Analysis and design of rectangular microstrip patch antenna on different substrate materials in X-Band

Antenna and wave propagation


Research Paper (postgraduate), 2014
17 Pages, Grade: 10.0

Excerpt

Abstract--
In this paper software based design and analysis has been carried out for a
rectangular patch antenna using different substrate materials. A coaxial probe fed rectangular
microstrip patch antenna operating at X-band (8 to 12 GHz) is analyzed on different substrate
materials like Rogers RT/duroid 5880, Rogers RT/duroid 5870, Neltec NX9240, Arlon DiClad 522,
and FR4_epoxy. The design is analyzed by Finite Element Method (FEM) based HFSSTM EM
simulator software. Return loss, VSWR plot, smith chart and radiation pattern plots are observed and
plotted for all antennas.
Index Terms--Rectangular Patch, Substrate Materials, Microstrip Antennas, Return Loss,
VSWR.
INTRODUCTION
Microstrip patch antennas (MSAs) have attractive features of low profile, light weight and easy
fabrication process. The reductions in size and bandwidth enhancement are some major design
considerations for practical applications of microstrip antennas [1]. The developing markets like
personal communication systems (PCS), mobile satellite communications and intelligent vehicle
highway systems (IVHS) and many other suggest that the demand for microstrip antennas and arrays
will increase even further [2]. Microstrip patch antenna (MSA) consist of radiating or conducting patch
printed on one side of dielectric substrate material with ground plane on other side [3].There are so
many types of radiating patch configuration are available such as the rectangular or square patch,
triangular, circular disc, ellipse ,annular ring and pentagon [4]. Rectangular microstrip patch is much
attracted due to their simple structure as it one of the simplest patch configuration. There are numerous
substrates are available that can be used for the design of microstrip antennas, and their dielectric
constants are usually in the range of 2.1 r 25 [5-6]. A radiating patch is very thin (t
0
, where
0
is the free-space wavelength) metallic strip. The patch is generally made of conducting material e.g.
copper. The substrate has thickness h (h o, usually 0.003o h 0.05o, where o is free space
wavelength) [7].
In this paper rectangular microstrip patch antenna (RMSA) is analyzed on different dielectric
substrate (or laminates) materials operating in X-band.
ANTENNA DESIGN
The rectangular patch is the most widely used patch configuration. It can be analyze using both the
transmission-line and cavity models, which are most accurate for thin substrates [8]. The figure 1 shows
geometry of proposed antenna.
For rectangular patch antenna practical approximate relation for the normalized extension of the length
is given by [9]
= 0.412
(
+ 0.3) (
+ 0.264)
(
- 0.258) (
+ 0.8)
(1)
Analysis and Design of Rectangular Microstrip Patch antenna on
Different Substrate Materials in X-Band
Ankit V. Ponkia
Asst. Prof. Dept. of Electronics Communication Engineering, Shantilal Shah Government Engineering
College, Sidsar Campus, Bhavnagar-340460, Gujarat, India

Where width-to-height ratio,
1 (2)
Here effective dielectric constant
is given by [10],
=
+1
2
+
-1
2
[1 +
12
]
-1/2
(3)
Figure 1: Geometry of antenna
Effective length of the patch is now given by,
= + 2 (4)
For the dominant
010
mode, the resonant frequency of the rectangular microstrip antenna is function
of its actual length L which is given by,
()
010
=
2
(5)
Where
speed of light. Equation (5) does not account for fringing so to include edge effects and
considering fringing equation (5) can be written as,
()
010
=
1
2
0
0
=
1
2( + 2)
0
0
(6)

Design Procedure Steps:
1.
Determine practical width of patch radiator, which is given by [3]
=
1
2
1
2
+1
=
2
2
+1
(7)
2.
Determine effective dielectric constant
reff
from equation (3)
3.
Determine the extension of the patch length
L using equation (1)
4.
Finally, calculate actual length L by solving equation (6). L is given by,
=
1
2
0
0
- 2 (8)
The geometry of rectangular microstrip antenna is shown in figure 1.The rectangular patch is mounted
on different substrates materials like Rogers RT/duroid 5880, Rogers RT/duroid 5870, Neltec NX9240,
Arlon DiClad 522, and FR4_epoxy. The table 1 shows substrate materials with dielectric constant
.Excitation to patch conductor was given using wave port. The coaxial probe feeding technique is used.
The substrate with dimension 36.5 mm x 30.5 mm and height of 1.59 mm is used. The patch dimension
is 11.86 mm x 9.06 mm for Rogers RT/duroid 5880.All values for different substrate materials are
calculated using equation that are described in above discussion. The feed location is kept variable.
SIMULATION RESULTS
The Simulation results of proposed antennas are performed by HFSSTM. HFSSTM stands for High
Frequency Structure Simulator. HFSSTM is a high-performance full- wave electromagnetic (EM) field
simulator for arbitrary 3D volumetric passive device modeling that takes advantage of the familiar
Microsoft Windows Graphical User Interface (GUI).
It integrates simulation, visualization, solid modeling, and automation in an easy-to-learn environment
where solutions to your 3D EM problems are quickly and accurately obtained. Ansoft HFSSTM
employs the Finite Element Method (FEM), adaptive meshing, and brilliant graphics to give you
unparalleled performance and insight to all of your 3D EM problems. Ansoft HFSSTM can be used to
calculate parameters such as S-Parameters, Resonant Frequency, and Fields [11].
(a)
5.00
6.00
7.00
8.00
9.00
10.00
11.00
12.00
Freq [GHz]
-45.00
-40.00
-35.00
-30.00
-25.00
-20.00
-15.00
-10.00
-5.00
0.00
d
B(S
(W
a
ve
Po
rt
1
,W
a
ve
Po
rt
1
))
Ansoft Corporation
HFSSDesign1
Return Loss (dB) _1
m 1
m 2
m 3
Curve Info
dB(S(WavePort1,WavePort1
Setup1 : Sw eep1
Name
X
Y
m1
9.7400
-41.2550
m2
9.4000
-10.1584
m3
10.1000
-10.0746
Name
Delta(X)
Delta(Y)
Slope(Y)
InvSlope(Y)
d(
m2
,
m3
)
0.7000
0.0838
0.1196
8.3580

(b)
(c)
(d)
5.00
6.00
7.00
8.00
9.00
10.00
11.00
12.00
Freq [GHz]
-40.00
-35.00
-30.00
-25.00
-20.00
-15.00
-10.00
-5.00
0.00
d
B(S
(W
a
ve
Po
rt
1
,W
a
ve
Po
rt
1
))
Ansoft Corporation
HFSSDesign1
Return Loss (dB)_2
m 1
m 2
m 3
Curve Info
dB(S(WavePort1,WavePort1))
Setup1 : Sw eep1
Name
X
Y
m1
9.4600
-36.2880
m2
9.1200
-9.7882
m3
9.8000
-10.1587
Name
Delta(X)
Delta(Y)
Slope(Y)
InvSlope(Y)
d(
m2
,
m3
)
0.6800
-0.3705
-0.5449
-1.8354
5.00
6.00
7.00
8.00
9.00
10.00
11.00
12.00
Freq [GHz]
-35.00
-30.00
-25.00
-20.00
-15.00
-10.00
-5.00
0.00
d
B(S
(W
a
ve
Po
rt
1
,W
a
ve
Po
rt
1
))
Ansoft Corporation
HFSSDesign1
Return Loss (dB) _3
m 1
m 2
m 3
Curve Info
dB(S(WavePort1,WavePort1))
Setup1 : Sw eep1
Name
X
Y
m1
9.3600
-32.6605
m2
9.0400
-10.3001
m3
9.6800
-10.2525
Name
Delta(X)
Delta(Y)
Slope(Y)
InvSlope(Y)
d(
m2
,
m3
)
0.6400
0.0476
0.0743
13.4571
5.00
6.00
7.00
8.00
9.00
10.00
11.00
12.00
Freq [GHz]
-30.00
-25.00
-20.00
-15.00
-10.00
-5.00
0.00
d
B(S
(W
a
ve
Po
rt
1
,W
a
ve
Po
rt
1
))
Ansoft Corporation
HFSSDesign1
Return Loss (dB) _ 4
m 1
m 2
m 3
Curve Info
dB(S(WavePort1,WavePort1))
Setup1 : Sw eep1
Name
X
Y
m1
9.1400
-27.4108
m2
8.8400
-10.0431
m3
9.4800
-9.8459
Name
Delta(X)
Delta(Y)
Slope(Y)
InvSlope(Y)
d(
m2
,
m3
)
0.6400
0.1972
0.3081
3.2457

(e)
Figure 2: Return loss vs. Frequency plots of RMSA with (a) Rogers RT/duroid 5880 (b) Rogers
RT/duroid 5870 (c) Neltec NX9240 (d) Arlon DiClad 522 (e) FR4_epoxy
(a)
(b)
5.00
6.00
7.00
8.00
9.00
10.00
11.00
12.00
Freq [GHz]
-25.00
-20.00
-15.00
-10.00
-5.00
0.00
d
B(S
(W
a
ve
Po
rt
1
,W
a
ve
Po
rt
1
))
Ansoft Corporation
HFSSDesign1
Return Loss (dB) _ 5
m 1
m 2
m 3
Curve Info
dB(S(WavePort1,WavePort1))
Setup1 : Sw eep1
Name
X
Y
m1
10.9800
-23.9565
m2
10.7200
-9.8717
m3
11.2600
-9.9348
Name
Delta(X)
Delta(Y)
Slope(Y)
InvSlope(Y)
d(
m2
,
m3
)
0.5400
-0.0631
-0.1168
-8.5601
5.00
6.00
7.00
8.00
9.00
10.00
11.00
12.00
Freq [GHz]
0.00
10.00
20.00
30.00
40.00
50.00
60.00
70.00
80.00
VS
W
R
(W
a
ve
Po
rt
1
)
Ansoft Corporation
HFSSDesign1
VSWR Plot _1
m 1
Curve Info
VSWR(WavePort1
Setup1 : Sw eep1
Name
X
Y
m1
9.8000
1.1278
5.00
6.00
7.00
8.00
9.00
10.00
11.00
12.00
Freq [GHz]
0.00
10.00
20.00
30.00
40.00
50.00
60.00
70.00
80.00
VS
W
R
(W
a
ve
Po
rt
1
)
Ansoft Corporation
HFSSDesign1
VSWR Plot 2
m 1
Curve Info
VSWR(WavePort1)
Setup1 : Sw eep1
Name
X
Y
m1
9.4600
1.0311
Excerpt out of 17 pages

Details

Title
Analysis and design of rectangular microstrip patch antenna on different substrate materials in X-Band
Subtitle
Antenna and wave propagation
Course
Electronics and Communication Engineering
Grade
10.0
Author
Year
2014
Pages
17
Catalog Number
V270364
ISBN (eBook)
9783656616849
ISBN (Book)
9783656616801
File size
1781 KB
Language
English
Tags
Antenna and Wave Propagation, Communication, Antenna Design, Microstrip
Quote paper
Ankit Ponkia (Author), 2014, Analysis and design of rectangular microstrip patch antenna on different substrate materials in X-Band, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/270364

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