Electricity and Energy Problems with Pakistan. Causes, Consequences and Sustainable Solutions

Term Paper, 2013

20 Pages, Grade: A


Table of Contents

1. Introduction

2. Pakistan’s Energy Sector
2.1 Energy Demand and Supply

3. Pakistan Energy Resources
3.1 Non- Renewable Energy Resources
3.2 Renewable Energy Resources

4. Causes: How Did We Get Here

5. Consequences of the Energy Crisis

6. Sustainable Solutions to the Energy Crisis

7. Long Term Measures(Shifting to Altenate Sources)

8. Short Term Measures

9. Bibliography

10. A Report by Express Tribune


Energy is considered to be the life line of an economy. It is a most vital instrument of the socio-economic development of a country. Energy is a very important factor in the production process. Energy is pivotal in running machinery in factories and industrial units, for lighting our cities and powering our vehicles etc.

There has been enormous increase in the demand of energy due to the massive industrialization and rapid population growth in comparison to the enhancement in the supply of energy production. Supply of energy is, therefore, far less than the actual demand, resultantly crisis has emerged. An energy crisis can be defined as any great bottleneck (or price rise) in the supply of energy resources to an economy. With the evolution of civilizations, the human demand for energy has continuously increased. At present , the key factor which drives the growth in energy demand include increasing human population, modernization and urbanization .According to the united nations , the world population 6.5 billion in 2005 is to grow to 9.1 billion by 2050 and most of the population growth is expected to place in the developing world Asia and Africa.(Dinner, 1999). Poverty, hunger, disease, illiteracy and environmental degradation are the most important challenges faced by the world. Poor and inadequate access to secure an affordable means of energy in one of the crucial factors behind these issues. Electricity for example is vital for providing basic social services such as education and health, water supply and purification, sanitation, and refrigeration of essential medicines. Electricity is of course, very helpful in supporting a wide range of income generation opportunities.

The leading countries in the world in terms of population without access to electricity include India, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Nigeria, Pakistan, Congo, Ethiopia, Myanmar, Tanzania, and Kenya. With the growing world population and people's aspiration for improved life a central and collective global issue in the new century is to sustain socio-economic growth within the constraints of the earth’s limited natural resource along with preserving the environment.

Pakistan’s Energy Sector

Pakistan’s energy infrastructure is not well developed, rather it is considered to be underdeveloped and poorly managed. Currently the country is facing severe energy crisis. Despite of strong economic growth and rising energy demand during past decade, no serious efforts have been made to install new capacity of generation. Moreover, rapid demand growth, transmission losses due to out-dated infrastructure, power theft, and seasonal reductions in the availability of hydropower have worsened the situation. Consequently, the demand exceeds supply and hence load-shedding is a common phenomenon through power shutdown.

Energy Supply and Demand:

For years, the matter of balancing Pakistan's supply against the demand for electricity has remained a largely unresolved matter. Pakistan faces a significant challenge in revamping its network responsible for the supply of electricity

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At present, the power supply across the country is 9,500 MW with demand around 15,000 MW, causing the 5300 MW shortfall approximately.

Sources of Energy in Pakistan

Non-renewable resources (Fossil fuels): [Limited – Expensive]

Non-renewable resources are primarily fossil fuels emanating from remains/decomposition of animals and plants deposited deep into the earth crust and converted into oil and gas. These resources cannot be replenished. There are three main types of fossil fuels: coal, petroleum, natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG).

- Petroleum Products
- Natural Gas
- Coal

Renewable Energy Resources: (Unlimited – sustainable – clean)

Renewable energy resources are those, which are naturally replenished and come from resources such as water, sunlight, wind, rain, tides, and geothermal heat;


Hydro power is generated by using electricity generators to extract energy from moving water. Pakistan is having rich resource of energy in hydal power; however, only 34 % of total electricity generation is coming from hydro power. Currently we are having 6555 MW against the potential of 41000 to 45000 MW.

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Causes: How Did We Get Here

Pakistan’s power disaster traces its origins to pursuing different reasons:

Growing Power Demand:

Over the years there is larger demand of power because of;

- Increase in the Population
- Enhancement in the Lifestyle
- Industrial and Agricultural Growth
- Greater Transportation Needs

Lack of Proactive and Integrated Planning for Production of Energy:

Pakistan has had wider potentials to tap power, though, due to lack of each integrated/proactive arranging, extremely less number of manipulation producing plant were installed to encounter innovative demands. Resultantly, above the years, the gap amid power demand and supply drastically produced and nowadays opposing demand of 20000 MW, we are possessing concerning 11500 MW.

Imbalanced Energy Mix:

Energy blend in Pakistan is quite imbalance in comparison to other countries, alongside larger reliance on non-renewable resources of gas (43.7 %) and oil (29 % - bulk of that is imported). Benefits of petroleum products/crude oil fluctuate and in present Afro-Arab governmental disaster, the oil benefits are probable to raise manifold altering oil benefits in Pakistan. A rational power blend arranging must to be industrialized providing larger dependency to renewable (hydel power), original (coal) and alternative power resources (wind and solar energy).

Non-utilization of enormous indigenous energy resources:

Thar Coal:

Pakistan possesses one of the biggest coal fields in Thar, possessing reserves of extra than 175 billion tones that exceeds equivalent oil reserves of Saudi Arabia, Iran etc. In supplement to manipulation creation, this coal can be utilized for chemical and fertilizer production. Moreover, occupation endowed to workforce can be instrumental in rising GDP and commercial prosperity to countless families


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Electricity and Energy Problems with Pakistan. Causes, Consequences and Sustainable Solutions
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electricity, energy, problems, pakistan, causes, consequences, sustainable, solutions
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Tashif Ahmad (Author), 2013, Electricity and Energy Problems with Pakistan. Causes, Consequences and Sustainable Solutions, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/274407


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