Village Development Plan For Ekonjo And Upper Boando Villages: Sustainable Natural Resource Management Oriented


Project Report, 2009

62 Pages


Excerpt

Table of Contents

LIST OF TABLES

LIST OF ANNEXES

LIST OF ACRONYMS

EXECUCTIVE SUMMARY

SECTION 1: REPORT ON ASSESSMENT

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Location
1.2 Accessibility
1.3 Population sizes and structure of the villages
1.4 Climate and vegetation
1.5 Livelihood activities
1.6 Development concerns and potentials
1.7 Objectives

CHAPTER 2: SOCIOECONOMIC BASELINE SURVEY
2.1 Population (sex, age, ethnic group)
2.1.1 Ethnicity
2.1.2 Age and sex ratio
2.2 Historical analysis
2.3 Time line
2.4 Sources and levels of income
2.5 Areas of expenditure
2.6 Village institutions and organisation
2.7 Natural resources management authorities
2.8 Social amenities (water, school, health facilities etc.)
2.9 Social problems
2.10 Interaction with other villages
2.11 Past and current development projects and partners involved

CHAPTER 3: LIVELIHOOD ACTIVITIES
3.1 Plantain and banana farming
3.2 Cocoyam farming
3.3 Pepper
3.4 Vegetables
3.5 Maize
3.6 Fruits
3.7 NTFP gathering
3.8 Animal husbandry
3.9 Timber exploitation
3.10 Coffee and oil palm production
3.11 Particular activities and the months when they occur

CHAPTER 4: PARTICIPATORY LAND USE MAP AND TENURE
4.1 Participative land use mapping
4.2 Land tenure system

CHAPTER 5: HUMAN AND PROTECTED AREA INTERACTION
5.1 Awareness of existing conservation issues or protected areas
5.2 Local perceptions and attitudes
5.3 Impact of existing livelihood activities on natural resources
5.4 Eistence of animal/human conflicts
5.5 Existence of conservation mechanisms and relationship with MINFOF
SECTION 2: REPORT ON PLANNING

CHAPTER 6: NEED ASSESSMET and OUTLINE OF PRIORITY PROJECTS
6.1 List of problems identified by Ekonjo and Upper Boando
6.2 List of solutions identified for Ekonjo and Upper Boando
6.3 Village development goals
6.4 Priority development objectives based on PSMNR objectives
6.4.1 CBNRSM (towards conservation of natural resources)
6.4.2 CBNRSM and income (NTFP and agriculture)
6.4.3 Infrastructure & livelihood
6.5 The Ekonjo and Upper Boando shared vision

CHAPTER 7: PLANNED ACTIVITIES and OUTLINE OF PRIORITY PROJECTS
7.1 Selected priority projects based on impact ranking

CHAPTER 8: CONCLUSION

CHAPTER 9: RECOMMENDATION

ANNEX 1 - 15

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1: Population Structure of Ekonjo village

Table 2: Population Structure of Upper Boando village

Table 3: Trend Analysis for Upper Bando

Table 4: Trend Analysis for Ekonjo

Table 5: Time Line for Ekonjo and Upper Boando

Table 6: Sources and levels of income for Ekonjo village

Table 7: Sources and levels of income for Upper Boando village

Table 8: Expenses for Ekonjo

Table 9: Expenses for Upper Boando

Table 10: Income and expenditure matrix for Ekonjo

Table 11: Income and expenditure matrix for Upper Boando

Table 12: Past and current development projects and partners involved - Ekonjo

Table 13: Past and current development projects and partners involved – Upper Boando

Table 14: Productivity Trend for Ekonjo

Table 15: Productivity Trend for Upper Boando

Table 16: Livelihood Activities on Seasonal Calendar for Upper Boando

Table 17: Livelihood Activities on Seasonal Calendar for Ekonjo

Table 18: Impact of Existing Livelihood Activities as assessed by the community

Table 19: List of problems identified and causes

Table 20: List of Priority Activities including Timing, Responsibilities, Indicators and Means of Verification

Table 21: List of Priority Activities including Timing, Responsibilities, Indicators and Means of Verification

Table 22: List of Priority Activities including Timing, Responsibilities, Indicators and Means of Verification

Table 23: Impacts of Priority Projects on Poverty Alleviation and Natural Resources

LIST OF ANNEXES

ANNEX 1: CHECKLIST AND QUESTIONS FOR GROUPS

ANNEX 2: BASE SITUATION FOR EKONJO AND UPPE BOANDO VILLAGES

ANNEX 3: PROBLEMS and SOLUTIONS RANKING

ANNEX 4: SWOT ANALYSIS

ANNEX 5: IMPACT MATRIX FOR PROPOSED PROJECTS

ANNEX 6: IMPACT MATRIX FOR GENDER AND TIME SCALE

ANNEX 7: VILLAGE-BASED GROUPS and PROJECTS

ANNEX 8: SELECTED PRIORITY PROJECTS and TOTAL BENEFICIARIES

ANNEX 9: MICRO PROJECT PROFILE AND RANKING

ANNEX 10: PERCENTAGE CONTRIBUTION FOR PRIORITY PROJECTS

ANNEX 11: IMPLEMENTATION PLAN

ANNEX 12: MONITORING and EVALUATION PLAN

ANNEX 13: EKONJO VILLAGE PLANNING TEAM

ANNEX 14: UPPER BOANDO VILLAGE PLANNING TEAM

ANNEX 15: PRESENTATION OF FIELD TEAM

LIST OF ACRONYMS

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EXECUCTIVE SUMMARY

A village development plan[1] is a document that outlines clearly development procedures prepared by a village that can be used to mobilize potentials, capacities and allocation of resources. The goal is to move a village from its present situation to a desired one in an orderly and acceptable manner within a given time frame. It is a systematic approach that aims at sustainable management of natural resources and livelihood development at the village level. It is aimed at creating an environment for investors of the village in the long run.

The purpose of the exercise was to guide the two villages prepare a development plan in a cluster fashion. A manual (including the different participatory and learning tools and methods) prepared by the PSMNR-SWP through its lead partner responsible for result 4 - DED was used throughout the planning process. The specific objective of the assignment was to assist the villagers find solutions for CBNRM strategies that shall contribute to improving livelihood as well as smaller infrastructure projects (demand driven), also find solutions for communal forest management activities and finally include within the VDP, a “Package” of priority interventions recommended for implementation through the PSMNR-SWP.

The development planning process of Ekonjo and Upper Boando villages lasted a total of ten days. In each village, five days were spent so as to assess the base situation and document the strengths, potentials and problems for development. In the last two days, joint meetings were organized to finally select and prioritized the projects in the two villages, and also come out with a strategic and annual implementation plan and a monitoring and evaluation plan.

Ekonjo and Upper Boando villages are found in Buea municipality, located within the Buea Sub-division in Fako Division of the South West Region. Upper Boando and Ekonjo villages are quite small villages in terms of population sizes. Ekonjo village has a total of 104 persons with 54 of them permanently residing in the village and 50 outside. Upper Boando on the other hand has 77 persons, 26 of them residing in the village and 51 outside.

The main economic activity of the two villages is farming and the most important crops cultivated are plantain and banana. For Ekonjo, average revenue generated from plantains per household per year is 158,000 FCFA and for Upper Boando is 328,000 FCA.

This report is organized into seven main chapters. Chapter one introduces the two communities, chapter two, three and four provides information on the background, livelihood activities, and participatory land use map and land tenure system respectively. Chapter five and six present information on the needs of the villages, a community shared vision and also an outline of priority projects, while chapter seven gives the general conclusions and recommendations from the VDP.

The findings from this process revealed the following development-based problems:

1. Low agricultural potential
2. Poor technical-know-how on modern farming methods
3. Poorly developed road infrastructure
4. Absent and/or poorly developed pipe borne water system

From the above problems, the following priority projects were documented:

1. Develop the technical capacity of the farmers for improved agricultural production
2. Train and support farmers on how to domesticate cane rats and prunus
3. Improve and extend the existing water system
4. Rehabilitate Ekonjo and to Bojongo,

SECTION 1: REPORT ON ASSESSMENT

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

1.1 Location

Ekonjo and Upper Bondo are neighbouring villages situated within the Mt Cameroon TOU. Administratively, the villages are located in the Buea Sub Division, in Fako Division of the South West Region of Cameroon. Both villages are administered by the Buea Council Municipality. Ekonjo is bounded to the North by the proposed Mt. Cameroon National Park, in the South by Mokunda village, in the West by Upper Boando and to the East by Bojongo. Upper Boando on the other hand is bounded to the North by the proposed Mt Cameroon National Park, to the South by Mokunda village, to the East by Ekonjo and West by Lower Boando village.

1.2 Accessibility

Though the road appears to be motorable, access into these villages is quite tough because of the rugged and stony nature of the road. As a consequence access both into and out of the villages are regularly done on foot and to a lesser extent with cars or commercial motorbikes. Either from Buea or Limbe, one arrives first at Ekonjo before reaching Upper Boando. Two access ways into these villages can be through Bokwangwo from Buea, going down to Bwassa, Likombe, Mapanja and to Ekonjo and finally reaching Upper Boando.

1.3 Population sizes and structure of the villages

Ekonjo and Upper Boando are relatively small villages in terms of population sizes. During the planning process, a total of 104 people were counted in Ekonjo village. Out of this number, 53 persons were actually residing in the village and another 51 of them, out of the village. Out of 104 people, 53 were counted as males and 51 females. Upper Boando on the other hand had a total of 77 people. Of the 77 people, 26 were residing in the village and 51 out of the village. In this village 42 persons were counted as males and 35 as females.

1.4 Climate and vegetation

Located at the foot of Mt Cameroon, the mountain has a determinant influence on the climate. The climate is humid with plenty of luxuriant forest. There are two quite distinct seasons - the rainy season which starts in March and ends in October (lasting up to 8 months) and the dry season, which starts from November ending in February (lasting up 4 months). Average annual rainfall is above 2000 mm Monthly average temperature is above 250 C. The combination of high temperature, abundant rainfall coupled with the rich volcanic soils favours abundant growth of natural vegetation and cultivated crops. The natural evergreen forest is still quiet rich in the area. Tree species which could still be found in the area include, Iroko, Sapele, camwood (iron wood), Poga, Mahogany, and Dousier. This natural vegetation also serves as habitat for many wildlife species found in the area, some of them, which include bush buck, blue duiker, Ogilby’s duiker, porcupines, squirrels, chimpanzees, drills, elephants etc.

1.5 Livelihood activities

Farming is the main economic activity of Ekonjo and upper Boando villages. Crops commonly cultivated are plantain, banana, coco yams, pepper, corn, cassava, yams and vegetables. Domestic animal rearing is also practiced, though on a much smaller scale and animals commonly kept (free ranging) are goats, sheep, pigs and local breed of chicken. Both the men and the women are all involved in farming and animal rearing. Though still on a much smaller scale, unregulated timber extraction constitutes another important income generating opportunity.

1.6 Development concerns and potentials

These villages are lagging behind in terms of social facilities. There are no schools, no electricity supply, no health services, no market and no stores. Pupils and students attend school at the neighbouring village of Bojongo. As with the schools, marketing facilities and health services are either in Bojongo or in Limbe. There is a pipe borne water project in Upper Boando which is yet to be completed. The people of Ekonjo on the other hand get water from either Bojongo or Upper Boando after covering a distance of over 3-4 km of trekking.

1.7 Objectives

In order to address the above mentioned village situation, a consultancy mission was carried out in conformity with the overall goal of PSMNR-SWR from the 24th of April to the 4th of May 2009 with the following objectives;

- Assess the base situations of the two villages independently and analyze the strengths, weaknesses and opportunities for development
- Assist the villagers in finding solutions for Community Based Natural Resources Management strategies, activities to improve livelihood and smaller infrastructure projects (demand driven)
- Assist the villages in finding solutions for communal forest management activities
- Prepare a cluster VDP for two villages in a participatory manner and include the objectives of the PSMNR-SWP, as well as include a “Package” of priority projects for implementation.

To realize these objectives, different participatory learning and teaching tools were used during the process, which are included in a guide prepared by PSMNR under its lead partner for Result 4, DED. Some of the tools and methods used include: informal and formal interviews, focus group discussion, village meetings, visualisation on brown sheets of paper, role play, interactive presentation, participatory observation, food path, priority ranking, participatory impact assessment, transect walk and review of existing literature. The following chapters elaborate more on the findings (socioeconomics), development-based and natural resources-linked problems, formulated development goals and objectives, development strategies and the different community priority projects selected for implementation by the PSMNR-SWP.

CHAPTER 2: SOCIOECONOMIC BASELINE SURVEY

2.1 Population (sex, age, ethnic group)

2.1.1 Ethnicity

The inhabitants of Ekonjo and Upper Boando villages belong to the Bakweri tribe. At the time of assessment, all the inhabitants counted belonged to the Bakweris. There is no history of outside strangers ever settling in these two villages.

2.1.2 Age and sex ratio

During the planning process, a total of 104 people were counted in the village of Ekonjo. Out of this number, 53 persons were permanently residing in the village and 51 persons out of the village. From the 104 persons, 53 were males and 51 females. The male: female ratio for Ekonjo is 50:50 (see Table 1). Upper Boando village on the other had a total of 77 people. Of this number, 26 persons actually reside in the village and 51 out of the village. There were 42 males and 35 females out of this, 77 persons. This gives a male: female ratio of 55:45 (Table 2).

Table 1 : Population Structure of Ekonjo village

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Table 2 : Population Structure of Upper Boando village

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2.2 Historical analysis

Historical analysis is significant to identify certain trends in a community. This is necessary to already start seeing where the people want to be in the future after seeing where they were in the past. As indicated in Table 3 and 4, the population of both villages has reduced from the past 30 years to more than 200%. This change in population has been influenced over the past by complete absence of social infrastructures and facilities in the two villages. Ironically, a drop in population may have had a negative influence on the forest situation, but this is not the case because quite a huge number of persons still farm in the area but do not reside in either of the villages. Also, most of the streams have dried up because of continuous clearing for farming, and also for timber and fuel wood. Poor farming system has led to loss in fertility of the soil.

Table 3 : Trend Analysis for Upper Bando

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Table 4 : Trend Analysis for Ekonjo

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2.3 Time line

Not to confuse with trend analysis as already mentioned, historical timeline is a tool to verify events that may have affected the village in the past and also influenced the direction of development in the village. Some of the events which occurred in the past and may have also influenced the mind sets of the people are presented in Table 5. For example, the 1999 Mt. Cameroon eruption brought quite a huge panic among the people. The consequence of this was the loss of farmland due to the deposition of huge masses of larva and volcanic rocks in the farming area.

Table 5 : Time Line for Ekonjo and Upper Boando

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2.4 Sources and levels of income

As already mentioned, farming is the main economic activity of the people of Ekonjo and Upper Boando. As shown in Table 5 and 6, the main economic crops cultivated are plantain, banana, coco yams, vegetables and pepper. The greater economic returns are from plantains, bananas and coco yams. On average, Ekonjo and Upper Boando villages generate about 158,000 FCFA and 328,090 FCFA respectively per household per annum from sales of plantains alone.

Table 6 : Sources and levels of income for Ekonjo village

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Table 7 : Sources and levels of income for Upper Boando village

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2.5 Areas of expenditure

Tables 8 and 9 present areas and extent of spending for Ekonjo and Upper Boando villages. Expenditure matrix indicates areas where income is regularly spent and how much is spent for what. As shown in both tables, income is spent more on feeding, on education, on health and transportation. On a much smaller scale, income is spent on fuel for lighting lamps, chemicals for the farms and payment of farm labour. Comparing annual household income and annual household spending, it can be inferred that there is more spending than generating income for the household. This is an indicator of people living within poverty limits.

Table 8 : Expenses for Ekonjo

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Table 9 : Expenses for Upper Boando

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While Table 8 and 9 shows areas and extent of spending for the two villages, Table 10 and 11 presents a yearly timeframe when income is generated and when spending is also significant. Although villagers receive income and spend almost everyday, there are months when they receive highest income as well as months when they spend most. As shown in both Tables, income is generated more from the months of October to December and in March to June for Ekonjo and upper Boando respectively. On the other hand, villagers spend more in September and October when schools resume and in December and January.

Table 10 : Income and expenditure matrix for Ekonjo

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Table 11 : Income and expenditure matrix for Upper Boando

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2.6 Village institutions and organisation

The village of Ekonjo is ruled by HRH Chief Eviole Ngando. He is based in the village and is highly respected by his subjects. The Traditional Council or village cabinet is made up 11 members (8 men and 3 women). The TC ensures proper sanitation and developmental issues of the village. The TC is the law making and the implementation organ of the village. Upper Boando on the other hand has no Chief and the administrative responsibility is in the hands of the chairman of the TC. The organisation and governance structure of the village is quite weak because of the absence of a Chief, and those responsible for the day to day running of the village also do not reside in the village.

2.7 Natural resources management authorities

Both villages have Forest Management Committees put in place by WWF. They were initially formed and trained by the defunct Mount Cameroon Project (MCP). Unfortunately the existence of MCP also saw the disappearance of these committees. With the advent of PSMNR, the WWF went ahead and reconstituted these committees. The role of these committees is to monitor and ensure sustainable use and management of natural resources on behalf of the villagers. While working in close collaboration with the Traditional Council, these institutions also complement the responsibilities of MINFOF at the local level. The chief of post of forestry and fauna responsible for the implementation of forestry and wildlife laws is based in Buea. His visits in the area are not quite frequent. At times, his role is supplemented by the Limbe Chief of Post for Forestry. This is, however, when cases of illegal logging are reported by the villagers. There is also an agricultural extension officer based at Bojongo whose visit in the area is also not quite frequent.

[...]


[1] Suinyuy, D.N and Anthony, B. N. , 2009, The Village Development Plan of Ebeagwa, Tayor and Edjuingang Villages, München, GRIN Verlag GmbH, http://www.grin.com/en/e-book/269166/the-village-development-plan-of-ebeagwa-tayor-and-edjuingang-villages

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Details

Title
Village Development Plan For Ekonjo And Upper Boando Villages: Sustainable Natural Resource Management Oriented
Author
Year
2009
Pages
62
Catalog Number
V269169
ISBN (eBook)
9783656608448
ISBN (Book)
9783656608431
File size
1289 KB
Language
English
Tags
village, development, plan, ekonjo, upper, boando, villages, sustainable, natural, resource, management, oriented
Quote paper
Suinyuy Derrick Ngoran (Author), 2009, Village Development Plan For Ekonjo And Upper Boando Villages: Sustainable Natural Resource Management Oriented, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/269169

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