Development Tendency of Energy. A Short Review

Research Paper (undergraduate), 2013

6 Pages, Grade: Master


Abstract —Energy is the important source for the development of the society and it‘s the basic support of national economy and the base for human living. As the development of economy, abrupt increase of population and continuous improvement of living standards, the demand of energy increases continuously, which caused the impetuous scramble of energy source in the world, and urged the attention of the countries for current status and development trends of energy.

Keywords —Energy, Energy Supply Situation, Energy Production & Consumption.


IN 2007, the consumption of primary energy increased by 2.4%, although it‘s a little lower than the increase of 2.7% in 2006, it‘s still the 5th successive years higher than the average level [3]. The consumption increase of energy in the Asia-Pacific region is 2/3 of the increase of the world, and it‘s increasing continuously with 5% higher than the average level. However, the consumption of energy decreased by 0.9% in Japan. In North America, the consumption recovered in 2006 and rebound with an increase of 1.6% which was double of the average for last 10 years. In China, the increase rate of energy consumption was 7.7% in 2006, although it‘s higher than the average of last ten years (same situation of economy increase in the same period), it‘s the lowest increase rate since 2002. The consumption of energy once again took half of the increase of the world. The increase rate of energy consumption in India was 6.8%, ranking the third after China and England. In European Union the consumption of energy decreased by 2.2%, in which Germany was the country with maximum decrease rate in the world [1]-[3].

II. Analysis of Energy Supply Situation

A. Petroleum

In 2007, the consumption of petrol increased by 1.1% in the world, a little lower than the average level of the last 10 years.

The consumption of petrol in the petrol export region, i.e. Middle East, South America, Central America and Africa are 2/3 of the increase of petrol consumption of the world. In Asia-Pacific Region, the increase rate was 2.3%, which is almost at the same level as historical average. Although the increase of petrol consumption in China and Japan is lower than the average level, there is much increase in other emerging economies. The consumption of the countries of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development decreased by 0.9%, the great demand made the increase of naphtha distillate oil the same as mesoplasm distillate oil for the first time since 2002 [3], [9].

In 2007, yield of petrol decreased by 0.2% in the world with 130,000 barrels/day. It‘s the decrease for the first time since 2002. The production of OPEC decreased by 350,000 barrels each day in 2007 due to the impact of production reduction in November of 2006 and February of 2007 [3].

Although the production was reduced by OPEC and the consumption increased in petrol export countries, the trade of international crude oil and processed oil increased. The increase mainly came from processed oil, it can be seen that the oil refining system is under unbalance and limited status.

B. Natural Gas

The reserves amount of natural gas in the world is 208.4 trillion m3, which will meet the demands of the world for 63.6 years.

In 2007, the consumption of natural gas increased by 3.1% in the world, more than the average increase in the past. The main reason is that the increase in North America, Asia-Pacific Region and Africa is more than the average of the world. The demand for deep winter and power generation with natural gas caused that the increase of natural gas consumption accounted for almost half of the increase in the world. At the same time, natural gas almost led all the increase of energy consumption in America. The increase rate of natural gas was 19.9% in China, ranking the second in the world. Because of warming winter, the consumption of EU decreased by 1.6%, decrease for two successive years [4].

In 2007, the production of natural gas increased by 2.4%, the same as the situation of consumption. America is the country with maximum increase of natural gas supply and increase rate is 4.3%, the maximum increase since 1984. The production of natural gas decreased by 6.4% in European Union, in which England was the top one for two successive years-9.5% decrease. The production increased much in Former Soviet Union region except Russia which balances out the little decrease in Russia. The production of natural gas increased by 18.4% and 17.9% in China and Qatar respectively which rank the second and the third.

In 2007, international natural gas trade was continuously inactive with an increase rate of 2.3% which was lower than half of the average level of last ten years. As the low consumption in Europe, the exported natural gas through piping was suspended. The liquefied natural gas (LNG) transportation increased by 7.3% due to the lasting export increase in Qatar and Nigeria, the same as the historical increase level. The integration of LNG trade was lasting in Atlantic Ocean and Pacific Ocean area. As the price for actual goods higher than the one in Europe, the freighter turned to America, LNG receipt increased by 1/3 in America.

C. Coal

The reserves amount of coal in the world is 860.938 billion tons, which will meet the demands of the world for 112 years.

Coal increased fastest for five successive years. Coal consumption increased by 4.5% in the world which is higher than the average level 3.2% of last ten years. And the increase distributed widely, except Middle East, the other region had the increase more than the average of last ten years. Coal consumption increased by 7.9% in China which is the lowest since 2002, but it‘s still more than 2/3 of the increase in the world. The consumption increased by 6.6% in India, the increase rate in the countries of economy cooperation and development organization is 1.3%, all are higher than the average of last ten years [4], [5].

D. Nuclear Power

Until the end of 2007, it is confirmed the exportable uranium mine reserves is 5.4688 million tons with price of 130 dollars per kilogram; the uranium mine production in 2007 is about 41.165 thousand tons. It is anticipated the R/P of uranium mine is equivalent to 100 years, while the service life will increase 50 times if the nuclear fuel is reclaimed and reused after Special treatment [4].

Nuclear power decreased by 2% which made the maximum decrease record. But more than 90% are from Germany and Japan-Because of the shutdown of largest nuclear power plant in the world due to earthquake. Hydropower increased by 1.7%, a little bit higher than the average of last ten years. The increase of installed capacity in China and Brazil as well as the increase of hydropower availability in Canada and North Europe balance out part of the decrease of hydropower in America and South Europe due to drought.

E. Renewable Energy

Renewable energy is only a small part of energy consumption in the world, but in 2007, there was a rapid increase of renewable energy. Such as the production of ethanol increased by 27.8%. The installed capacity of wind energy and solar energy increased by 28.5% and 37% respectively, keeping with the same level in the history [5].

As for hydraulic power, according to the international energy resources investigation in 2001, theoretically the annual hydraulic capacity in the world is 40 trillion 704 billion kilowatt-hour; however the technical utilized capacity in practice is about 14 trillion 379 billion kilowatt-hour. However the gross power generation amount of the whole world in 2006 is about 777 Billion watts and provides 2.998 trillion kilowatt-hours electricity [5], [6].

III. Status Quo and Characteristics of Global Energy Consumption

A. Influenced of Economy Development and Population Increase, Primary Energy Consumption Amount up Continuously

As the global economy dimension expands continuously, global energy consumption constantly increases. GDP of the whole world in 1990 was 26.5 trillion dollars (calculated supposing the price index did not change in 1995); in 2000 the number reached 34.3 trillion, with annual increase 2.7%. According to BP Energy Statistics in 2011, the global primary energy consumption in 1973 was only 5.73 billion tons oil equivalent, while the amount reached 12.274 billion tons oil equivalent in 2011 [2],[6]. The annual growth rate of global energy consumption in the past 30 years is about 1.8%. Fig. 1 and Fig. 2 shows growth & distribution of global primary energy consumption.


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Development Tendency of Energy. A Short Review
Energy Engineering
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Rehan Jamil (Author), 2013, Development Tendency of Energy. A Short Review, Munich, GRIN Verlag,


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