Table of Contents
2. SURVEY OF TECHNOLOGIES
3. REQUIREMENTS AND ANALYSIS
4. SYSTEM DESIGN
5. IMPLEMENTATION AND TESTING
6. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
Four thousand years ago the medical knowledge of Indian sub continent was termed as ayurveda. Ayurveda remains an important system of medicine and drug therapy in India. In India, around 20,000 medicinal and herbal plants have been recorded. Hardly 7000 plants are being used for curing different diseases. Many of the pharmaceutical industries depend on these plant products.
Plant derived medicines have been the first line of defense in maintaining health and combating diseases. According to a WHO estimate, about 80% of the world population relies on traditional systems of medicines for primary health care, where plants form the dominant component over other resources .
Chemical principles from natural sources have become much simpler and have contributed to the development of new drugs from medicinal plants. The degradation of natural resources i.e. herbal products is a major threat to medicinal plants in India . There are various plant species in medicinal use which we come across in our daily life, and few of them with unknown usage. Scientists from past knew a lot about these plants and their importance.
A medicinal herb is different from botanical term “herb”. It refers to any plants used for medicinal purposes. For example, a medicinal herb can be a real herbal plant, a shrub, other woody plant, or a fungus. Commonly used parts are seeds, berries, leaves, barks, roots, fruits, or a mushroom, which may be considered as "herbs" in medicinal use. Many of the modern medicines are produced indirectly from medicinal plants. Plants are directly used as medicines by a majority of cultures around the world, for example Indian medicine and Chinese medicine. Many food crops have medicinal effects, for example garlic.
In this concern, a database has been designed for medicinal/ herbal plants with the following objectives:
1. Collection of medicinal data.
2. Web designing for medicinal plants using HTML/SQL/PHP.
3. Screening of medicinal plants based on diseases
4. Screening based on family.
5. Screening of herbs based on their vernacular names.
1.3 Purpose, Scope and Applicability
The most appropriate way to gain knowledge about them and their usage can be resolved by creating a database from the publications in Ayurveda, papers and books on botany. A database on medicinal plants and their treatment of different disorders with clear linkage of each species is included along with the information about all the medicinal plants and herbs found in and around Andhra Pradesh with their scientific names, common names, pictures and their therapeutic properties, selection of these herbs as a medicine etc.
The aim of the present research is to understand the knowledge of plants used in medicines, to preserve this traditional heritage, to rationalize the usage and can easily identify the rare and extinct plants for the conservation.
The main application is to fine medicinal plant/any data in the database. The following are the tools used in the present application.
SQL is a tool for organizing, managing, and retrieving data stored by a computer database. The acronym SQL is an abbreviation for Structured Query Language. For historical reasons, SQL is usually pronounced “sequel,” but the alternate pronunciation “S.Q.L.” is also used. As the name implies, SQL is a computer language that you use to interact with a database. In fact, SQL works with one specific type of database, called a relational database.
The name Structured Query Language is actually somewhat of a misnomer. First of all, SQL is far more than a query tool, although that was its original purpose, and retrieving data is still one of its most important functions.
SQL is used to control all of the functions that a DBMS provides for its users, including:
- Data definition. SQL lets a user define the structure and organization of the stored data and relationships among the stored data items.
- Data retrieval. SQL allows a user or an application program to retrieve stored data from the database and use it.
- Data manipulation. SQL allows a user or an application program to update the database by adding new data, removing old data, and modifying previously stored data.
- Access control. SQL can be used to restrict a user’s ability to retrieve, add, and modify data, protecting stored data against unauthorized access.
- Data sharing. SQL is used to coordinate data sharing by concurrent users, ensuring that they do not interfere with one another.
- Data integrity. SQL defines integrity constraints in the database, protecting it from corruption due to inconsistent updates or system failures.
- SQL is a client/server language. Personal computer programs use SQL to communicate over a network with database servers that store shared data. This client/server architecture has become very popular for enterprise‐class applications.
- SQL is an Internet data access language . Internet web servers that interact with corporate data and Internet applications servers all use SQL as a standard language for accessing corporate databases.
SQL is thus a comprehensive language for controlling and interacting with a database management system.
HTML stands for H yper T ext M arkup L anguage. HTML is a language for describing web pages.
HTML is not a programming language, it is a markup language. A markup language is a set of markup tags. HTML uses markup tags to describe web pages
Creating an HTML document is easy. To begin coding we just need a simple text editor.
HTML has not been around for many years. November 1990 marks the day of the first web page and back then there were little to no HTML standards to be followed. A group called the World Wide Web Consortium was then formed and have since set the standards that are widely accepted
Tag - Used to specify ("mark- up") regions of HTML documents for the web browser to interpret. Tags look like this: <tag>
Element - A complete tag, having an opening <tag> and a closing </tag>.
Attribute - Used to modify the value of the HTML element. Elements will often have multiple attributes. HTML documents contain HTML tags and plain text
HTML markup tags are usually called HTML tags
- HTML tags are keywords surrounded by angle brackets like <html>
- HTML tags normally come in pairs like <b> and </b>
- The first tag in a pair is the start tag, the second tag is the end tag
- Start and end tags are also called opening tags and closing tags
Web pages have many uses. Here are some important facts about why web pages are so useful.
- A cheap and easy way to spread information to a large audience.
- Another medium to market your business.
- To know about personal details.
PHP stands for PHP Hypertext Preprocessor.
PHP is an HTML- embedded scripting language. Much of its syntax is borrowed from C, Java and Perl with a couple of unique PHP- specific features thrown in. The goal of the language is to allow web developers to write dynamically generated pages quickly."Another way to think of PHP is a powerful, behind the scenes scripting language that your visitors won't see!
When someone visits PHP webpage, the web server processes the PHP code. It then sees which parts it needs to show to visitors(content and pictures) and hides the other stuff , then translates your PHP into HTML. After the translation into HTML, it sends the webpage to the visitor's web browser.
PHP will allow to: Reduce the time to create large websites and Creates a customized user experience for visitors based on information that you have gathered from them.
126.96.36.199 WAMP SERVER
For the creation of a database all that we need is a platform to work on SQL, HTML and PHP. One such platform to build and run websites in offline mode is WampServer. This Wamp server’s functions can manage our MySQL and PHP services. WampServer is a Windows web development environment. It allows us to create web applications with not only PHP and a MySQL database, but also with Apache 2. PHPMyAdmin is a feature of wamp, where we can create our sql tables. This database can be further linked up with the PHP code and can be displayed as the webpage with our query retrieved.
The main achievement is to construct the medicinal plant data that is useful for the human community.
1.5 Organization of report
The project work contains following chapters
CHAPTER 2 SURVEY OF TECHNOLOGIES
Asia is the largest continent and has 60% of the world’s population. It has abundant medicinal and aromatic plant species, well documented traditional knowledge, a long- standing practice of traditional medicine, and the potential for social and economic development of medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs). Asia is one of the largest biodiversity regions in the world, containing some of the richest countries in plant resources. The continent has diverse plant flora but species richness is concentrated mainly in tropical and subtropical regions. Six of the world’s 18 biodiversity hot spots, namely eastern Himalaya, North Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Philippines and the Western Ghats of South India, lie in Asia .
The study of medicinal plants is being revived again. Although they have been used for millennia by tribal and ethnic communities throughout the world, only in recent years medicinal plants have attracted global interest as they constitute a rich treasure trove of cultural information and are sources of natural products, which provide health security to millions in rural communities. In recent years there has been renewed interest in natural medicines that are obtained from plant parts or plant extracts. Nearly 40 percent or more of the pharmaceuticals currently used in western countries are derived or at least partially derived from natural sources . Medicinal plants are considered as source of various alkaloids and other chemical substances essential for mankind .
Medicinal plants used to treat hypoglycemic or hyperglycemic conditions are of considerable interest for ethno- botanical community as they are recognized to contain valuable medicinal properties in different parts of the plant and a number of plants have shown varying degree of hypoglycemic and anti- hyperglycemic activity . The hypoglycemic effect of several plants used as anti- diabetic remedies has been confirmed, and the mechanisms of hypoglycemic activity of these plants are being studied .
The treatment of diabetes with synthetic drugs is generally not preferred because of its high cost and the range of side effects caused. Hence development of traditional or alternative medicine is needed. Herbal drugs constitute an important part of traditional medicine and literature shows that there are more than 400 plant species showing anti- diabetic activity .
In most part of the world, the information on medicinal plants has generally been handed down from generation to generation only by means of folklore, which may disappear over a period of time. For effective conservation of phyto- diversity and the successful documentation of medicinal plants, the systematic inventory of medicinal plants is necessary.
The relevant data (detailed description of medicinal herbs, therapeutic uses) on such plants in organized and easy to understand format, with illustrations, is available in the database. The integrated database with interactive analytical and visualization tools, having multiple editing options, allows users to investigate many questions without requiring time- consuming inferences from the literature or multiple data sets. The activity prediction for phyto- chemicals forms an important part of the work. The NeMedPlant database would be useful for prediction of activities of natural as well as synthetic products and identifying drug leads having low toxicity and high bioavailability .
Medicinal plants documented in the literature from thick vegetations of the world are routinely used for high throughput screening in small molecular drug discovery. A large number of such plants are known to be recognized in a discrete manner. Therefore, it is important to store information related to medicinal and aromatic plants of JK in a database. This will help in the use and exploitation of the plant materials for drug discovery. Some of the plants available in this region are also known to have aromatic value. Here, we describe the development and use of a database containing information on medicinal and aromatic plants from Jammu Kashmir .
The Floral Reflectance Database (FReD) has been developed to make an extensive collection of spectral reflectance data for flower species collected from all over the world available to researchers. These could, for example, be used in modelling interactions between pollinator vision and plant signals, or analyses of flower colors’ in various habitats. The database contains functions for calculating flower colour loci according to widely- used models of bee colour space, reflectance graphs of the spectra and an option to search for flowers with similar colors’ in bee colour space.
Herbal drug development includes various steps, starting from a passport data on raw materials, correct identification, pharmacognostic and chemical quality standardization, safety and preclinical pharmacology, clinical pharmacology and randomized, controlled clinical trials. Addressing standardization is vital and needs broader consideration. Ayurvedic medicine was developed at times of limited access to technologically variable norms of standardization. The dynamic process of evolution could alter and affect the identity and structure of natural materials. For commercialization, correct identification and supply of raw material to avoid adulteration has become a challenge.
Additionally, some botanical species might have been extinct. Lastly, the properties of botanicals as recorded in classics may have undergone change due to time and environmental factors. Standardization of ayurvedic botanicals and medicines is required, although one cannot readily apply the typical modern pharmaceutical pharmacopoeial standards. The concept of active markers in the process of standardization needs a flexible approach in favour of the complex nature of these materials .
The basis of human personality as given in ancient Hindu Ayurvedan literature is reviewed and interpreted in the light of current knowledge and understanding. The structure of mind expounded in Sankhyan philosophy is explained and its parallelism with the Freudian approach is brought out. The formative influences in the development of the mental constitution of an individual are described. An attempt is made to demonstrate close similarity between Ayurvedan and Lewin's field (Gestalt) theories. Significance of Tridosh (Vat, Pitta and Kaf), by vitiating the chemical balance, as estiological factors of mental illness is described. Sixteen presonality types and their correspondence with 16 types of mental disorders are mentioned .
‘Impeding crude drug research, no less than performing it, has ethical consequences. Not to act is to act.’ As long as no serious attempt is made to develop appropriate methods for assessing the therapeutic actions of whole medicinal plants and of preparations made from them, any refusal to accept them as therapeutic agents may be regarded as unscientific. This attitude also goes against the highest dictum of medical practice - Salus aegroti suprema lex . I t deprives the Physician of existing means for helping mankind .
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- Arbeit zitieren
- Dr. Kaladhar DSVGK (Autor)M. A. Prasad (Autor)S Sri Krishna Keerthi (Autor), 2014, AyurMedBase. An Ayurvedic Medicinal Database for Traditional and Ayurvedic Medicinal Systems, München, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/280031