Assessing the environmental health hazards and housing development in the slums of Abuja, Fct.

Master's Thesis, 2014

210 Pages, Grade: A






List of tables

List of figures

1.2 Statement of the Problem-
1.3 The Aim/Objectives
1.3.1 Objectives
1.4 Research Question
1.5 Hypotheses Formulation
1.6 Significance of the Study-
1.7 Scope
1.8 Limitations

2.1 Human Settlement Theory
2.1.1 Locational Theory
2.1.2 Central Place Theory
2.1.3 Housing Development in a Slum-
2.2 Urbanization Theory-
2.2.1 Environmental Hazard and Slum House Development
2.2.2 Nature of Developed Houses in Slums
2.3 Sector Theory
2.3.1 Waste and Pollution in a Slum
2.4 Population Theory
2.4.1 Principle of Population
2.4.2 Slum and Overpopulation
2.5 Primacy Theory
2.5.1 Cumulative Causation-
2.5.2 The Devastating Environmental Hazards in Slum
2.6 Definition of Terms

3.1 Slum Development in 3rd World Countries, Causes, Effect and Way Out-
3.2 The Improvement of Slums and Informal Settlements
3.3 Reducing the Environmental Health Risk of Slum Dwellers in a Developing
3.4 The Nature of a Slum-
3.5 Environmental Impact in a Slum
3.6 Environmental Sanitation in a Slum
3.7 Research Gap-

4.1 Historical Background
4.2 Location-
4.3 Population
4.4 Physiographic Characteristic
4.4.1 Climate
4.4.2 Topographic and Geological Classification
4.4.3 Flora and Fauna
4.4.4 Socio- Economic Activities

5.1 Sampling Procedure
5.2 Source of Data Collection -
5.2.1 Secondary Source of Data Collection
a) Instrumentation
b) Written Source Materials-
5.2.2 Primary Source of Data Collection
a) Participant Observation
b) Questionnaire
c) Oral Interview
d) Laboratory Experiment
i) Heavy Metal Test in the Soil-
ii) Principle
iii) Bacteriological Analysis of Borehole and Well Water
A) Presumptive Coliform Count-
B) Method
C) For Well Water
D) Step 3
E) The Plate Count
F) Bore Water Sample
G) Dilution Factor
H) Result for Differential Identification of the Organism Isolated
I) Test
J) Method
K) The Out Come-
L) Method-
M) Method
N) Interpretation of the Signs Used-
O) Biochemistry, Morphology and Microscopy of Each Microorganism
P) The Organism Isolate Form -
Q) Proteus Spp
R) Salmonella Spp
S) For the Demonstration of Water Production
5.3 Data Treatment Technique

6.1 Data Presentation
6.1.1 Sex of the Respondent-
6.1.2 Marital Status of the Respondents in the Study Area
6.1.3: Respondents Qualification in the Study Area
6.1.4: Categories of Worker in the Study Area
6.1.5 Activities of the Respondent in the Study Area
6.1.6 Waste Disposal Method of the Respondents in the Study Area-
6.1.7 Types of Houses occupied by the Respondents in the Study Area-
6.1.8 Types of Soak Away pit in Respondents House
6.1.9 Sources of Drinking Water in the Study Area -
6.1.10: Indicators of Environmental Health Hazard and Housing Development-
6.1.11: Health Devastating Diseases and Ramshackle Developed Houses
6.1.12 Laboratory Analysis
6.1.13 Soil Sample Test
6.2 Data Analysis
6.2.1 Result of the Indicator of Environmental Health Hazards and Housing Development-
6.2.2 Result of the Occurrence of Health Devastating Diseases and Ramshackle Developed Houses
6.2.3 Result of the Differences in the Indicators of Environmental Health Hazards among the Slum Areas of Abuja
A) Mercury
B) Cadmium
C Arsenic
D Lead
E Chromium
6.2.4 Test of Hypothesis-
A) Hypothesis I
B) Hypothesis II
C) Hypothesis III

7.1 Summary
7.2 Conclusion-
7.3 Recommendation
7.3.1 Slum Upgrading Programmes -
A) Components of a Slum Upgrading Programme-
i) Basic Infrastructure and Urban Services
ii) Social Network
iii) Environmental Aspects
iv) Participation
7.3.2 Main Actors
i) Federal Government
ii) Private Sector
iii) NGOS and CDAS
iv) International Agencies
7.3.3 Scaling Up
i) Giving Answers at a Larger Scale
ii) From the Local to The National Level
iii) Institutionalizing-
iv) Multiscalar and Multisectorial


TABLE 5.1.1: Size of the Slums to Be Sampled

TABLE 5.1.2: Showing the Sample Framework of the Study Area

TABLE 5.1.3: Showing the Percentage of Questionnaire to be distributed

TABLE 5.2.2 Macroscopic Samples

TABLE 6.1.1: Sex Distribution of the Respondent

TABLE 6.1.2: Marital Status of the Respondents

TABLE 6.1.3: Respondents Qualification

TABLE 6.1.4: Categories of Worker

TABLE 6.1.5: Occupation of the Respondents

Table 6.1.6: Waste Disposal Method of the Respondents

TABLE 6.1.7: Types of Houses Built By the Respondents

TABLE 6.1.8: Types of Soak Away pit in Respondents House

TABLE 6.1.9: Sources of Drinking Water in the Study Area

TABLE 6.1.10: Indicators of Environmental Health Hazard and Housing Development

TABLE 6.1.11: Health Devastating Diseases and Ramshackle Developed Houses

TABLE 6.1.12: Microorganism and Diseases They Cause

TABLE 6.1.13 Concentration of Heavy Metal in the Soil

TABLE 6.2.1: Factor Loading of the Indicators of Environmental Health Hazard and Housing Development

TABLE 6.2.2: Correlation Matrix Variable Result and Significant Level on Indicator of Environmental Health Hazards and Housing Development

TABLE 6.2.3: Factor Loading of the Occurrence of Health Devastating Diseases and Ramshackle Developed Houses

TABLE 6.2.4: Correlation Matrix Variable Result and Significant Level on The Occurrence of Health Devastating Diseases and Ramshackle Developed Houses

TABLE 6.2.5: Significant Difference of Heavy Metal in the Soil


Fig 1.1 Location of the 30th Biggest Mega Slums in the World

Fig 4.2.1 Map of Abuja, the Study Area, With its Area Councils Containing the Worst Health Devastating Slums-

Fig 4.2.2 Map of Nigeria Showing Abuja, FCT; the Study Area

Fig 6.1.1: Sex Distribution of the Respondents

Fig 6.1.2: Marital Status of the Respondents

Fig: 6.1.3: Respondents Qualification

Fig 6.1.4: Categories of Workers

Fig 6.1.5: Occupation of the Respondents

Fig 6.1.6: Waste Disposal Method of the Respondents-

Fig 6.1.7: Table: Types of Houses Occupied by the Respondent

Fig 6.1.8: Types of Soak Away In Respondents House

Fig 6.1.9: Sources of Drinking Water


PLATE 5.2.2: Modern Atomic Absorption Spectrometers





According to Sule (2004), one serious problem of over urbanization and environmental quality had been revealed by the index and chronic housing deficit to provide adequate accommodation for it’s over populated dwellers. Shortage of housing accommodation has become an enduring feature of the urbanization process generally on the globe and cities of the developing countries in particular. The earth, our spaceship is a habitat for 7 billion people with over one billion people around the world living in slums. Going by these anomalies, it is estimated that by 2030 the world’s slum population could rise to two billion if no action is taken. (United Nation Center for human settlement – UNIHABITAT, 2011). For the poor, this environmental challenge seems to pose no problem to them, this is because urban areas have, and will continue to provide a means of improving quality of life, as well as being in close proximity to better jobs and income more than the rural settings. Deteriorating condition for those who live a rural life style and the promise of a better life have prompted million of rural inhabitant the world over to migrate to the nearby cities. This development has given rise to one of the world most devastating urban environmental problem known as slum, (United Nation Center for human settlement - UNIHABITAT 2011)

However, Turner (1971) contends that there is no city in the world without a slum. He clarifies the notion between slum and squatter settlement. According to him; all squatter settlement are slum while some slums are not squatter settlement because dwellers of such slum have a title deed of those lands they develop upon. Such slums, over the years degenerated into an incipient blighted structure in the cities centers. Slums are derogatory and pervasive by usage, in terms of coverage across the world much as they are also defined differently too. The name slum is an English word for a shanty settlement. In USA, it is known as Ghetto. Here in Africa countries, it is called “Zongo” in Ghana, while the Igbo tribe of Nigerian Origin refers to houses obtainable in the slums as “Bacha”. In other words, slum related environments are found invariably in so many countries in the world, most especially in the developing nations where rapid urbanization and high rate of urban population growth has been experienced. See Fig

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten



Abrams, (1970) stressed that one of the most vexing problems of rapid urbanization in many developing countries of the world of which Nigeria is among is that of illegal occupation of land for the purpose of housing. This is technically referred to as “squatting” which give rise to slum. It can be in isolation; that is, a decision by individual to provide himself or his family a shelter irrespective of the quality. It can also be a spontaneous mass settlement of groups who had reason to relocate at another location and on land occupied illegally. This latter situation may be prompted by political engineering factor such as wars, aggression, invasion, attacks and many other dissociated factors. It may also be engineered by a catastrophe or tragedy such as fire, earthquake, volcanic eruption or flooding. Any of these environmental hazards do not present allowance for a wishful thought which provide a suitable or legal occupation of land. Generally, the most frequent causes according to Abrams are the great increase in national population due to rapid urbanization, the surge of people toward the cities and the incapacity of the affected nation to meet the needs of urban growth by providing the land for housing needed to accommodate the new urban sojourners. In order to find a shelter in cities, millions of people, in violation of the law and ownership right, have seized land and erected make shift dwellings. In the cities of the newly emerging countries like Abuja in Nigeria, slums are seen on hillside, road sides, on unplanned land, on the urban outskirt and even on valuable lands in the city center. (Metro Blue Newspaper, 2011)

According to Clinard (1966) slums in African cities should be named to commensurate with the name which Mexicans gave to it. Mexicans called slum villas Misarias which means village of Miseries.In South Africa, Cautang and Cape flats are slums in Alexandra. Inanda is found in freedom Park North West. Soweto, Wallacedence, and Joe Slovo are in Cape Town, while Kennedy Road and Cato Menor are found in Durban. Nigeria cities topographic landscapes are inundated conspicuously with health ravaging slums. In Lagos, slums are ubiquitously abounded in Agege, Ajegunle, Amukoro, Badia, Bariga, Bodija, Ilaje, Makoko, Mushin, Oke Offa, Babasale and Somolu. In Enugu the major slums consist of the central section of Ogui urban, Ogbete Colliery Camp, the Iva Valley coal Camps, Abakpa Nike, Ogui urban (Onu Asata), Iva Valley Quarters, Alfred Camp, China town, Udi siding, Uwani central, and Asata Adam Alqali of metro Blue print Newspaper stressed in his report; that, in Abuja the Nigeria Federal Capital which is popularly known as the fastest growing city in Africa, we have such an equally fast growing slums like Mpape, Katampe I Katampe II, Kuruduma, Durumi, Zuba, Kabusa, Galadimawa, Kubwa village, Mabushi village, Garki village, Gishiri, even the nearby Maraba of Nasarawa State which is inhabited by Abuja private and public servant. According to him, for those that do not know what living in Abuja, the Federal Capital City entails, life in Abuja is as good as living in a paradise. But, it seems there is more to the glossy sprawling capital city than the plush mansions; luxurious apartment, wide and well paved roads, and well trimmed lawns. Abuja, the fastest growing capital and one of the wealthiest and expensive cities in Africa is also home to some of the worst slums, on the continent as well. Day – by – day, the unguarded utterances of a formar FCT minister Naisr EL – Rufai; that: “Abuja is not for the poor” is continuously been justified, as the city is fast metamorphosing into a poor man’s no – go area’. The poor and non- privileged are continuously been pushed away from the city; to give room for the relatively few rich, powerful and influential, forcing the poor to resort to ordinarily uninhabitable slums; that are also at the risk of being removed in the future. The planner of Abuja; it seems, had in mind a capital city, expected to be for political office holders; top level civil servants; big time contractors, as well as extremely connected business tycoon. But, what is seems the planner has failed to notice, is the simple fact that, the rich and powerful, no matter how influential they may be are in constant need for the services of the poor because they cannot do dry cleanings, driving, security, fumigation among others by themselves. The condition in which inhabitants off unsightly slums like the one mentioned above a living in, are so pathetic and eye sore creating. The condition of living in Abuja’s ghetto communities is terrible, unimaginable and unbefitting of a nation’s capital city, so tempting that those that have never been to the city before or are new in the city would find it very difficult to believe (Metro Blue Print Newspaper, 2011)

Based on the above, and departing from the vintage point of journalistic report by Metro Blue Print Newspaper, it became pertinent and imperatively a dire need to carry out a scholarly Assessment into the Environmental Health Hazard of slums; in Nigeria, a developing country in Africa, for these purpose, the assessment of the environmental health hazards and housing development in slum areas here would form the basis of this research. Furthermore; the locations of this study will be Abuja, the federal capital territory of Nigeria which has so many among the growing- sprawling slums in the world


According to Ramin (2008), Sub- Saharan Africa where Abuja belongs is the least urbanized region in the world. Only 39.1% of the region’s populations live in cities. However, the region’s urban population is projected to double 760 million by 2030. The rate of urbanization makes it very challenging to manage. A recent paper in the New England Journal of Medicine argued that urbanization is a “health hazard for certain vulnerable populations, and this demographic shift threatens to create a humanitarian disaster. There is a significant share of ill health in slums from poor access to improved sanitation in 2000. In Western Africa, by 2006, open defecation was the only sanitation practice available to 33% of the population and this is true of the slums of Abuja FCT. This contributes to the contamination of water and land within cities, as well as too many waterborne diseases prevalent in slums. Flooded areas and ditches, latrines and septic tanks are key reservoirs that perpetuate cholera, malaria dengue and yellow fever in urban areas. Infectious disease outbreaks are also precipitated by high population density found in these areas, with overcrowding triggering epidemic- prone infections such as pertussis and influenza. (World Health organization, 2009)

Urban outdoor pollution in Africa is responsible for an estimated 49,000 premature deaths annually. Slums are often located near factories and busy roadways thus rendering their inhabitants vulnerable to high burden of respiratory disease. Exposure to elevated concentrations of ozone is associated with increased hospital admissions for pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma as well as premature mortality. As summer temperatures rise, the concentration of ground- level ozone is increasing in most regions of the world. Africa slum dwellers are particularly vulnerable to the negative health effects of rapid urbanization and global climate. Further research is required to understand the impacts of environmental hazard and ramshackle developed houses on the health of slum dwellers as well as to design appropriate adaptation policies. When planning public health interventions in Africa one must consider the dynamic relationship between ramshackle developed houses and urbanization with their impact on vulnerable urban populations (Patel and Lambat 2009)

Problem that emanates from a slum environment is physically and socially deteriorating and satisfactory family life is always impossible. Overcrowding of persons in space or over crowdedness of the housing unit themselves are indices of slum, giving rise to a filthy environment. The theory that a filthy and decaying environment is indeed a health hazard to slum dwellers is wide spread (Clinard 1966). He further opined that this theory in the main time derived from the basic assumption that such an environment usually provides an appropriate breeding space or ground for a variety of infectious and contagious diseases such as cholera, dysentery and tuberculosis. The caring capacity and the cities density of most houses are exceeded. In a study completed in Nigeria on poor housing plight, Ojo (1986) discovered that house- hold sizes are on average 5.0 and as many as 20% of the households have 8.0 persons. In a study carried out by Sada (1975) in Lagos; occupancy ratio was found to be 8.0 people, in Calabar, Sule (1982) discovered 5.0 persons occupancy ration. The serious consequent of housing overcrowding in the urban environments which always led to a slum have been discovered by a study that was conducted by Sule (2004) in Abeokuta , Ogun state capital Nigeria. In this study, he discovered that there is a serious mental breakdown in human who inhabit an overcrowded housing environment. This situations could be attributable to the slums of Abuja, Federal Capital Territory of Nigeria. Abuja is an area where immigration is pronounced due to its position as the Federal Capital Territory of Nigeria. The urban poor scramble for land near the city center to erect ramshackle structure both for residential and business purposes. The direct consequences of unplanned and uncontrolled development are incompatible land use, overcrowding and slum formation which tantamount to disease outbreak and environmental decay in the cities. Due to these anomalies, this research is carried out to assess the environmental health hazards and housing development in the slum areas of Abuja


The aim of this study is to assess the environmental health hazards and housing development in the slum areas of Abuja. Sequel to this, this research focused on the following objectives


i) To identify the various activities of slum dwellers in Abuja that are inimical to human environment
ii) To identify the various indicators of environmental health hazards in the slums of Abuja
iii) To identify the effect of environmental health hazards and housing development in Abuja, FCT
iv) To identify the difference in the distribution of Environmental Health hazards among the slums of Abuja; Federal Capital Territory of Nigeria
v) To make recommendation towards solving the identified problem from the research


i) What are the various indicators of environmental health hazards in the slums of Abuja?
ii) What are the effects of environmental Health Hazards and housing development in the slum areas of Abuja, FCT?
ii) What are the differences in the distribution of Environmental Health hazards among the slums of Abuja; Federal Capital Territory of Nigeria?


: That the indicators of Environmental health hazards and housing development as measured by the number of houses are not significant in the slums of Abuja, Federal Capital Territory of Nigeria

H0: That the effects of environmental Health Hazards such as the spread of health devastating diseases and ramshackle developed houses are not significant in the slum areas of Abuja, FCT

That the Environmental Health Hazards does not differ significantly among the slum areas of Abuja, Federal Capital Territory of Nigeria


The significance of this particular study is that it will provide a guidelines and insight into the activities of slum dwellers in Abuja and the causes of abnormal health hazard in these environments. The finding of this study will provide the federal government, particularly the federal ministry of environment, housing and urban development, and FCT administration, valuable information for their work. The finding will also provide state governments, NGOs and research institutes the enabling opportunities and enhance the frontiers of their knowledge in this area of study

According to Sule (2004), “the emergence of slum in the city centers is an environmental time bomb” this research work can be sent to such people so as to enable them make better policies when it comes to issue concerning the environment


Assessing the Environmental Health Hazard of Shanty Settlement otherwise known as SLUM in environmental technical language in Abuja, the Federal Capital Territory of Nigeria constitutes the main focus of this research work. With strong consideration on the physical and social environment of Abuja. The study examines the environmental health hazards and housing development in slum areas of Abuja from 2007 to 2012. The data collected for this research work are, numbers of open waste dump per 500m2, numbers of dirty drains per 500m2, house hold numbers, numbers of ramshackle developed houses per 500m2, health devastating diseases from the hospital, soil and water sample test was collected in the ten sampled slums


The researcher has embarked on pre- research survey, some of the respondents refused to give any sort of information without demanding for one settlement or the other. The low level of literacy of the respondent made access to information very tough there by making the research not to move smoothly. Another limitation was when the researcher visited the hospitals and other agencies to collect data. Epileptic power supply delayed laboratory wor



The theoretical frameworks adopted for this research work include the following:

- Human Settlement theory
- Urbanization theory
- Population theory
- Primacy theory

A theory is a system of assumptions, view or doctrines which determines how man interprets the world, including physical phenomenon and socio- economic nature of the environment. Theory is often used interchangeable with ideology. Every human endeavor or pursuit has a theory guiding it. In the same vein, theories are of utmost importance in the comprehensive analysis of the environmental systems. Given the intricate web of relationship between the diverse components of the environment, an environmentalist needs the aid of a theory to buttress point and facilitate his work. The quest for exploration is indeed a quest for theories, as it constitutes one of the highest levels of explaining any complex phenomenon

Known as the free creation of human mind; Ebong (2006) define theory as a systematic arrangement of fact with respect to some real or hypothetical laws; a hypothetical explanation of phenomena; an explanation of the general or abstract to principle of any science or humanity which have been derived from practice. He further opined that we can distinguish between speculation and scientific theory as they are not of the same explanatory power or clarity. In this research work we shall attempt to use the above mentioned theories to enunciate explicitly on how to bring about the emergence of slum in the world urban centers and Nigeria in particular


Human settlement theories are one of the theoretical orientations adopted. This is because slum emergence is as the result of agglomeration of people at a particular place on the earth. Sequel to these, such agglomeration often time led to an ill planned settlement known as slum, which always leave us with some planning questions such as, are the location of human settlements,, large or small, merely a chance outcome of history in which settlement occur in some apparently senseless manner? Or, is there any recognizable order in their pattern and spatial distribution? What explanations are there behind the existence of the difference types of human settlement that appears on the globe? To a larger majority of people, these question do not arise at all, because the world is to them, one formless and chaotic jumble of diverse feature, too complex to comprehend yet, those who care to analyse and discern the intricate relationship within and between the environmental features, must note that there is more sight. To those in these categories, it is possible to describe the ‘order ways in which the aggregate patterns of human environment are arranged in space (Haggett and Hoover 1977)

Although scholars from other discipline such economic, have made some contributions to the study of spatial order, environmental scientists and geographers have traditionally remained at the forefront of those who labored to understand and explain the patterns and differences which exist between places. They have delved so deeply into locational analysis and process of spatial organization that they can now claim that and human settlement represent not just a geographical expression of its immediate and current physical environment but of Myriad of human decision through time. The difference feature that lack the face of the earth are the product of a long often – repeated process of decision making etched into the landscape, as million of individual have decided to settle where they do for a wide variety of individual reason (Abler and Gould 1977)

According to Johnson (1970), the quest for an explanation of optimal distribution of human settlement is clearly the quest for locational theories. And, the ultimate goals of locational theories are to unravel not only the relationship between the diverse variable that constitute human settlement but to understand what settlement patterns will “improve the utilization of space”. A number of classical and contemporary scholars have shown keen interest in developing theories which have helped considerably in explaining known settlement. These include Von Thunen and his theory of location, Christaller and Central Place Theory, August Losch and his theory of Economic landscape among others. it is apparently obvious that for a slum to emerge in a particular place, a settlement of some kind must come to be. Such settlement could take the form of a hamlet, village, town or a city. It is when this settlement runs out of orderly plan that the emergence of slum became inevitable


Johann Heinrich Von Thunen was one of the earliest scholars to focus attention on the optimal way the various types of Agricultural production are distributed within a single market system. He developed a theory of location and land use which deal with allocation of uses to land in terms of rent in a competitive bidding process. His major work, ‘The Isolated State’, was published in 1826. It aim at discovering the laws which govern the prices of agricultural product and their space within an area, presumed to maintain no trade connection with any nation but surrounded by an uncultivated wilderness. Taking a large town in the centre of his agricultural plain as an instance, he attempted to explain the most rational use of the town’s hinter land for agricultural purposes. According to his prescription, the use would be made of both those natural and human resource that are functional related to the central town. Being a practical farmer, he considered the most finally rewarding system of conducting his enterprises. Thus, assuming uniform soil fertility and production cost, he argued that the real distribution of crops, livestock and any other types of farming would depend on competition between product and farming system for the use of land. That means, given a piece of land, the enterprise which fields the highest return has the greatest chance of being conducted, while there competing enterprises are restricted to only those plot were they also yield the highest return. Accordingly, his primary concern focused on two consideration, namely the monetary return over the monetary expenses incurred by different types of agriculture and the net return pertaining to a unit area of land for instance, on a certain location, the cultivation of maize may be considered less profitable than yam, if its financial return per hectare of land is lower than that of yam, irrespective of the fact that the per ton yield of yam might be double that of maize. To clarify his theory he introduced the concept of Economic Rent to explain the surplus return which can be obtained form the cultivation of a more fertile piece of land over and above, by applying the same resources to the poorer piece of land. The Economic Rent of a particular piece of land is, therefore, the return which could be obtained over and above that which could be derived from the land which is at the margin of economic cultivation. This concept thus underlines all question of competition for the use of land for various uses, including settlement which without planning degenerates to slum


It is commonly believed that Von Thune’s theory served as the original and guiding work which inspired that far more comprehensive enquiry of Walter Christaller concerning location problem. Walter Christaller is, however, reputed as the first geographer to construct a general, purely deductive theory of settlement considering the crystallization of Mass, about nucleus as part of the elementary order of things; he posed a number of questions concerning the general principles underlying optional human settlement. He was particularly irked by the following question of human occupancy: Are there any principal who determine the number, size and distribution of human settlement? Is the location of towns, simply on inevitable response to peculiar geographic configuration of population density? Are there separate explanations for village agglomerations, emergence of towns, cities and metropolitan centers, respectively? Or is there to be found behind all these seemingly causal factors something more fundamental and organic? These intriguing questions concerning the principles of human settlement suggest that Christaller had realized that there is some degree of order in spatial behavior which could result in a hierarchical structure of human settlement. The question constitute the framework behind his famous central place theory which has become the basic tool for the analysis of the number, size and spacing of settlement within any region. Although the generic term, central place was originally employed to denote urban agglomeration, the theory is generally concerned with the full array of human settlement, ranging in an ascending order of size and functional importance, from Hamlets, villages, towns and cities to metropolitan centers or regions. As a basis for this theory, Christaller made some basis assumption generally he assumed the existence of relationship between a set of supplier of goods and services as well as a large set of consumer. Specifically Christaller assumed three distinctive dimensions;

i. The population is distributed evenly on the land
ii. The population has equal purchasing power and
iii. Movement is equally easy in all directions in the area

Given these assumption Christaller went on to explain the emergence and distribution of different sizes of central place that regarded central places in terms of their relationship with one another, thus discovering how spatial organization of the places followed a hierarchical pattern which ranges from centers of highest order down to the lowest order places, further down the gradation are auxiliary places of no central importance at all. With the above explanation by Christaller it is obvious that when a place became of no planning importance to the planners even when there is high level of agglomeration with that point, it means that a centre stage is set for a slum related environment to emerge


The most visible and obvious consequences of urbanization in developing countries, such as Nigeria, is often rapid deterioration of urban housing and living conditions. This is traceable to the fact that urbanization leads to explosive population growth, which is occasioned by a phenomenal leap in the quantitative housing needs of the population. The housing needs are not matched by effective demand since the large majority of the populace does not have the wherewithal for adequate housing. In Nigeria, the rate of provision of new housing stock has lagged severely behind the rate of population growth resulting in staggering housing deficit requiring an annual production of more than 70,000 housing units to cope with the population trend (Agbola and Egunjobi, 2009)

The rapid increase in the population of urban centres has resulted in an increase in the cost of living because of higher demand on urban commodities. There is a dearth and high cost of urban land, and high cost of housing, which is often in short supply and out of the economic reach of the majority of the urban households. The urban centres are populated by a large mass of people on low wage and who face irregular employment. This segment of the urban population is indeed poor, and is constrained to limited, insufficient, crowded, cold and dirty shelter and a generally degraded environment. These are the urban poor who are subjected to a life characterized by precarious conditions of nutrition and health, little or poor material possessions ( Agbol, 2007)

Filani (1998) has succinctly shown that most urban centres in Nigeria are characterized by high densities of buildings, the crowding of large numbers of people into those buildings, lack of space for open air living between houses, poor health, substandard housing, and acute environmental and sanitary problems. The shortage of affordable and decent accommodation for the urban poor is thus a major housing problem in Nigeria. Studies have shown the deplorable conditions of urban housing in Nigeria. The studies affirm that 75% of the dwelling units in urban centres in Nigeria are substandard and the dwellings are sited in slums. The inadequacy of the quality of most of urban housing stems mainly from the poor physical state of the buildings. The studies further show that the buildings are often unsafe and insecure and do not provide adequate shelter from the elements of weather. In large urban centres poor housing conditions often manifest in the high numbers of people living in one room and paying exorbitant rents. This is physical overcrowding, which is a determinant of two major types of problems namely, a health hazard and harmful social behavior. Overcrowding is a hazard to health where sleeping accommodation is congested and ventilation is poor. Infectious (air and water borne) diseases spread very fast under such conditions. However there are other variables more important than overcrowding in the spread of diseases and thus, it cannot solely be taken as a determining factor. As a determining factor for deleterious social behavior a causal pattern of linkage between overcrowding and the incidence of pathological behavior have been variously suggested. Overcrowding is considered to lead to irritation, fatigue and unproductiveness. It is experienced as a syndrome of stress and may lead to the development of either extrovert or repressed sexual behavior among boys and girls. It is even observed to have a tendency to retard the development of children’s communication abilities


There is a general pattern or simply put, an order in which the external and internal urban spatial structure can be described. This provides the general theoretical explanation for an understanding of the processes of the origin of urban places. Among others there are three basic theories which have been concerned as throwing light on the structure of an urban contribution for the purpose of this research work we will dwell on one of it, to show how urban spatial organization can degenerate to a slum. After all, it was Ernest W. Burgess (1923- 1925) in his urban theory opined that, “surrounding the central business district is a zone of residential deterioration”. Here business and light manufacturing from zone has encroached upon residential areas. Though there may be residual islands of: first citizen” homes, rooming houses represent the most typical residential use. Burgess concluded by saying that in portions of this zone are likely to be found in the city’s principal slums, area of poverty, degradation and crime, which he referred to transitional zone


In the developing world, like in Nigeria, rapid urbanization has outpaced the ability of governments to provide adequate shelter and basic amenities for the urban poor, resulting in grievous urban poverty. The high level of poverty of most urban households places the available housing stock out of their economic reach. Many of the households resort to constructing make shift dwellings with all sorts of refuse materials in illegally occupied land. The result is the development of slums and squatter settlements. Slums are characterized by obsolesce resulting from the combined effects of such factors as natural ageing of buildings, lack of maintenance and neglect, wrong use of buildings, wrong development of land, poor sanitation in the disposal of sewage and solid wastes, water pollution, soil contamination and increasing deterioration of the natural landscape (Noel and Sylvia 2004)


A greater proportion of the buildings require major or minor repairs to bring them to normative or structural quality .The state of repair of the buildings takes into consideration the soundness of the roofs, walls, floors and foundations. The soundness of roof structures implies absence of leakages of roof cover and damages to roof frame. The soundness of walls is the absence of cracks, surface wear, tearing or peeling off of surface plaster and paints, while soundness of floors refers to absence of cracks, surface wear, tearing or peeling off of floor finish. The soundness of foundations refers to the ability to withstand forces of slippage, settling and erosion. Socio- economic characteristics of the inhabitants of the slum buildings such as household size, income classification and type of tenure, significantly contribute to the poor state of repair of the buildings and constant construction of ramshackle structures within the slum environment. (Olotuah , 2005)


The sector theory of an urban internal spatial structure was formulated by Homer Hoyt in 1939. The sector model was focused on residential development planning. The theory state that residential land uses tend to be arranged in a wedge like manner or sectors, radiating from the centre of the city along the lines of transportation. The main argument put forward by Hoyt is based on rent. According to him, rent area in American cities tends to conform to a pattern of sectors rather than of concentrates circles. The highest rent areas of a city tend to be located in one or more sectors of the city. There is a graduation of rentals downward from their high rental areas in all directions. Intermediate rentals areas or those renting next to the highest rental area, adjourn the rent area on one more sides and tend to be located in the same sector in the high rental area. Low rent area occupy other sector of the city from the centre to the periphery. It must be pointed out here that the rent area as designated by Hoyt is not static; they are dynamic. In other words, a low or high quality residential area in a contain sector could migrate outward into another sector. Hoyt has identified ten rent areas. He opined by saying what;

1. High- grade residential growth tends to proceed from established line of travel or toward another existing nucleus of building or trading centre
2. The zone of high rent area tend to progress toward high ground which is free from risk of flood and to spread a long lake, bad, river and ocean front, which such water front are not used for industry
3. High – rent residential districts tend to grow towards the section of the city which is free, open country goes beyond the edge and away from “dead end” sections which are limited by national or artificial barriers to expansion
4. The higher priced residential neighborhood tends to grow toward the homes of the leaders of the community
5. Trends of movement of office buildings banks and stores pull the higher priced residential neighborhoods in the same general direction
6. High – grade residential area ten to develop along the fastest existing transportation line
7. The same direction for a long period of time
8. Deluxe high rent apartment area tend to be established near the business centre to hold in old residential area
9. Real estate promoters may bend the direction of high grade residential growth
10. The high rent neighbor of a city do not skip about at random in the areas of movement, they follow a definite path in one or more sectors of the city

With Hoyt theory of sectors in Urban structure it is conspicuously obvious that whereas slum is the abode of the poor and poverty stricken population of the urban area. It therefore hold from the above theory that slum will tend to inherit a sector of the urban setting especially in the country where urban planning is not paramount in their policy. One of the consequences of these is environmental pollution which is an environmental health hazard


Ekpoh (2005), defined waste as any substance that is found in an unwanted place that may cause pollution to environmental components which include the atmosphere, lithosphere and the hydrosphere. Adamson (1971), asserts that air pollutant can be divided into two broad groups, namely particles and gases

According to him, the particle is solid and liquid ranging from 0.01 micron to 100 micron. And cubic feet of air can contain more than three million particles. The second group, according to Adamson includes gases and Vapor which usually come from industrial process. Adamson identifies that sulfur dioxide (SO2) has a pungent odor, imitates the throat and affect the vegetation

However, Chappie and Mabel (1982), holds the view that air pollution is the combination of different substance in the atmosphere. The quantification of the dose relationship and the identification of the harmful effect to human being are not any easy task. Since waste generated by slum dweller do not only pollute the atmosphere alone, but they discharged it in the drainages, which discharge its self in to the water channel or streams. On water pollution, author in the like of Adamson (1971), Contends that waste discharge into the water sources worm the stream and lessons the solubility of oxygen, and further said that waste product may lead to exhaustion of oxygen in the stream. Therefore, according to Adamson if oxygen where exhausted from streams, anaerobic condition would prevail; and this is a very serious environmental impact, like any other impact suffered by slum dwellers. In a typical slum, dwellers are not free from the incessant nuisance emanating from different source of noise pollution

On the aspect of noise pollution which is one of the impact generated by both human and vehicular movement and small scale industries located in the slum, Anthrop (1973) who in his contribution on noise pollution said that noise from any form of sources affect those who are residing in proximity to the source He further argues that the matters related to noise pollution, just as air and water pollution problem, economic consideration, had generally taken precedence over environmental consideration, moreover the source that make noise frequently benefit certain group of people , while imposing the noise nuisance on another groups that does not share in the benefit. Christman and Brown (1974), argued that “noise” like waste and heat involve the transfer of energy from the source to the environment. Though the amount of energy involve is very small human ear is particularly very sensitive to low energy sound waves from noise pollution and the hazardous impact that follow noise pollution are annoyance, lost of sleep, deep psychological trauma or disturbances and hearing impartment. This finding from Christman and Brown (1974) has collaborated valins and Bayard’s (1978) definition of a slum


Environmental dilemmas and our desire to opt for sustainable development have brought to the fore the need for a greater understanding of the paradigm in population dynamics, the struggle for finite resources between countries and among nation and environment phenomenon generally. The dynamic of the world phenomenon replicated all over particularly in this contemporary time indicates that everything is changing through man’s influence, innovations and technological advancement. Right from the member of people that inhibited the world today to our level of development in terms of special sizes, and variability. As regards population numbers, a brief human population history would put this research work in the proper perspective

According to Eugene and Okpiliya (2003), in 5,000 B.C for instance the population of the world was about 50 million only. By 800 B.C. It had increase to 100 millions, and was 200 million by 200 B.C. These increase has been sustained to the present level, which is put at 6, 000 million people and it is estimated that by the year 2020, our planet would be inhabited by over 8.2 billion people. With the above assertion by Eugene and Okpiliya, it therefore shows that the increase in agglomeration of human being in the urban settings over stretches the available facilities and unavoidably degenerates into slum. Population growth rates in themselves are scary as the rate witness in some developing countries (mainly in Africa, South America and South East Asia), where it is estimated that population of these countries might reach extraordinary levels by the middle of this century

Okpiliya 2003 stress that while India for instance hit the 976 million mark in 1999, the population is estimated to be 1,530 billion in the near 2050 A.D. Based on the growth rate are estimated for such other countries as China, Nigeria, Brazil, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Iran, Mexico, Indonesia and to a lesser extent united state. Mortality rates have tumbled generally due to improved health care services and fertility rate have declined dramatically in several countries. These high population figures are a pointer to the fact that competition for the available resources is bound to escalate and impact more on the environment. In the national sphere competing for land use double its tempo, which in urban environment led to a spatial disorder.


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Assessing the environmental health hazards and housing development in the slums of Abuja, Fct.
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Abuja is an area where immigration is pronounced due to its position as the Federal Capital Territory of Nigeria. The urban poor scramble for land near the city center to erect ramshackle structure both for residential and business purposes. The direct consequences of unplanned and uncontrolled development are incompatible land use, overcrowding and slum formation which tantamount to environmental decay in the city. Due to these anomalies, this research was carried out to assess the effect of environmental health hazards and housing development in these slum areas of Abuja.
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Matthias Okoro (Author)Prof. S. Uchegbu (Author), 2014, Assessing the environmental health hazards and housing development in the slums of Abuja, Fct., Munich, GRIN Verlag,


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