MORGAN published his book " Leaque of the Iroquois ." Karl MARX and Friedrich ENGELS read the book and found in it a description of primitive communism . In his work " The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State " ENGELS writes with utopian impetus : " And it is a wonderful constitution in all its childlike simplicity , this gentile constitution ! Without soldiers , gendarmes and police , without nobles, kings , governors , prefects or judges, no prisons , no processes everything will take its course ... Poor and needy , it may not give the communist household and the gens know their obligations to care for ill people and paralyzed in the war . All are equal and free - the women also " ( ENGELS , 1975, Volume 21 , pp. 95 f.).
The large majority of the Native Americans were matristic oriented companies. Johann Jakob BACHOFEN ( See BACHOFEN 1997) was the first theorist who defended the thesis of original matriarchy. Meanwhile, there are numerous ethnographic evidences for the existence of organized matristic cultures. In the Yaghan Indians of Tierra del Fuego , the women enjoy a high position ( See SERVICE 1978). With the Canadian Eskimo women are equal to men and their roles are interchangeable. In the Pueblo Indians , the woman was equal to men . For example, the divorce from the female side could be easily accomplished. Her husband were brought to the door , whereupon the outcast husband returned to the house of his family of origin .
In Africa, there remains some matrist cultures. As a purely matrist African people are the Nuer in Sudan , the anthropologist EVANS - PRITCHARD has explored in the 1940s . Altruism and sense of community were strong in the Nuer . This company knew neither repression nor inequality . The women had the same rights and the same influence as the men (See EVANS - PRITCHARD 1967, pp. 2 f.)
Another example are the Pygmies of Central Africa . The Mbuti and Biaka According to TURNBULL they are purely matristic , peace-loving crops ( TURNBULL 1993, p 7). The Mbuti are nonviolent people who live with each other and with their environment in peace. The equality of man and woman is so perfect that their roles are interchangeable . The same is true for the Yaghan Indians in Tierra del Fuego , Argentina. In the pygmy Biaka of the cultural anthropologists have also to determine gender equality and peacefulness .
The hunter- gatherers of the Kalahari Desert in southern Africa call themselves ! Kung , Gwi and Nharo and have the common name San peoples , the belief that nature is extremely spiritual and focused on equality . Accumulation of property , especially of valuable things , is considered undesirable because it could lead to jealousy and conflict. Therefore, the Gwi Bushmen have little conflict among themselves . George B. SILBERBAUER (Cf. 1981 , 1994) lived for several years with the Gwi Bushmen . SILBERBAUER noted that always the aspect of togetherness and sharing played the leading role in pleasure , the happiness and the satisfaction of the Kwi.
The marine area of the Pacific Ocean covers more than 70 million square kilometers. This region is divided into Micronesia , Melanesia and Polynesia . Scattered it far more than 7.5 million islands. In Oceania, the explorers found mainly matrist societies and a pattern that was interspersed with some milder patristic cultures. In Tahiti , the men were not more aggressive than women. The women were not docile or maternal than men. The language of the Tahitians made no distinction between the sexes. There was neither male nor female pronouns . Many traditional names could be worn by both men and women . The people of Tahiti were peaceful and caring.
As the Tahitians the Trobriand knew no clearly defined gender roles and were characterized by equality of man and woman, a gentle parenting and a surprisingly liberal sexual morality. MALINOWSKI aroused far beyond professional scientific circles a stir with his publications on the Trobriand Islanders (see MALINOWSKI 1922) . From 1914 , he lived for some years in the Trobriand islands , near Papua New Guinea and led there by participating field research. Impressive was the tenderness and tolerance of adult Trobriand Islanders to their children. The majority of the early colonisators , explorers and missionaries were in their visits Oceania always surprised by the unexpected peacefulness of the so-called savages. According to WARRIOR Papuans had absolutely no offensive weapons and led a peaceful life without fear of the future ( See WARRIORS , 1911, In : SUMNER , 1964, p 205) SUMNER, who had uncritically own even the then war - enthusiasm of his own culture , so that he misinterpreted the peacefulness of the ocean primitive peoples as cowardice. SUMNER therefore called 1911, the natives of German - Melanesia cowardly and pathetic , because they were willing to occasional raids among themselves , but never brave battle resulted in an open war.
On many of the smaller islands of the Pacific war was completely unknown until the arrival of colonisators and conquerors from Europe . Peacefulness was thousands of years to survive here because the islands of the immeasurably great ocean were located far away from the desert regions of the Sahara , the Arabian Peninsula and the desert steppes of Asia , the research hypotheses DeMEO ( See DeMEO 1998). According to DeMEO the origin of patriarchal and warlike cultures resulted by desertification and famine, and he gave this region the name Saharasia . On remote islands visitors often met surprising peace-loving indigenous peoples . The Chatham Islands are 800 kilometers away from New Zealand in the South Pacific , so far removed from that of DeMEO referred Earth region named Saharasia ( See DeMEO 1998) . The inhabitants of the Chatham Islands were peaceful. Also, the remaining surviving inhabitants of the Andaman Islands in the Bay of Bengal are peaceful hunter-gatherers .
In India, the people of the Muria is located where the anthropologist Verrier ELWIN ( See ELWIN , 1947, 1968) in the 1930s, led by field studies. ELWIN met on a culture that gave to him the impression of a non-violent innocence. Especially the children of the Muria enjoyed a surprising autonomy and sexual freedom. The children of the Muria mostly slept in a community hut , called ghotul . The adults were not allowed to enter to this autonomous youth bedroom house . The ghotul allows children of the Muria to gather variety of erotic and sexual experiences with several other children of the village community . Parents know this millennia-old tradition from their own experience in their childhood and youth. Therefore, their children and young people are allowed to visit the youth house with the knowledge and consent of the parents.
The British colonial India in the 19th Century were shocked by the habits and behavior of the Indian indigenous peoples (cf. TAYLOR 2009, pp. 163 f.) The Kkhond in Madras and the Rengmah in Assam did not show the slightest tendencies of aggression and had no military efficiency . About the Mru in Chittagong reported SUMNER of their love of peace, awe and willingness to compromise. In a dispute, the men do not fight , but call a necromancer as a mediator induced . TAYLOR reports about other peace-loving nations of the nature such as the Kharia in West Bengal , the Chenchu in Andhra Pradesh, the Yanadi on the island of Sriharikota , the matristic culture of the Mosuo in southwest China and other indigenous peoples in other parts of the world .
About the pre-colonial traditions and customs in Oceania there are interesting reports of James COOK ( See COOK 2005). COOK reported as on a South Sea island a young couple having sex in all possible positions , surrounded by the entire village community as an enthusiastic audience , including socially high- natives. And that the anchors of the colonial ship under COOK's command on an island approached the topless island residents with boats flocked on board and then occurred the " repulsive sexscenes on deck " .
TAYLOR reports that ROUSSEAU had read of the indigenous peoples of Oceania and the North American Indians before he wrote his famous writings on the Social Contract and the Nature of Man . Yes, he won the contest of the Academy of Dijon, who had asked if the civilization has contributed to raising the morals and betterment of mankind , which ROUSSEAU ( See RUSSEL 1992) denied with reference to the happy savages in a state of nature. He was also the principal founder of the idea of natural law ( See Ernst BLOCH , 1976). ROUSSEAU rejected the view of the linearity of evolution as PINKER (2011), deMAUSE (1980) and ELIAS (1976 ) represented.
PINKER published in 2011 his highly acclaimed book " The Better Angels of Our Nature ," in which he argues that violence has declined over many scales of time and strength. Warfare , murder , cruel punishments , child abuse, animal abuse , domestic violence, lynching , pogroms , international wars and civil wars have declined steadily . PINKER tried to explain this decrease in violence through the transformation of containing violence impulses like lust , sadism , vengeance and hatred feelings towards peaceful pulses such as self - control, empathy and reason, which has been promoted by historical forces such as are state power and government, commerce and culture .
Margaret MEAD (1934 ) describes in her books several indigenous peoples in Oceania . Very well known became the description of three cultures in New Guinea , the aggressive Mundugumur , peaceful Arapesh and a smaller tribe of Tschambuli with gender -specific roles . This until her death undisputed research results were used in the hippie movement as arguments to help the young to the older generation , namely that peaceful cultures were existent and that a peaceable coexistence was possible because of the large flexibility of human nature, on the basis of the major socio - cultural plasticity of human nature as it has been established by Adolf PORTMANN ( See PORTMANN 1970).
After the death of Margaret MEAD's Autralian author FREEMAN published a book, in which he accused MEAD myths and the thesis argued that the majority of the cultures of Oceania were bloodthirsty and warlike cannibals and headhunters . Some years later, the magazine " Der Spiegel " reported that the book of hitherto unknown Australian Professor FREEMAN was sponsored by the American side and the arms industry in order to evade the peace movement ideological justification options .
Norbert ELIAS describes in his work "On the process of civilization " ( 1976), numerous examples , how cruel were the rulers in the Middle Ages , and how they then had to be polite gradually through the accumulation of power to princes and royal courts . He describes, among other things, that any robber barons had its own infirmary , where some dozen men languishing , where the knights hand , the eyes gouged out , tongues , noses, ears and probably the testis was cut off because they had rebelled as young men against arbitrary rule . Then and later , there was a personal union between spiritual and temporal power . A sovereign was also a bishop. ELIAS describes the refinement of table manners . For example, it was unfashionable to spit in the soup. The handling of knives has been curbed because it often quarreled through alcohol consumption and the knife flashed. Also, dueling was banned in modern times, because the army suffered great losses of enforcement officers .
Once again, a reference to MALINOWSKI shall be added . His observations are authentic. The Catholic Church did not believe the English- Russian on his account of liberal sexual mores. It financed the psychoanalyst Geza ROHEIM a costly expedition to the Trobriand Islands. He found MALINOWSKI's observations confirmed , but he interpreted the behavior of Aboriginal children and adults as morally neglected and immoral. Maybe he had his observations also indicate negative because his financial backers was the Catholic Church. Ernest BORNEMAN ( See BORNEMAN 1975) has heard lectures by ROHEIM and tells us about it orally. Geza ROHEIM was otherwise very smart and BORNEMAN was proud to have studied with him ( Personal communication between professor BORNEMAN and K.-H. Ignatz KERSCHER). .
In his study of cultural anthropology in England, BORNEMAN also met KENYATTA as his fellow students. BORNEMAN reported that KENYATTA actually declined the clitoris circumcision. As president of Kenya , he issued a ban on female circumcision . Then came armed uprisings traditional tribal cultures that endangered his rule. He therefore withdrew the ban and endorsed later that tradition.
If one to be believed TAYLOR's book about the "The Fall" (2009 ) , the islanders of Oceania were largely peaceful and friendly, because far from the influence of Saharasia steppe peoples.They lived and were conquered historically very late by Muslims or Christians.
Mutual assistance in the animal and human world
" Mutual assistance in the animal and human world " (original title : " Mutual Aid : A Factor of Evolution ") is a 1902 book by Prince Peter KROPOTKIN . KROPOTKIN criticized the Social Darwinist theories and concepts of the struggle for existence , and propagized the concept of Mutual assistance .
KROPOTKIN gives information about species-preserving properties in ants and bees, with eagles and kestrels and finally in mammals. Common hunting strategies , rearing of young animals , mutual protection in flocks and herds , care for sick conspecifics and the ritual conflict avoidance within a species point to the Mutual Aid as a really successful survival strategy in nature and as the drive of evolution. The Darwinian concept of survival of the fittest (see DARWIN1872/1946 ) found KROPOTKIN of the Social Darwinists misinterpreted : The fittest does not mean for him necessarily the strongest or the most ruthless , but means with regard to the survival of the whole system and of its own kind to most social , altruistic . The system-critical prevalence of individual species is more likely to prevent climate changes and diseases and less by the struggle within a species , what KROPOTKIN with regard to buffalo , horses and predators in North America has not suffered at the time of food shortages, but could revel in abundance.
Human races are organized in clans , numerous associations within a tribe based on kinship of large families. In these clans there is common property and food to be shared with all members . This form of living together is called a primitive communism . The selfishness and individualism is unknown and incomprehensible to the most primitive peoples. The coexistence is regulated by social norms as unwritten laws that are rarely broken. Thereby excluding public opinion to know the people in primitive peopleshad no government or police authority . KROPOTKIN, for example, describes the Eskimos of the Aleutian Islands as the practice of hunters , while sharing the spoils a greedy fellow hunter leave all their booty to shame him by . KROPOTKIN illustrated his comments with tribes who maintained their traditional way of life and have been studied by many contemporary anthropologists , such as the Yamana of Patagonia, South America, or the Khoi Khoi or the Tungus .
KROPOTKIN criticized the one-sided speculative human images of ROUSSEAU's noble savages, but particularly Thomas HOBBES ' idea that "man is a wolf to man " (see HOBBES 1970). HUXLEY's interpretation of the uncivilized savages, practicing cannibalism , infanticide and the abandonment of old men , refused KROPOTKIN and presents them as a rough generalizations. For some peoples of cannibalism going practiced with extreme food shortages, which nevertheless in some peoples of Mexico or of the Fiji Islands developed the religious ritual cannibalism . The infanticide is passing and rarely done in the highest need and the voluntary remaining of old people in times of need because they do not want to risk the life of the whole clan in jeopardy. In general, the elderly are treated humanely and greatly appreciated among primitive peoples (see KROPOTKIN 1904 ; see WIKIPEDIA , The Free Encyclopedia , keyword: Kropotkin , 2013; see FROMM , Anatomy ... 1974).
" In the original Buddhism, in primitive Christianity , in the writings of some Muslim teachers in the early writings of the Reformation , and especially in the ethical and philosophical movements of the last century and our own time to set the total abandonment of the idea of revenge or retribution - good to good and evil to evil - more powerful through . The higher conception : " No revenge for evil deeds" and volunteered to give more than you expect to receive from his neighbor , is proclaimed as the true moral principle - as a principle that is more valuable than the principle of equal measure or justice, and which is suitable to create happiness . And the man is asked to be guided in his actions not merely by love, which always refers only to persons who , at best, the trunk, but . Awareness through his unity with everyone. In the operation of mutual aid , which we can follow up to the first beginnings of development, we thus find the positive and undoubted origin of our moral ideas , and we can affirm that in the ethical progress of man is mutual support - not mutual struggle - the has had a major proportion . Comprehensive in its operation - in our time - we see the best guarantee of a still loftier evolution of the human race " ( Prince Peter KROPOTKIN : Mutual Aid in the animal and human world , publisher Thomas , Leipzig , 1908 , p 274th f ) .
1.3 Positive Anthropology
Rousseau's philosophy of nature
Jean -Jacques Rousseau was born 1712 in Geneva. He practiced in his eventful life from a variety of quarry workers . Among other things, he was shopman , servant , music teacher , copyist , opera composer, tutor , secretary , writer and philosopher. In 1743 he received his doctorate with a dissertation on modern music.
ROUSSEAU won a competition of the Academy of Dijon.
The price question was: " Has the progress of science and the arts contributed to the cleaning of manners ? "
ROUSSEAU's answer: "The social conditions have deteriorated , the people were unhappy , the increased immorality . "
More price question of the Academy : " What is the origin of inequality among men, and it is allowed by the law of nature ? "
ROUSSEAU then writes the "Treatise on the origins and foundations of inequality among men. "
1749-1756 ROUSSEAU published the " Speech on the origins and foundations of inequality among men ."
1759-1761 Rousseau writes and publishes his work " Social Contract " and " Émile " .
Both works have been banned from the royal censorship . ROUSSEAU escapes his arrest by fleeing to Switzerland.
ROUSSEAU believes that man is by nature good : "People are angry , sad , and a continuing experience is not necessary to prove , but , man is inherently good , I think I have proved it ; ... Man admire human society as much as you want, it is outside is not less true that people necessarily leads them to hate in the degree to which their interests intersect , also reciprocally to prove apparent services, and in fact all inflicting unimaginable evils " ( Second discourse , note IX ) . ROUSSEAU vehemently expressed his abhorrence of the established culture and society of his time .
ROUSSEAU's theories and his humanity were strongly rejected by both the Catholic Church and representatives of the Enlightenment. The church declared that ROUSSEAU's theories are misguided, since every person is born with original sin and is therefore inherently bad . The spokesmen of the Enlightenment emphasize that the man gifted with reason , be adaptive and socially acceptable.
ROUSSEAU creates an ideal condition , the " state of nature " . The natural man knows self-love and compassion. He 's good, " obedient nature " within the meaning of . In his work "Le Contrat Social ou Principes du Droit Politique . " ROUSSEAU developed a theory of the state . First social structures are created by the emergence of property. Originally from the natural independence and civil freedom , the people joined a social contract. Through the development of the state , the original peace and contentment of the people in their natural state are increasingly being replaced by greed , prestige , envy and discontent.
ROUSSEAU's theories are interpreted as an attempt to evade the feudal and monarchical rule of his time , the basis of legitimacy . In this respect Rousseau is considered the founder of the French Revolution of 1789 and is one of the most famous geniuses of the French people . ROSSEAU is a precursor to the Declaration of Human Rights and the Rights of the Child . ROUSSEAU´s pulses have inspired numerous educational reforms and encouraged the education of the child .
ROUSSEAU's ideal of education is the original , simple , good by nature and unspoiled man . " Everything is good, as is evident from the hands of the Creator of things, everything degenerates in the hands of men." With " nature " ROUSSEAU means an idealized simple lifestyle , without coddling or artificiality . To ROUSSEAU “nature” is contrary to the "culture" of his time. He criticizes the civilization and the adverse side effects of that cultural development . Thus ROUSSEAU is a cultural critic. The synthesis would be the " true culture " , which is characterized by the pursuit of truth and virtue , self -sacrifice and voluntary subordination to the general will .
ROUSSEAU's educational major work is titled: " Émile or about education ." It is about the fictional education of the boy Émile , who is educated by a private tutor and describes his education from birth until his marriage at the age of 25 years. Émile is isolated from all respected as harmful cultural influences of the former big-city life . Major cities such as Paris are classified as places of alienation. ROUSSEAU preferred a rural , nature -related life for his fictional pupil . In this respect ROUSSEAU was a model for the boarding school movement one hundred years later in Germany . ROUSSEAU rejects the corrupt big city life . "People are not made to live like a anthill , but to live as individuals on the ground, they have to edit . The more they flock together , the more degenerate they are .... The city is the abyss that devours the human race . "
The objectives formulated by ROUSSEAU in Émile education is a life in the state of nature , in peace , happiness and freedom . The earthy , originally good nature of the child should be unfolded . Émile is supposed to depend only on the nature and obey her. The freedom of man lies in the voluntary restriction . " Everyone does what he wants , is happy when he is self-sufficient . So it is with the man who lives in a natural state . Everyone does what he wants , is unhappy when their needs exceed his powers. " ROUSSEAU rejects teachings from the books of that time . Émile may only read one book , " Robinson Crusoe " by Daniel DEFOE . ROUSSEAU recognizes childhood as a separate , important phase of life. ROUSSEAU defended the game as significant and serious pursuit of the child. "Nature wants children to be children before they become adults. If we want to reverse this order, we produce precocious fruits that have neither juice nor strength and will soon rot ... Childhood has its own ways to see , think and feel . "
In ROUSSEAU we find a firm rejection of violence, coercion and beatings . ROUSSEAU rejects moral teachings . He developed the idea of a so-called " negative education ", that is an indirect experiences through education , experience , trial and error, through action , practice, and their own intelligence . ROUSSEAU is thus rightly as a pioneer of experiential learning , communication of learning and non-violent upbringing.
Wilhelm Reich was born in 1897 in a small village in Galicia, which belonged to the Austro-Hungarian monarchy at that time . His parents came from Jewish families , but had come out of the orthodox tradition of Judaism and educated Wilhelm Reich and his free-spirited brother . From childhood Wilhelm few details are known . The carefree childhood of REICH took a sudden and dramatic turn at the age of 12 years. His mother committed suicide after her father found out about her secret love affair with a tutor . Most likely it was the 12 year old William himself who brought his mother's adultery behind the Father.
His father was a landowner and often took William to long rides with . Ride was also later a favorite activity of REICH. William also met with his rifle around and was a good sniper . However, he rejected the hunting and fishing for the joy of killing animals from strictly . When the father died , REICH had to take over at the age of 17 years, the management of the estate. He was a high school and was drafted in the First World War for military service . He survived the war as a lieutenant on the Italian front . After the lost war on Austria REICH could not return to the family estate , as it was now on Soviet territory .
REICH developed a critical distance from the war. In 1922, he described the atmosphere among the soldiers : "Anyone who has been through the war , knows what role the two attributes ill genitality , the anal smut and anal abuse , the casino , in the barracks , on the parade ground and in the officers' mess play , talks about whores and coitus form almost exclusively the topic of conversation ... ... that those who had strong heterosexual bonds or full sublimations , rejected the war " REICH noticed . " , whereas those who were the most brutal daredevils regarded the woman as the toilet ... even the sadistic psychopath and antisocial character worked well in terms of the ideology of war ... the brutality of the war (and perhaps himself) would have been impossible , if not the power of a few leaders found a basis in the latent cruelty of individuals " ( REICH: Two types of narcissistic , 1922, and references therein LASKA 1981, pp 13f . . . ) .
As REICH was discharged from the army , he was completely homeless and impoverished. At first he could not even buy civilian clothes themselves . In 1918 he began studying under poor conditions in Vienna, Austria. He first studied law , but soon realized that "the anti-social actions of peopleshould not to be regarded as a crime but as a disease , so that they being not to punish , but to heal and to prevent" ( REICH, cited By LASKA 1981 , pp. 15). He moved on to study medicine .
During his studies, he read NIETZSCHE's " Thus Spoke Zarathustra " , but also the works of LANGE " History of Materialism ". BERGSON , IBSEN , STIRNER and others influenced him greatly. The individual- anarchist views of Henrik IBSEN liked the very young REICH : " Ibsen was a spiritual revolutionary ... and as such, he just saw the salvation not only in the material circulation . He aspired to the consciousness , the personality, the spiritual unity in the sense of Stirner ... By State changes only individual freedom , not the freedom to be won in his view . Only that it approves revolution that completely eliminated the state. " ( REICH, a references therein LASKA 1981 , p.16) . By far the strongest influence on Wilhelm REICH , which should be decisive for the rest of his life , went out of Sigmund FREUD (see FREUD, 2000) .
In addition to studying REICH loved music. As a child he had received piano lessons and learned the cello. Now he was a member of the SCHÖNBERG Club. His life was rich like making music . He loved to play the piano , the accordion , and later on the organ.
Even as a medical student, so he came to Sigmund FREUD and was admitted to the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society . With vitality , full of energy and enthusiasm REICH crashed into the psychoanalytic work . He was only clinical assistant , and soon after became deputy director of the Psychoanalytic Polyclinic . He suggested a technical seminar on methodological problems of neurosis therapy and eventually took over its management . The psychoanalytic theory he gave a series of valuable clinical works such as " The compulsive character " ( See REICH 1925) , " The Function of the Orgasm " ( See REICH 1927) , " The therapeutic importance of genital libido ", " On the Sources of neurotic anxiety ". REICH contributed to the Psychoanalytik Theory a decisive and often critical impetus. In 1922 REICH passed the examination for MD and thus completed his studies . He begins his work as a psychoanalyst at the " Vienna Psychoanalytic Clinic for the Loose " and the " Vienna Seminar for Psychoanalytic Therapy" . 1924 REICH became director of the seminar .
FREUD initially kept large chunks of REICH , who had quickly worked into the daunting edifice of psychoanalysis. As a student in the third semester, he had his first patient , and soon stood at the forefront of dedicated researchers . With time, however, FREUD distanced himself more and more from REICH , or his views. "We have a Dr. W. Reich, a brave but energic young passionate hobby horse rider who now worships in the genital orgasm the antidote of every neurosis . Maybe he could learn from their analysis of the K. of respect for the complication of the soul . " Sigmund FREUD wrote on 9 May 1928 to Lou ANDREAS - SALOMÉ .
REICH observed that none of his patients who had relapsed after successful psychotherapy, was found to have a satisfactory sex life . He saw - as FREUD - in the sexual stasis , the energy source of the neuroses . Those patients nourished their neuroses so again and again , so that the aim of analytic therapy had to be obtaining the ability for sexual gratification . REICH called this ability the orgastic potency , by which he meant not the phallic- narcissistic , performance-related power , but the ability " to the last vegetative involuntary commitment ." This he explained the first time something physically experienceable to target psychotherapy ( See REICH 1942).
FREUD had already taken care of it in his early writings with his thesis that a satisfied sex life with no neurosis is possible for attention. He used the term “libido” and they are not defined as genital sensation , rather than unspecific , distributed all over the body as a form of energy, pleasure principle . REICH argued that the mental health of the ability to completely discharge these libido depends on orgasm . It is both Orgasmic power to the ability of the flow of biological energy that can indulge in involuntary muscle contractions , without inhibitions and blockages mainly . Thus, this definition goes beyond the banal idea that nowadays usually associates with the term " orgasm " . It is rather the entire relationship of man to his body and his partner. Interestingly, REICH found that just those people who sought in purely sexual meaning of orgasm to orgasm , the most serious disorders of the full orgasmic satisfaction ability . He also noted that every neurotic anxiety always results from a pent-up sexual excitation ( See REICH 1927). Without that these theories would have ever seriouslybeen refuted , REICH reaped ignorance and ridicule of his colleagues.
Wilhelm REICH was interested as a young psychoanalyst to put the knowledge about prophylaxis of neuroses in practical social policy and sexual reform activities. With colleagues he founded in Vienna Hygienic Sexual Counseling Centers, where hundreds of youth and young adults were discussed . He recognized the huge dimension of the neuroses , which were based primarily on authoritarian , sexually oppressive family structures. The toddler's neurotic patterns are applied . During adolescence, sexual repression was continued by demanding sexual asceticism to adulthood , or until marriage . The sexual repression is to make man docile in every respect - at the price of its vitality , the ability to feel pleasurable and to be happy. Puberty therefore appeared REICH as the time of " Sexual Struggle of the Youth " , in which each generation tries to claim the capacity for happiness as a consequence of the burgeoning sexual maturation of the parental generation ( See REICH , The Sexual Struggle of Youth, 1932).
Under the impression of a workers' uprising in Vienna and the resurgent fascism REICH turns to Marxism. In his writings, he now combines Marxism , Psychoanalysis and Sexual Reform . He is a member of the Communist Party and founded in Berlin the so-called Sexpol Movement. In 1931 he founded the " German Association for Proletarian Sexual Politics " , which includes several hundred thousand members , through educational campaigns and establishes sexual counseling . Despite great success among the youth the Communist Party of Germany prohibits this association and excludes REICH from their organization .
Wilhelm REICH fixed to the view of the young Sigmund FREUD , that the libido, the energy of the sexual instinct , is the central engine of the psyche . Oppression and constriction in early childhood , childhood , adolescent and adult love and instinctual needs through a patriarchal , sex- repressive morality are to REICH the causes of the development of neurosis, perversion , crime , loneliness , suicide, wars. The suppression of sexuality tames not this and not forward them to higher cultural achievements , but also leads to socially harmful behavior . To substantiate this hypothesis , REICH studied numerous explorers such as COOK based on ethnographic research results of cultural anthropology ( See REICH , The Collapse of Sexual Morality , 1932 ( See COOK 2009). COOK, MALINOWSKI and later artists such as GAUGUIN ( See LLOSA 2005; . Cf. WALTHER 1988 ) reported graceful people with free love life in the remote South Pacific. MALINOWSKI lived for many years during the First world War on islands in the South Pacific in New Guinea and explored with scientific precision the tribal life and culture of the Trobriand Islanders . 1929 appeared of Malinowski 's work " The Sexual Life of the Savages " in a German translation . There are clear indications of the positive effects of positive sexual morality for the social life of the people there (See MALINOWSKI 2001) .
REICH writes: " The children of the Trobriand Islanders have no sexual repression and no sex secret. The sex life of the Trobriand develops naturally , freely and unhindered through all stages of life with full satisfaction. The children are active each according to their age. The Trobriand society knew anyway, or rather because of it, in the third decade of this century no sexual perversions , no functional mental illness , no neuroses , no rape and murder ... "( REICH , 1932, p 173 . ) . Also, sadism , destructiveness and theft did not know the Trobriand culture.
There are other examples of peoples and cultures – allowing the sexuality of children and young people - in very different ways . In the societies of many American Indian tribes and Polynesian communities children were allowed sexual games , sometimes they were strongly in favor . In the Muria , a tribe in Central India, ( See ELWIN1947 , 1968; see HAEBERLE 1985, p 486 ; see TISCHNER : Fischer Encyclopedia " Ethnology " , 1959, p 311; KENTLER 1972, p 97ff . ) was built specifically for this purpose a special house , called ghotul in which children of both sexes , spent the nights together . Similar customs are known from the aforementioned residents of the Trobriand Islands, and the Masai in Africa. The children of Indian Muria stayed generally the sixth or seventh year of the ghotul to which the parents had no permit . Within the Child and Youth House, the ghotul , the children were on their own . The older children encouraged the younger to sexual play and instructed them in many sexual practices. Regular and frequent sexual intercourse was formed as an integral part of childhood. Sexuality was in ghotul as a central component of child- adolescent life to it. The children of the Muria were not brutal, neglected or sexually depraved. On the contrary, the children of the Murias were friendly , cordial, well-mannered , confident and cooperative. As adults, they led monogamous , stable and happy marriages ( See ELWIN 1947 , 1968) . Only recently , with the introduction of compulsory education in schools of the Central Government , this old custom was abandoned . The "new " children of the modern Muria but now seem to be just as fearful and inhibited as their peers in the modern world . Thus, the " Westernization ", the " colonization " and the " globalization " of the world have brought significant improvements in addition to a lot of sexual misery hitherto contented people. Today, many Third World countries have become even more puritanical than their Christian colonizers . The examples of the Trobriand Islanders and the Indian Muria are only the best known , there are also a number of other positive sexual cultures.
Erich FROMM (1974 ) has done in his work on the " Anatomy of Human Destructiveness " a comparative study of thirty cultures. The thirty cultures taken from the ethnographic field research of renowned cultural anthropologists such as Margaret MEAD .
In the analysis of thirty cultures occurred according to FROMM three distinctly different social systems . In addition to life-affirming , peaceful cultures there are aggressive and destructive people.
FROMM describes the life-affirming social system as follows :
" In this system, ideals , customs, and institutions are primarily oriented to the fact that they want the preservation and growth of life in all its forms. Vviolence and cruelty are found in the population only to a minimal extent. There are no hard penalties , no crime , and war as an institutionis nonexistent or only plays a very small role. The children are kindly treated , severe physical punishment does not exist. The women are equal to men in general ... The attitude to sexuality is generally tolerant and affirmative. Man finds little envy, avarice, greed and exploitation. There is also no rivalry or individualism , but much cooperation . Personal property only exists in relation to consumer goods . In the general attitude of trust and faith trust not only is expressed to the other , and , but especially towards nature , in general , there is a good mood , and depressive moods are relatively rare " ( Fromm 1974, p 150). . FROMM expects to these life-affirming , sex- friendly companies, the Zuni Pueblo Indians , the mountain Arapesh, the Batonga , the Aranda , the Semang , the Toda , the Polar Eskimos and the Mbutu .
After REICH the function of sexual repression is the foundation of the authoritarian- patriarchal culture , the rule of man over man and the man over the woman, the economic slavery and exploitation. " The antiquity of the people followed in sex life to natural laws that established a natural sociality. The split of the authoritarian patriarchy of about 4 - to 6,000 years, with the power of the oppressed ,created the secondary natural sexuality , perverse , sick sexuality of modern man " ( REICH 1972, p 175 ) . According to REICH are three layers in psycho mental structure of man today :
1 the superficial sociality of pseudo externally adapted to the human society ,
2 the unconscious , in which the latent anti - sociality , destructiveness and criminal impulses are held in check with difficulty , and
3 the deeply hidden in all men existing natural sociality and sexuality.
REICH outlined his views as follows : " The patriarchal- authoritarian era of human history has tried to keep the secondary anti-social instincts in check by forcing moral prohibitions . Thus, the questionable human culture came to be a three- layered beings. On the surface, he wears the mask of artificial self-control , the obsessive and fake of sociality made politeness . So that it covers the second layer including the Freudian unconscious , where sadism , greed, lust, envy, perversions of all kinds are held in check , but without compromising in the slightest power. This second layer is the product of negative sexual art and culture and is aware usually only as inner emptiness . Behind her , in the depth , live and work the natural sociality and sexuality , the spontaneous joy in work , the ability to love . This last and third layer represents the core of human biological structure , and is unconsciously feared. They contradict each train authoritarian education and domination. It is also the only real hope that man has to deal with the social misery once . All discussions on the question of whether the person is good or evil , a social or an antisocial beings are philosophical shenanigans . Whether man is a social animal or a strange irrational reacting pile of protoplasm depends on whether its basic biological needs are in harmony or in conflict with the facilities that he has created himself " ( Reich , 1972, p.175 f.)
REICH and NEILL
Alexander Sutherland NEILL was born in 1883 in Scotland. He became a teacher at state schools in England , but soon rejected the traditional methods of coercion from . In 1921 he was co-founder of the International School in Dresden Hellerau, Germany . Shortly thereafter he founded his own school in England, which in 1968 became world famous as Summerhill School at the time of the student movement and exists even today, after his death , continuesly . REICH and NEILL got to know in 1937 , represented a great match in the conception of human life firmly and developed a close friendship . REICH had two of his children , Eva and Peter go at boarding school in England by NEILL . The principles of the philosophy of education of NEILL can be following outline :
The man is good by nature . He wants to love and be loved. Hatred , cruelty, and lust for war are only thwarted love ...
NEILL met REICH in 1937 in Oslo and underwent Reichian Vegetotherapy , “...which meant that I was lying naked on a sofa while he worked my stiff muscles . He refused to deal with dreams . It was a grueling and often painful therapy, but within a few weeks I was more emotional release than I had ever found at LANE , Maurice NICOLLE or STEKEL . " ( NEILL , and references therein LASKA 1981, p 97).
NEILL remained until death of REICH one of his few very close friends .
Alexander S. Neill Education
Alexander Sutherland NEILL was born 1883 in Forfar, Great-Britain . His father George NEILL worked as principals and came from a family of miners . His mother Mary SUTHERLAND was trained as a teacher and worked at a school in Leith England. From a young age the Sunday churchgoing was a pain for NEILL. NEILL writes about his father , "He was often cruel to me , and I developed a pronounced fear of him , a fear that I as a man never overcame all . " NEILL was in village, teaching in the school of his father marked by coercion, discipline and corporal punishment . Sex, stealing, lying , swearing were taboo subjects in his childhood. With 14 years ended his school days . NEILL began on his father's instruction to work as an accounting clerk , but he returned after seven months back home. He should be a cloth merchant and began teaching. This position , however, he soon had to give it up due to health problems .
NEILL was for four years as a teacher intern ( "pupil teacher" ) employed by his father. He developed an interest in school subjects and in pedagogy . NEILL was not admitted to academic exam at the end of his training period , he could show no specific services in specific subjects. He completed his training as an ' Ex Pupil Teacher' ( " assistant teacher " ) , wanted to work as a teacher and took a job in Bonnyrigg near Edinburgh, United Kingdom of Great Britain. He left this job after three years because he had to punish students with blows there. By 1908 , he participated in various positions . He had become aware that the Scottish school system has too many limits. NEILL began at the University of Edinburgh on his father's wish to study agricultural science, but without interested, he interrupted his studies at an early stage . He began to study English literature . In his senior year, he was editor of the student newspaper "The Student" . He wrote short stories to his livelihood finance can . NEILL was nowon the journalistic career path and became an editor at a publishing house .
1913 World War I broke out and NEILL re-entered on the teaching profession . He was headmaster of the Gretna Public School in 1914 in Scotland, where he was concerned with the learning and forced the punitive system. NEILL instead put more emphasis on play and joy. He wrote his first book "A Dominie 's Log" by whose publication he came into contact with like-minded educators. 1917 visited NEILL Homer LANE´s " Little Commonwealth " - a reformatory for juvenile offenders - and regained interest in the education of children and youth . Homer LANE lived from 1875 until 1925. In 1907, LANE founded "Ford Republic," a rehabilitation center for young people with self-managed community in the USA. 1913 LANE went to England to help build the newly established home " Little Commonwealth " , a home for 40 to 50 neglected young people , whose leadership he took over until its closure in 1918. LANE settled in London as a psychotherapist and led down the juvenile back on a hard, loveless upbringing. His motto was: You have to be on the side of the child . He introduced the self-government. LANE´s view of man was optimistic . He denies the innate sin and affirms the goodness of man . The instinctual desires of the people are given natural and created by God - so they must be good. By LANE NEILL learned not only knowledge about the educational psychology but also about psychoanalysis .
1918 NEILL tried to find a job at John Russell King Alfred School , as the Little Commonwealth was closed due to a scandal. By LANE NEILL learned to know Sigmund FREUD's Psychoanalysis and moved away from his far more intuitive actions. NEILL was LANE's student , friend and patient and took over many of his later principles . NEILL about FREUD : " Freud says , the unconscious is infinitely more important than the conscious . I said to myself why : In my school, there will be no disapproval , no penalties , no homilies " The King Alfred School was seen as progressive and modern , as there was no corporal punishment and no censorship , but a freer discipline and early coeducation . NEILL introduced there the self-government , by which the children were able to vote on the school laws . , the self-administration was supported only by him and failed by the lack of consistency in the implementation . When it came to protests within the teaching staff , John RUSSEL advised him , to stop work at this school.
NEILL began to publish his principles in 1920 and got the offer to co-editor of the educational reform magazine " New Era " . He undertook numerous lecture tours through England and Scotland , visited schools and advanced search for a location for his own school , for which he already campaigned in the "New Era" for donations. Through its participation in the " New Era " NEILL was able to deal with a wide choice of topics and exercised vigorously criticized the existing school system. By NEILL's radical stance reinforced in the course of time , the differences to the other teachers , so that two years later he finished his work at the " New Era " and wanted to start his own school.
NEILL met Lilian NEUSTÄTTER 1921 in Dresden, which was a way for creation of NEILL's own school. In Hellerau near Dresdenin Germany NEILL was offered to establish an extension of the rhythm department and the " New German School" an international school . This offer designated NEILL in retrospect as the date of its founding school , even if the school was actually founded until 1922. NEILL here could implement his own ideas of a school : He introduced the self-government, abolished the class system , the students had to decide whether they wanted to participate in teaching , turned to paradoxical sanctions and "private lessons" . The organization headed NEUSTÄTTER, Lillian , and her husband , Dr. Otto NEUSTÄTTER, took over the management of the school. NEILL, wrote a book of his Dominie series entitled " A Dominie Abroad" , which tells of his experiences in Germany . When in 1923 a Communist uprising was, a civil war break out in Saxony and since more parents logged their students off from this school, the school had to cease operations .
A former monastery on the mountain in Austria appeared at that time suitable to NEILL for the continued operation of the school . The school met with fierce resistance from the population and from the school authority , because it was neither religion nor education physical education or home economics classes instead . The villagers particularly bothered that girls were bathing in a swimsuit in the sun and also individual students were running around naked on the school grounds . 1924 NEILL's School was closed by the Austrian school administration.
The school was forced to move again, this time on the " Summer Hill " in Lyme Regis , England. In 1926 , he published " The Problem Child" , reflecting NEILL , who now saw himself as a child psychologist , the first time scientifically dealt with the child. This Summerhill had no immediate financial needs of more and Neill gave numerous lectures in England. Summerhill was attended by problem children , for Summerhill represented the last opportunity for improvement . 1927 NEILL married the now from Dr. Otto NEUSTÄTTER divorced Lilian NEUSTÄTTER. NEILL moved with his school in Leiston , Suffolk , England, at the place where it still exists today. The publication of other books and lecture tours of NEILL meant that in 1932 there was a waiting list for admission to Summer Hill .
When World War II began, the school building was requisitioned in Leiston and found an " emergency shelter " in Festiniog in North Wales, where NEILL and the students lived for five years . In 1945 NEILL went back to Summerhill . The school was in a bad state. The army had had five years and caused more damage at this time , as the children had done in 25 years. NEILL married Ena WOOD. On 2 November 1946 the child Zoë was born , whose development was reported during their first six years of life in "The Free Child " . NEILL believed that he would not be able in any other country to run the Summerhill School as in England, because at that time England was one of the freest countries.
Helmut DAHMER (1973 , p.244 ) summarizes the principles of NEILL's educational theory and practice as follows:
1 ) " Man is good . He wants to love and be loved. Hatred and rebellion are only thwarted love ... "
2 ) "We are on the side of life - we affirm the flesh. "
3 ) "It is the idea of non-interference in the growth of the child and the complete absence of pressure , the Summerhill to make what it is. "
4 ) Moral produced immorality, "the law creates crime." "Moral instruction affects its waiting " since it fixes the forbidden and the child involved in a lifelong , energy- consuming , futile fight against the once forbidden . " I believe that the moral rules make a child only angry . I have found that a bad boy is good if I have negated the rules to which he was subjected . "
5 ) "There is no instinct of cruelty . Cruelty is perverted love. "
6 ) " Neurosis is the result of a conflict between prohibitions and real desires. " Psychoanalysis is liberating, because they can be aware of a growing part of the unconscious.
NEILL votes for the abolition of compulsory morality, the frightening , the critical resolution, the tyrannical Super-Ego instances : "I find that the weakening of this erroneous conscience makes the child happier and better " ( NEILL all citations by DAHMER 1973, p 244).
NEILL suffered under the age of health problems and acute financial problems of his school. 1950 founded some parents of the students , a committee for the management of school funds . On 10 May 1966 NEILL was awarded the honorary doctorate from the University of Newcastle . During this time, NEILL wrote "Talking of Summerhill " , which appeared in 1967 . With age NEILL wrote a great deal , but mainly articles for magazines and working on his autobiography. In 1968 BERNSTEIN published a study on former Summerhill pupils , which showed the positive effect of the whole of Summerhill School Education. On 5 July 1968 NEILL got another honorary doctorate awarded , this time from the University of Exeter. This title probably saved Summerhill again before the imminent closure because another very inspection was negative in June 1968. I n 1969 in Germany , the book " Summerhill . Theory and Practice of Anti-Authoritarian Education ,"was published, which was a sales success in the course of the school and student movement and saved Summerhill from financial ruin . 1971 Summerhill celebrated its 50th anniversary. At this time the school is run largely by NEILL's wife Ena , as NEILL even lost interest in school life and suffered a stroke . In 1972 he published his autobiography, " Neill ! Neill ! Orange peel ! " in the United States ( Title of the German edition : " Neill Neill , pear stalk " ) and a year later in England. At this time it went from bad to worse health with NEILL . He died on 23 September in 1972.
Under the BLAIR government , there was a new school inspection and testing of the closure of Summerhill School. Was objected sorts , the voluntary nature of the visit and other lessons . Was also criticizes the shower room, which consists of a community shower for both sexes . Here sexual immorality will supposedly made among minors feed . However, it is part of the concept of free education at Summerhill , that communal showers nude or nude bathing is considered beneficial for a health-promoting sex education. Certainly,for shameful pupils the opportunity to privacy must be provided . Free sex education should not degenerate into a novel again forced to libertinism . The abolition of the possibility of a shared shower , however, would mean a neo - puritanism in all its neuroses generating negative consequences and negative results.
The author of this text was one of the signers of a petition to the European Commission's Education , to guarantee the continued existence of NEILL's school Summerhill as meritorious Model School of Pedagogical reform movement.
2 Martial Cultures
The war ,
he is not dead
He is sleeping there
under the apple tree.
to you, to me ,
the war ,
he is not dead
2.1 Patrismus and War
The Saharasia thesis
James DeMEO identified, in his work entitled " Saharasia " (1998) , the global geographic pattern of repressive , traumatic , violent , pain -producing , characteristically indurated , patristic behaviors and social institutions , which destroy the bond between mother and child , and between man and woman , based on a systematic analysis of anthropological data material from 1170 aboriginal subsistence crops related to each other .
After completion of the mapping showed that the extremely dry desert belt extending from North Africa to the Middle East to Central Asia , and DeMEO has given the name Saharasia , has the largest circulation of radical patristic behaviors and social institutions of the planet Earth .
In areas with the greatest distance to Saharasia , as in Oceania and the New World, particularly in the Amazon we can find the gentlest , characteristically vivid , most open , matrist behaviors that promote and protect the bond between mother and child , and between man and woman .
A systematic review of archaeological finds and historical documents indicates an initial development of patriarchy by 4,000 BC in Saharasia out on a profound ecological change from a relatively humid climate with savannahs and forests to arid desert conditions .
Settlement patterns and migration of patristic peoples were traced from their original homelands in Saharasia to explain the later occurrence of Patrismus in regions outside Saharasia .
Evidence for the existence matristic conditions before the onset of dry climatic conditions in Saharasia can be found everywhere , while there are generally no signs of the former existence of Patrismus . DeMEO believes that the Matrism represents the earliest , original and innate form of human behavior and social organization , while the Patrism maintained by traumatic social institutions , when Homo sapiens first time under the influence of severe droughts , famines and thereby forced migration in Saharasia phenomenon occurred .
The psychological insights of Wilhelm REICH(1935 , 1942 , 1945 , 1949 , 1953, 1967 , 1983 ) provide an understanding of the mechanisms by which establish themselves patristic , violent and temperamentally armored behaviors and persist long after the initiating trauma has passed. The DeMEO's research is concentrated on a large complexof traumatic and repressive attitudes, behaviors , social practices and institutions that are associated with violence and war.
The study deals with the clinical and cross-cultural observations of biological needs of infants, children and adolescents , the oppressive and destructive consequences that have certain social institutions , and hard living conditions for these needs , and the consequences arising out of the conduct of the person concerned . DeMEO illustrates the causal relationship between traumatic and repressive social institutions on the one hand and destructive aggression and war on the other.
DeMEO's research supports the thesis of the existence of a former historical period relatively peaceful societies around the world in which war, male domination and destructive aggression have been either completely absent or were present only in very small extent. Furthermore, the exact time periods as well as the regions of the Earth could be determined , where formerly peaceful, democratic and equal structured human communities turned into violent containing , warlike and despotic cultures for the first time .
Conditions for the research results were according to DeMEO
1 ) recent paleoclimatic and archaeological finds , the disclosed overlooked social and environmental conditions before and
2 ) the development of a vast global database with the ethnographic and anthropological research results with more than a thousand different cultures. The invention of the personal computer enabled the easy access to these data and the production of " world behavior cards " within a few years, which would otherwise have been a life's work .
3 ) DeMEO's research was focused on a review of the sex-economic theory of Wilhelm REICH .
A global geographical analysis of social factors were made , which are associated with sexual repression and childhood trauma.
REICH's theory describes destructive aggression and sadistic violence of Homo sapiens as a completely unnatural state , which results from a traumatic chronic inhibition of respiration, and any loss of emotional expression-oriented impulses.
According REICH these inhibitions and blockages of the personality by means of certain painful and pleasurable hostile rituals and social institutions are established , consciously or unconsciously counteract the bond between mother and child , and between man and woman.
This oppressive and repressive sexual rituals and social institutions exist in both the so-called "primitive" subsistence crops as well as technologically advanced "civilized " societies .
Some examples of unconscious or , streamlined delivery of pain in neonates and children are :
- Separation and isolation of the baby from the mother ;
- Indifference to the desperate child crying and screaming ;
- Immobilization by constant bondage of the whole body ;
- Deny the breastfeeding or premature weaning ;
- Trimming or cutting of infant's body parts , usually the genitals ;
- Forced toilet training before the infant can effectively control his excretory functions ;
- Enforced through threats or physical punishment claim to be calm , obedient and not curious .
Other cultural practices that aim to control the child and adolescent sexuality or destroy , are
- The female virginity complex ;
- Enforced by penalties and the creation of guilt arranged marriages ;
-The expectation to endure pain, to suppress feelings towards authority figures and older bring uncritical obedience in all matters of life , is one of the central aspects of such repressive social structures.
According REICH anchored a chronic muscular armor by excruciating and unpleasurable rituals, hostile and repressive moral requirements in adolescents. This leads to blockages of the full breathing, emotional expressiveness and complete sexual relaxation during orgasm. The pent-up internal pressure drives the organismto distorted , self-destructive and sadistic behavior .
MALINOWSKI (1927 , 1932 ) reported on the sex- friendly culture of the Trobriand islanders. Further descriptions loving indigenous peoples are seen with other anthropologists , such as at ELWIN (1947 , 1968) on the Indian Muria in HALLET & RELLE (1973 ), in TURNBULL(1961 ) and in the Continuum Concept on Amazon Indians and the positive parenting in Bali , Indonesia, described by Jean LIEDLOFF (1980 )..
PRESCOTT (1975 ) has a large-scale cross-cultural study of mild-mannered and positive cultures on the one hand and cruel cultures on the other hand submitted to substantiate his thesis of Somatosensory Affectional Deprivation ( SAD thesis ) .
Ethnographic cultural comparisons have shown that societies where infants, children and adolescents suffer a lot of pain and trauma and its emotional expression and sexual desire of adolescents to be destroyed without exception show neurotic , ( self-) destructive and violent behaviors.
Furthermore, global historical studies of military , authoritarian and despotic states have confirmed the relationship between childhood trauma, sexual oppression, male domination and violence.
From anthropological studies TAYLOR (1953 ) has developed a schematic comparison of matriarchal and patriarchal cultures. James DeMeo (1991, 1998) supplemented TAYLOR's scheme to sex-economic aspects and selects the names " matristic " and " patristic " cultures.
An ideal-typical exaggerated juxtaposition of behaviors, attitudes and social institutions shows significant differences.
In patristic cultures learn infants, children and adolescents during their socialization from their parents and socialization agents little caution and forbearance and little physical affection . It can be found regularly traumatized infants and toddlers , painful initiation rites and the children and young people are dominated by the family. Always there is a public and private segregation of sexes and genders.
In contrast, infants, children and adolescents learn in matristic cultures much gentleness and forbearance , lots of physical affection and there is no trauma in infants and young children. Painful initiation rites are unknown . The children and youth are not dominated by the family, but it can be found for children and youth democracies. Neither private nor public , the sexes are separate.
PRESCOTT argued in terms of sexuality in patristic cultures, so there are many limitations and sexuality in general is connected with fear . Typically include genital circumcision or genital mutilation , for example, foreskin circumcision in boys , clitoris and labia removal or infibulation of girls , to the rule. There is an extreme virginity taboo . Love relationships between young people are strictly forbidden. Premarital or extramarital sex is taboo and even within marriage , sexual intercourse is subject to strict regulations and taboos.
In matristic cultures whereby sexuality is welcomed and felt with pleasure. Genital mutilation is unknown . A taboo of virginity does not exist. Love relationships between young people and endorsed the sexual intercourse is affirmed .
In patristic cultures , there is often a strong tendency to incest and a corresponding strict incest taboo . Concubinage and prostitution are rife.
In contrast , anthropologists found in matristic cultures no incest tendencies and the absence of any explicit taboos. Concubinage and prostitution as social institutions do not exist.
In Patrisms women's freedom is restricted , its status can rightly be characterized by inferiority. Women have no free choice of spouse, divorce no option, and fertility is controlled by men. The reproductive function is despised and there are vaginal blood taboos , hymenale taboos , taboos on prenatal and menstrual bleeding.
Freedom , equality, and devotion to the reproductive function indicate the status of women in matrist societies . Free choice of spouse, divorce at the request of the woman and control of women 's fertility are characteristics of mmatristic cultures.
As regards the social structure so patristic companies are typically authoritarian, hierarchical and despotic. The lineages are patrilineal , the marital residence is patrilocal . There is a lifelong compulsory monogamy or male dominated polygamy. There is a political and economic centralism. Militarism is emphasized. Appropriate institutions are violent and sadistic.
Matristic cultures are structured democratic and egalitarian. Lineages are matrilineal , matriarchal so structured . The marital residence is matrilocal . Compulsory monogamy is unknown, there is rarely polygamy. Democratic structures work and the lack of a full-time military personnel are hallmarks of nonviolent matristic cultures, where sadism is missing.
Matristic cultures were transformed to Patrism by repeated severe drought with desertification, had famine, malnutrition , social disruption and mass migration result for the subsistence societies (ie, the primitive peoples ) .
A systematic global analysis of 1,170 based on primitive peoples by James DeMEO ( 1991, 1998 ) confirmed the Desert - Patrismus relationship. Starving people fleeing the drought in neighboring regions and later in more remote areas , and built there patristic despotic systems.
MURDOCK's ' Ethnographic Atlas " (1967) based on data from 1,170 indigenous people , have been reported in the years 1750-1960 from reliable sources. The work is to review MURDOCK:s comparative cultural recognition hypotheses generally .
DeMEO evaluated by computer each of the 1,170 indigenous cultures using 15 specific variables that are reminiscent of the Matrismus - Patrismus scheme. Ethnic groups with a high percentage of patristic characteristics received a high score , and vice versa. DeMEO determined the geographic coordinates of each culture and carried it with her Patrisms value in a world map.
The hostile desert conditions have met on the space distribution of extreme patristic cultures. DeMEO has given this desert belt of the earth the name Saharasia ( See 1998). The cultures of North Africa , the Near East and Central Asia were clearly patristic as the peoples of Oceania , America and the northern regions of the Earth, those areas which are most distant from Saharasia .
Since DeMEO's research based on the analysis of more than 10,000 archaeological and paleoclimatic data from over 100 scientifically reliable sources revealed the great desert belt of today Saharasia was before 4000-3000 BC, a partially wooded savannah . In today's desert region were living large and small animals such as elephants , giraffes , rhinos and gazelles . Hippos , crocodiles, fish, snails , etc. thrived in the rivers and lakes. There were once deep lakes and through the canyons and wadis flowed constantly watercourses . The then living in the fertile and lush times of peoples were peaceful , and unarmored, democratic characters and personalities. DeMEO draws these conclusions from the examination of archaeological finds. Archaeological finds from the time before 4000 BC. show, among other things, the careful funeral regardless of the sex of the dead with grave goods relatively equivalent , realistic female statuettes and artistic rock paintings. Rock paintings and pottery are showing women , children, music, dancing , animals and hunting. In later centuries, some of these peaceful matristic cultures underwent a significant development for agricultural and commercial states such as Crete , the Indus Valley , and parts of Central Asia.
The worldwide peace demonstrations with millions of participants in recent years show the desire of a large part of humanity for peace. The activity of hundreds of thousands of young people for peace in Europe and in the USA is a new phenomenon that can be viewed in part as a result of decades of peace education and peace education in parental homes , kindergartens , schools and colleges. But the protests against the riky nuclear technology , the peaceful use of nuclear fission in nuclear power plants are constantly increasing . Always new meltdown , Biggest Assumed Accidents in nuclear power plants , most recently in Chernobyl and Fukushima , illustrate the immense dangers of radioactive radiation to mankind and future generations.
2.2 Theories of War
There are many theories about the origin of wars. Each of these theory explains some aspect of the human readiness for war . Below (2009 , p 275 See TAYLOR , The Fall , ff ) are based on the aspect- rich overview of various theories about the origins of the war. Steve TAYLOR's outlines some common theories.
War by genes
First, here would be to mention the theories of the self-profit genes. According to this theory people interested only the survival of their own genes, which carry the blood relatives in itself (see BOYER 2002). For people of other ethnic groups represent potential competitors for survival . Consequently, genetically hostile to other ethnic groups , foreign ethnicities programmed (see SHIELDS / SHIELDS , 1983, see THORNHILL / THORNHILL 1983). Human readiness to make war on each other , therefore, can be traced back to the selfish genes . From ethnocentrism to racism and war , there are only small steps . War always occurs when the survival interests of different families , clans , tribes , ethnic groups , religious groups , or nations collide . From an evolutionary point of view, others represent groups of their own ethnic group selective forces that constantly lead to competition for survival and therefore in conflict and war for thousands of years .
War by testosterone hormone
A widely used alternative theory leads war back to the high levels of testosterone in the man's blood. And in fact, we can observe a more intense intraspecific aggression of males in rank fights and rivalries to the female even in the more highly developed species. The man produced an average of 5,100 micrograms of testosterone per day. In women, there are 100 micrograms. In kindergarten, school and society, the higher aggression of the male people is evident. This theory explains the biochemistry thus the emergence of wars , of hierarchy and patriarchy . It becomes difficult when these biochemical theories of the higher male testosterone levels in the blood is used to explain the desire to conquer other tribes or peoples , enslave , and to enlarge the power of their own ruler . To explain the conditions of organized warfare as the manufacture of weapons , the development of strategies of warfare and the mobilization of great men hordes armies only with high level of testosterone does not seem enough to me.
War by lack of serotonin hormone
Another theory explains the aggression and belligerence of the man with an insufficient secretion of serotonin in the male brain. Serotonin is an important neurotransmitter . In children with impulsive - aggressive behavior , a low serotonin level was detected in the blood in empirical studies . Also in suicides and adult violent killers this deficit of serotonin was found. PRESCOTT (see 1995 , 1996, 1997 et seq ) leads to the lack of serotonin deficits in the primary socialization such as lack of breast feeding , lack of tender and worn a donation in the first three years of life . Comparative anthropological studies show significant differences in the care and education of children in early childhood and into adulthood in matristic oriented and written in patriarchal cultures (see 1975 PRESCOTT , see DeMEO 1998 , see TAYLOR 2009).
War by population pressure
A very plausible theory sees war as the consequence of the increase in population . When there were vast areas of the world for people in low numbers , the sparse population led to the peacefulness . The prehistoric tribes had a lot of space on Earth , so there was no need to conduct wars over food resources. To the extent in which the people increased , and the population density increased, the human territories and food sources began mutually to be contested . In densely populated civilizations of war or civil war is used consciously or unconsciously to reduction of the population . In BOUTOUL's book " Assassination of Innocents due to Reasons of State " ( 1973), this thesis of the downsizing of the population is described by catchy civil war or war in population-rich states . In less populated epochs of human development war could be prevented by the ethnicity of hunter -gatherers moved on to other hunting grounds. As in the infinitely translucent plains of the North American continent was sufficient space available for various Indian tribes , this changed due to population density and private appropriation of land . The reports speak about peaceful small Indian tribes with small members according to this theory from population pressure as a cause of warfare . In contrast, the patristic written civilizations of the Olmecs , Mayas , Incas and Aztecs developed to cruel and warlike societies.
War as a result of civilization
This theory states that the majority of all wars emerged by civilization (cf. HAAS1999, p 14). With civilization living in settlements and cities is meant. TAYLOR ( See TAYLOR 2009, p 280 ) counters that there were peoples in prehistoric times , such as the Creto - Minoans on the Greek island of Crete or residents of Çatalhöyük in Turkey , which were clearly civilized, living in cities and had a large working communities , but were very peaceful. On the other hand, it is true that most prehistoric human groups were small in number and more peaceful than most patristic oriented high civilizations with large cities and sophisticated irrigation systems and professional army. ROUSSEAU was of the view that man is alienated from nature, if he lives in large cities. The man is no ant .
War by human brain
Van der DENNEN (1995 ) argues that, in contrast to the animal kingdom , the large developed human brain is responsible for ensuring that there is a permanent option to hostilities . Van der DENNEN wonders if it was not obvious , not to bring the strong force with the animal , but with the human brain in conjunction , that is, with the large trained neocortex that develops later than the reptilian brain and the limbic system has (cf. Van der DENNEN , 2001 , p.2 ) .
War as a substitute for hunting
LENSKI (1977 ) makes the case that the war was only created on a mass scale , when the men are gone from the hunter-gatherer life to farming and horticulture over . Now the men had few opportunities for hunting. The war now offered them an opportunity to live their courage and hunting fever .
War by planning ability
Ken WILBER (1996 ) points out that it is the human ability to plan , flows through the spontaneous aggression in long-prepared act of war . WILBER believes that in itself actually exists a genetically peacefulness of man. Only through the planning of armories , war and military strategies and political tactics creates the specific morbid , excessive aggression , as we know it only from the people .
War of greed and lust for power
TAYLOR (cf. 2009, pp. 283 ff ),leeds the belligerence of humanity , among other things, back to two main reasons : First, wars are fought to other nations to steal their land and possessions, by conquest , plunder and occupation. Secondly, wars are fought to defeat the enemies to conquer and dominate it , by captivity and enslavement. Often rulers conquered neighboring peoples of pure lust for power , even if they were already wealthy enough . Certain colonial powers , for example, for reasons of prestige began to discover the earth to conquer other continents and islands , because it was just fashion and because the development of seafaring, the construction of sea-going ships had become technically possible. ROSTOV (1967 ) shows how the world politics from 1500 to 1900 was marked by a nationalist rivalry and the conquest of colonies was considered a symbol of status and power in the political arena .
War because of lack of Empathy
Empathy is the ability to empathize with the situation of people or animals . When we think of the pursuit of power, property and prestige with a lack of empathy, then the unscrupulous bellicosity of humanity is perhaps something insightful . TAYLOR thinks of an Ego explosion about 6,000 years ago by desertification in from DeMEO as Saharasia designated regions of the world (cf. DeMEO 1998). The Ego - explosion means a loss of altruism , sociality and empathy and an increase in selfishness, individualism and greed . This Ego - explosion was responsible for the increase in acts of war . It was the inability to get others to enable the pain inside. Therefore, there was no more inhibitions , women and children to kill, devastate villages and towns to make the ground. The greed for power and wealth, according to rulership and submission enabled the victors to the vanquished rape , torture and enslave . André GLUCKMANN (1978 ) has pointed out that the term " territory " means the region in which a ruler can exercise its "terror ", that spread fear and terror .
War of boredom
A first strange sounding theory leads war back to the boredom of the men. By developing an increased selfishness and by the patrism the people more and more alienated from nature and the happy world connectedness of Indigenous Peoples . There was an emptiness and boredom and separation from reality. Perhaps the essence of the war effort , the boredom and the feeling of alienation was to play the real being . The business of war and the military conflict was to overcome boredom and meaninglessness of male lifestyles . Heroism helped the men to feel important . PASCAL already wrote 350 years ago: " The men have only one desire : from thinking about what they are distracting ... This is why they find such pleasure in hunting, female company , the war and the high offices " ( PASCAL , 1966, p.67) .
( See also the description of the enthusiasm for the war in the First World War by BULLOCK , cit. According TAYLOR 2009, pp. 290 and p.292 ) .
War through shared experience
PARTRIDGE (1919 ) points out that the war often brings an ecstatic sense of community , a sense of being part of a large group and merge with this greater whole. The isolation and separation of the individual is forgotten in a mass psychological hysteria anonymous for a short time . "You are nothing , your people is everything! " This ecstatic feeling to win a collective identity in the horde of other fellow human beings , to be powerful , is also formed during demonstrations in football spectators and military mass marches (see Ortega y GASSET 1956) . This results in the war enthusiasm of the merger as well as emotions on church days , the love between two people and the enjoyment of art , for example, in the theater or music concert hall.
War by sexual repression
According to Wilhelm REICH ( See " The Function of the Orgasm " , 1927 , " character analysis " , 1933 , " Mass Psychology of Fascism " , 1933) violence and belligerence dine out repressed love and oppressed sexual energy . If a healthy sex life with regular power dissipation in Organsmus , particularly in men , is not guaranteed by negative sexual morality , there is a build- up inside the oppressed people of bio-energetic tensions as frustration and rebellious impulses and hatred of society. Through lifelong suppression of human sexuality from a young age in patristic companies secondary instincts as sadistic and destructive tendencies are immeasurably strengthened and looking for an outlet . The war offers diverse opportunities for torturing , raping , looting and killing. PRESCOTT (Cf. 1974, 1975 ) work on cultural anthropological data on 400 indigenous people and thus got on correlations between sexual repression and violence potential. PRESCOTT discovered that cultures in which breastfed infants long treated, children lovingly and young liberal premarital sexuality was granted , were extraordinarily peaceful. If these companies were at war once rare , then killed them or drove their opponents in battle . Cruelty and torture of captured enemies were unknown. In contrast to the patristic cultures in which children had to endure a lack of physical pleasure and had intrapsychically develop a high potential for destruction , it gave no benefit from the peaceful cultures , helpless prisoners inflict torture and pain .
- Arbeit zitieren
- Professor Dr. phil. Karl-Heinz Ignatz Kerscher (Autor), 2013, Peace Education. Ideas for a Postmodern Pedagogy, München, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/265881