Conservation Plan of Hindon River In Between Ghaziabad and Delhi


Research Paper (undergraduate), 2014
12 Pages

Excerpt

Introduction

The Hindon River, historically known as the Harnandi River, has been a major source of water to the highly populated and predominantly rural population of Western Uttar Pradesh. The river was once considered to be so clean that its water was believed to cure the Kaali Khansi (bad cough). However, now the water quality of the river Hindon has been drastically deteriorated due to discharge of industrial/domestic sewage and application of chemicals/pesticides in agriculture during past years. The heavy loading of industrial effluent discharge directly into the Hindon River places an intolerable burden on the river’s natural ability to assimilate pollutants (Janhit Foundation, 2007). The main sources of pollution in River Hindon include municipal and industrial (sugar, pulp and paper, distilleries etc.) wastes from Saharanpur, Muzaffarnagar and Ghaziabad urban areas. The water quality of the River Hindon gets further deteriorated due to confluence of River Kali and River Krishni as these rivers receive toxic effluents from different industries. The river is highly influenced due to heavy metals, pesticides, which enter the river system, by direct discharges of municipal and industrial effluents and surface runoff. These toxic pollutants will ultimately reach the ground water and will enter in the food chain posing a threat to human health because of their carcinogenic nature. A number of studies regarding pollution aspects of river Hindon and its tributaries have been carried out by different workers (Verma and Mathur, 1971; Verma and Dalela, 1975; Verma et al., 1980; Patel et al., 1985; Singhal et al., 1987; Joshi et al., 1987; Seth, 1991; Seth and Singhal, 1994; Khare, 1994; Kumar, 1994; Lokesh, 1996; Jain, 1996, 2000; Kumar, 1997; Jain and Ali, 2000; Jain and Ram, 1997a, 1997b; Jain and Sharma, 2001, 2002, 2006; Jain et al., 1997, 1998a, 1998b, 2002, 2003, 2004a, 2004b, 2005, 2007; Sharma, 2001; Sharma et al., 2009a, 2009b; Sharma et al., 2010).

STUDY AREA

The river Hindon is among one of the important rivers in western Uttar Pradesh (India) having a basin area of about 7000 km2 (Fig. 1). The study area is a part of Indo-gangetic Plains, composed of Pleistocene and sub recent alluvium. The catchment area of the river lies between latitude 28o 30’ to 30o 15’ N and longitude 77o 20’ to 77o 50’ E. The main sources of pollution in river Hindon include municipal wastes from Saharanpur, Muzaffarnagar, Ghaziabad and Gautam Budh Nagar urban areas and industrial effluents of sugar, pulp and paper, distilleries and other miscellaneous industries through tributaries as well as direct outfalls. In summer months the river is completely dry from its origin upto Saharanpur town.

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Fig. 1: Drainage Map of River Hindon. (Source: Arc GIS Image)

The effluents of Nagdev nala and Star Paper Millat Saharanpur generate folw of water in river.The municipal wastewater generated from Saharanpur city is discharged to Hindon River through Dhamola nala.Yhe municipal wastewater from Budhana town also joins the river in this stretch.In Ghaziabad District,downstream of Khera village,major part of the river flow is diverted to Hindon cut canal at Mohan Nagar which meets River Yamuna upstream of Okhala barrage.Thereafter Hindon River receives wastewater through Dasna drain near Bisrakh.This drain carries both municipal and industrial wastes.River Hindon joins Yamuna River at village Tilwara.The study area has been taken in-between Ghaziabad and Noida stretch of River Hindon.

WATER QUALITY SAMPLING

Table 1: Sampling Locations

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Figure 2 Shows the locations of sampling sites in between Ghaziabad and Delhi stretch of Hindon River. S denotes the River sampling locations.

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Fig 2 : Sampling locations in the study stretch of Hindon River (Source : Arc GIS Image)

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Details

Title
Conservation Plan of Hindon River In Between Ghaziabad and Delhi
Course
Env.
Authors
Year
2014
Pages
12
Catalog Number
V275092
ISBN (eBook)
9783656674009
ISBN (Book)
9783656673989
File size
636 KB
Language
English
Tags
conservation, plan, hindon, river, between, ghaziabad, delhi
Quote paper
Prabhakar Shukla (Author)Mukesh Kumar Singhal (Author), 2014, Conservation Plan of Hindon River In Between Ghaziabad and Delhi, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/275092

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