Effects of two instructional strategies on achievement in library use instruction among secondary school students with hearing impairment in Oyo State, Nigeria


Doctoral Thesis / Dissertation, 2011
119 Pages, Grade: PhD

Excerpt

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

CERTIFICATION

DEDICATION

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study
1.2 Statement of the Problem
1.3 Objectives of the Study
1.4 Research Questions
1.5 Research Hypotheses
1.6 Significance of the Study
1.7 Scope of the Study
1.8 Limitations of the study
1.9 Operational Definition of Terms

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0 Introduction
2.1 Hearing impairment and its effects on the individual
2.2 Educational provision and persons with hearing impairment
2.3 Instructional strategies for students with hearing impairment
2.4 Libraries and Nigerian secondary schools
2.5 Hearing impairment and learning outcomes
2.6 Gender and learning outcomes of students with hearing Impairment
2.7 Library use instruction for students with hearing impairment
2.8 Video and educational instruction for hearing impairment
2.9 Importance of captioning and captioned video
2.10 Direct instructional strategy and captioned video instruction
2.11 Theoretical Framework
2.12 Conceptual Model
2.13 Appraisal of Literature Reviewed

CHAPTER THREE
METHODOLOGY
3.0 Introduction
3.1 Research Design
3.2 Population of the Study
3.3 Sample and Sampling Procedure
3.4 Variables of the Study
3.5 Data Collection Instruments
3.6 Validity and Reliability of Instruments
3.7 Pilot Study
3.8 Procedure
3.8.1 Request for Approval in the Schools used for the Study
3.8.2 Assignment to Treatment Groups
3.8.3 Pretests
3.8.4 Treatment Programmes
3.8.5 Posttests
3.9 Data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.0 Introduction
4.1 Profile of Schools
4.2 Results of Research questions
4.3 Testing of Hypotheses
4.4 Discussion of Results
4.4.1 Position of library services and library use instruction in the schools
4.4.2 Effects of Instructional Strategies on Learning Outcomes of students with Hearing Impairment
4.4.3 Effectiveness of Captioned Video Instructional Strategy in Library Instruction
4.4.4 Effectiveness of Direct Instructional Strategy in Library instruction
4.4.5 Effects of Instructional Strategies and Students’ Gender on learning outcomes
4.4.6 Participants’ Performance in Test of Knowledge about library use and Practical Skill

CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
5.0 Introduction
5.1 Summary of the findings
5.2 Implications of the Study
5.3 Conclusions
5.4 Contribution to knowledge
5.5 Recommendations
5.6 Suggestions for further research

REFERENCES

APPENDIX I

LIBRARY USE INSTRUCTION SCRIPT

I Introduction

II LIBRARY COLLECTION AND ARRANGEMENT

III LIBRARY CATALOGUE

IV LIBRARY USE PROCEDURE

V REFERENCE SOURCES AND PERIODICALS

VI PARTS OF A BOOK

VII ELECTRONIC SOURCES OF INFORMATION

APPENDIX

APPENDIX

APPENDIX

ABSTRACT

Hearing impairment limits individual in acquiring skills to become active and independent learners. It is therefore important to use adapted media in teaching people with hearing impairment skills to access and use information. These media are lacking in schools that provide integration services to learners with hearing impairment and this adversely affects the acquisition of lifelong skills like library use skills by the learners. There is also a dearth of research on library services to persons with hearing impairment in Nigeria. Against this background, this study investigated the effects of Captioned Video and Direct Instructional strategies on achievement of secondary school students with hearing impairment in library use instruction.

The study adopted the pretest- posttest, control group quasi- experimental research design with a 3x2 factorial matrix. It involved a total of 39 Senior Secondary School II students with hearing impairment in three randomly selected schools in Oyo State. Using the intact class method, the schools were randomly assigned to experimental group I, II and the control. While experimental groups I and II were exposed to Captioned Video Instruction and Direct Instruction on library use respectively, the control group was given instruction on various professions they could take up after graduation. Treatment for the groups took seven weeks after the pre- test. Two instruments were used for the study: Library Use Instruction Test (r=0.91) and Library Practical Use Checklist (r=0.80). Library Use Instruction Test measured the intellectual achievement of participants while Library Practical Use Checklist measured their practical achievement. Nine hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. Data collected were analysed using t- test and Analysis of Covariance.

There was a significant difference in the achievement of the experimental and control groups (F (2, 36) =10.26; p<0.05). The Captioned Video Instruction group had the highest posttest mean score (x= 24.50) followed by the Direct Instruction group (x=23.09) while the Control group had the least posttest mean score (x=17.45). Treatment had significant effect on the achievement of participants in practical skill test (F (2, 32), 6.48, p<0.05), but not on their performance in intellectual achievement test. There was no significant interaction effect of instructional strategies and gender on the achievement of participants. There were no significant differences in the achievement of the male (x=23.05) and female (x=24.88) students exposed to Direct Instruction and the male (x =23.33) and female (x=26.44) students exposed to Captioned VideoInstruction. Moreover, there was no significant difference in the achievement of students exposed to Direct Instruction (x=22.80) and Captioned Video Instruction (x=24.50). The Captioned Video Instruction group had a higher mean score (x=10.00) in intellectual achievement test than the Direct Instruction group (x=8.70) but the Direct Instruction group had a higher mean score (x= 15.10) than the Captioned Video Instruction group (x= 14.50) in practical skill test.

Captioned Video and Direct Instructional strategies were effective in providing library instructions to students with hearing impairment. Therefore, the two instructional strategies are recommended for teaching library use instruction to students with hearing impairment.

Key words: Captioned video instruction, Direct instruction, Library use instruction, Hearing impairment, Secondary school students.

Word count: 491

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I am highly grateful to God for His goodness upon my life and for seeing me through this study, though it spanned over a long period of time. My sincere thanks and appreciation goes to my supervisor Prof. Morayo Atinmo who patiently and with a caring heart assisted and guided me through the project. She did not only stand as a supervisor but also as a mother with a caring heart. Thank you for helping to find the way out whenever I got lost in the study.

I sincerely express my appreciation to all my distinguished lecturers in the Department whose tremendous assistance I enjoyed in the course of this study. They include: Prof. G.O. Alegbeleye, Prof. Iyabo Mabawonku, Dr. Andrew Okwilagwe, Dr. K.I. Nwalo, Dr. S.O Popoola and Dr. Airen Adetimirin. I am highly indebted to Dr. Biola Ademokoya of the Department of Special education and Dr. Soji Aremu of Guidance and Couselling Department for their support and contributions to this work. Their wealth of knowledge greatly impacted on the scholastic worth of this thesis. I am also highly indebted to Mr. J.K. Apotiade for his all- time assistance in the course of this study especially at the concluding stage. He is a real friend in deed.

I am also thankful to Dr. Bomi Oyewumi, Dr. John Oyundoyin and Dr. Femi Fakolade of the Department of Special Education. Their contributions have really enhanced the credibility of this work. I am also grateful to my colleagues in the Department. They are Dr. Belau Gbadamosi, Dr. Niran Adetoro and Dr. Femi Quadri. We shared together the rigours of Ph.D. programme, giving one another all necessary encouragement needed for the success of the study.

I am highly indebted to my Provost, Prof. Adeyemi Ibukunoluwa Idowu, (Provost, Adeyemi College of Education, Ondo) for his caring heart and all efforts he put in to make me complete the programme without further delay. You are indeed a father and a leader. I am also indebted to Dr. Emmanuel Olufemi Adeniyi, Provost, Federal College of Education (Special), Oyo, for the encouragement and mentoring I received from him in the course of my career and this study. You have been a great model.

I sincerely thank the Management of my College, Federal College of Education, Abeokuta, for giving me the opportunity to go for further studies as well as giving me sponsorship for the first three years of this programme.

I am also highly indebted to Mr. Oni of Methodist Grammar School Bodija Ibadan; Mr. Ekundayo of Ijokodo High school as well as Mrs. Ishola of Durbar grammar school, Oyo, for their inestimable support during my data collection. Your assistance made things easier for me to collect my data from these students with special needs.

I acknowledge the concern and support of my colleagues at work: Messrs Godwin Oyewole, Femi Adelani, Tunde Onifade and Mrs. Titi Olanrewaju (all in the Federal College of Education, Abeokuta) and Messrs R.A. Awoyemi, S.O. Ogunniyi, J.A. Akerele M. Jato and Mrs. A.F. Afolabi; all in Adeyemi College of Education, Ondo. I also appreciate the encouragement received from friends like Dr. Rueben Alabi and Dr. Dayo Fodeke in their eagerness to see me complete the programme. I also thank my family friends like the Oluwanirans, Adedirans, Akinlabis and Oyeyinkas for not ceasing to prod me on till the completion of the study.

I acknowledge the professional touch given to this work, especially at the final stage, by my secretary in the office, Mrs. O.M. Isijola ( Iya Nla). I am also grateful to Mr. Dare of the Department of English, Adeyemi College of Education, Ondo for help to read through the manuscript for the necessary corrections.

I also say a ‘big thank you’ to my wife Mrs. Z. O. Egunjobi and children; Ifeoluwa, Ayooluwa and Adeoluwa Egunjobi for bearing with me through the rigours encountered in the course of this study. Thank you for all the inconveniences I caused you to bear in my bid to reach this academic height. You all are wonderful.

CERTIFICATION

I certify that this work was carried out by Mr. R.A. Egunjobi in the Department of Library, Archival and Information Studies, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.

LIST OF TABLES

Table 4.1 Distribution of Schools and Participants by Gender,

Age Range and Treatment

Table 4.2 Means and Standard Error of effects of Instructional Strategies on Achievement of students with Hearing Impairment

Table 4.3 ANCOVA for the effect of Instructional Strategies on Achievement of students with Hearing Impairmen in Library Practical Use Checklist (LPUC)

Table 4.4 ANCOVA for the effect of Instructional Strategies on Achievement of students with Hearing Impairment in Library Use Instruction Test (LUIT)

Table 4.5 ANCOVA for the effect of Instructional Strategies on otal Achievement of students with Hearing Impairment

Table 4.6 One Way Analysis of Variance of the Pretest and Posttest Mean Scores

Table 4.7 Mean and Standard Error of Achievement of male and female participants in Direct Instruction group

Table 4.8 Mean and Standard Error of Achievement of male and female participants in Captioned Video Instruction group

Table 4.9 ANCOVA for the effect of Instructional Strategies and Gender on Achievement in Library Practical Use Checklist (LPUC)

Table4.10 ANCOVA for the effect of Instructional Strategies and Gender on Achievement in Library Use Instruction Test (LUIT)

Table 4.11 ANCOVA for the effect of Instructional Strategies and Gender on total Achievement of students with Hearing Impairment

Table 4.12 T- test of on the Achievement of subjects in Captioned Video Instruction and Direct Instruction Groups

Table 4.13 T- test of the Achievement of subjects in Direct Instruction and Control groups

Table 4.14 T- test of the Achievement of subjects in Captioned Video Instruction and Control groups

LIST OF FIGURES

Fig 2.1 Conceptual Model for the study

Fig. 3.1 A 3 x 2 Factorial Representation

Fig 4.1 Mean Pretest and posttest scores in LPUC

Fig 4.2 Mean Pretest and posttest scores in LUIT

Fig 4.3 Achievement of Experimental groups in test of Knowledge

Fig 4.4 Achievement of Experimental groups in practical application of Knowledge

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study

Hearing impairment is a condition that imposes limitations in hearing on the individual. Persons with hearing impairment suffer from hearing loss and are therefore precluded from adequate hearing. These people are unable to understand spoken language through the hearing mode alone. Hearing loss affects how well an individual is able to hear spoken language and respond to other stimuli in the environment, since it brings about limits in sensitivity to sound. According to Onwuchekwa (1987) and Heward (2000) hearing impairment limits an individual from the acquisition of information or knowledge through the auditory channel. This means that they have problems with communication due to their hearing loss.

Communication which involves information exchange is a vital human activity. It is also central to education. The central position of communication in human lives has made scholars continue to study the process of communication and the way people process information (Ruben, 2002). As noted by Waite and Melling (2007) hearing plays a fundamental role in communication and when someone has difficulties hearing he is likely to experience difficulties with communication. Considering the fact that language remains the main vehicle of communication, persons with hearing impairment are therefore put at a disadvantage in a hearing community.

Hearing impairment imposes some limitations on the individual. Individual with hearing- impairment find their range of experience constrained by communication limitation. Hearing loss also disorganizes the whole personality of the affected person, his physical, mental, social and psychological well- being. (Ekweke, 1991; Mba, 1991; Meyen and Bui, 2007). They suffer from lack of opportunity to interact fully and manipulate their environment. They also lack knowledge about self and have difficulty in acquiring skills to become active and independent learners. They may also have reduced opportunities to be autonomous. (Clark, 1994; Luckner, 1994, Waite and Melling, 2007). Persons with hearing impairment have also been found to lag behind their hearing counterparts in cognitive development, as they often experience delayed development of speech, language and cognitive skills, which may result in slow learning and difficulty progressing in school. (Moores, 1996; Heward, 1996, World Health Organization, 2006)

Hearing plays an important part in learning, both formally through structured teaching in individual programmes, and informally by listening and seeing others and copying them. However, since education is the right of every child all over the world, the National Policy on Education (2004) stipulates equal opportunities for all children in Nigeria regardless of their real or imagined disabilities. Therefore, persons with hearing impairment must be given education despite their problems with communication. In line with the policy of equal educational opportunities for all children special education programmes are made available to persons with hearing impairment.

Special education programmes generally provide opportunities for children with disabilities to either participate in regular school settings, which is otherwise known as integration or to be given education under intensive segregated programmes. Therefore, educational placements for persons with hearing impairment range from integration to segregation and recently, inclusion. As there was a conscious move towards the integration of learners with special needs into regular school programmes all over the world, integration which recently progressed to inclusion was considered to be the most realistic form of special education in Nigeria and it was also accepted that special classrooms and units be provided in ordinary schools (Ogundare, 1996, NPE, 2004). This explains why people with special needs- including people with hearing impairment- are found in public schools in Nigeria. Some secondary schools in Nigeria are mandated to integrate students with normal hearing and students with hearing- impairment.

Nigeria presently runs the 9- 3- 4 educational system which is broadly divided to three segments of basic education, senior secondary and higher education. Here, the primary and the junior part of secondary education is a compulsion for all children as embedded in the universal basic education policy which is a derivative of the global Education for All (EFA). It is also important to note that secondary education remains an important part of this educational system. According to the World Bank (2009), secondary education is now being recognized as the cornerstone of educational systems. This is because secondary education has the peculiarities of being at the same time terminal and preparatory, compulsory and post- compulsory. It stands as the crucial link between primary schooling, tertiary education, and the labor market. It also has the ability to connect the different destinations and to take young people where they want to go in life.

Secondary education serves to encourage broad, personal development and social education of all students; to create active, independent learners; and to recognize and make use of individual differences among students. According to the National Policy on Education (2004), the broad goal of secondary education is to prepare the individual for useful living within the society and higher education. Secondary education therefore provides a comprehensive programme for the youth which equips him with basic skills in academic as well as prepares him for coping with the problems of life (Adejumo, 1984, Net Industries, 2009) One of such skills which the youth is expected to be equipped with is library use skill, which is expected to make the student an independent learner and prepare him/her for higher academic pursuits.

An important aspect of the school system is the library. The library has been recognized by the National Policy on Education (2004) as one of the most important educational services which also stands as the heart of the educational enterprise.. School libraries can provide a flexible place for learning where project work, individual study, group research and reading can all take place. By supporting and giving access to a broad range of information sources, the school library can stimulate learning and motivate pupils by providing the means to freely pursue subjects which engage them. More importantly, the school library has a role to facilitate the planning and implementation of learning programs that will equip students with the skills necessary to succeed in a constantly changing social and economic environment. At the secondary school level, senior students need library facilities more because they are required to do a lot of work on their own (Fayose, 1995, Department for Children, Schools and Families, 2007). This, therefore, underscores the importance of library use instruction at the secondary school level as it develops in pupils and teachers the appropriate skills that would facilitate the full exploitation of library resources and in effect enhance the acquisition of life long learning skills (Ogunseye, 2001).

Library use instruction is a form of education for library users. It is meant to help users take maximum advantage of library resources to meet their information needs. This instructional programme could also be referred to as user education, user instruction, and library skill or library instruction. All these terms refer to the same concept of making library patrons learn how to make effective use of library resources through the acquisition of skills in identification, location, retrieval and exploitation of information (Igbena, 1990). By implication, failure to expose students to library use instruction at the secondary school level may rob them of the learning skills needed throughout life. Library instruction is also important in the contemporary environment of rapid technological change and proliferation of information sources (Caron, 2000). As observed by Murray, (2002) teaching people with hearing impairment skills to access information will make an important contribution to their education. And to make their instruction in the use of library resources effective, it is necessary to use adapted aids and strategies, because they have problems in understanding spoken language.

Instructional strategy otherwise known as teaching strategy has been defined as something a teacher arranges in order to establish interaction between the teacher, the student and the subject matter, or any combination of the three dimensions. It involves planning to influence directly or indirectly, the learning process by varying the learner’s behaviour, tailoring the subject matter to meet his needs and interest as an individual and arranging a variety of media and laboratory experience for the students (Vijayalakshmi, 2004). Teaching strategies are usually formulated in an attempt to move a student from the pre- strategy stage to the point of mastering some knowledge, skills and or attitudes. There are various instructional strategies available for teaching and learning processes. Some strategies are more effective than others and there is no single instructional strategy considered best for all students and all subject matters (Moores and Schants, 1987; Vijayalakshmi, 2004). It is therefore necessary to select the best strategy for the particular student population being handled in instruction.

Various strategies useful with normal persons could be adapted to teach persons with hearing impairment. However, in adopting instructional strategies for learners with hearing impairment, it is necessary to consider the fact noted by Ademokoya (1994), Eniolorunda (1998) and Heward (2000) that the learning process of persons with impairment is inferior to that of normal children. Therefore, the teacher must use special motivational methods that compensate for this deficiency so that learning can be more effective. In the same vein, Alade (1992) and Ademokoya (2006) contended that any teaching strategy adopted for the curriculum designed for hearing persons must be modified to ensure that the students with hearing impairment understand the requirement of the strategy.

Both direct instruction and captioned video instruction have been identified as useful strategies for learners with hearing impairment (Keller, 2005). As emphasized by Kovalik and Kruppenbacher (1994) there is the need to be aware of the special requirements of persons with hearing impairment for who oral communication is particularly difficult, as they will have increasing needs for captioned films and videos. In the same vein, visual aids such as films, overheads and diagrams have been identified as useful instructional tools in instruction of students with hearing impairment (Northwestern University, 2007).

Captioning is the process of converting the audio portion of a television or video production into readable text, usually displayed in the portion of a television screen which may end up covering a portion of the picture It also allows the viewer to follow the dialogue and the action of a programme simultaneously (Kovalik and Kruppenbacher, 1994, Christiaansen, 2000; Robson, 2001). Smith (2003) noted that captions as text versions of the spoken word, allow the video to be perceivable to those who do not have access to audio and understandable to a wider audience. Thus, it provides access to television for people with hearing impairment as they are enabled to understand the sound track.

Captions come in varied levels of language used, age appropriateness, sophistication, and overall quality. It also varies in pacing and in the degree of correspondence with the spoken text, ranging from verbatim to paraphrase. Captioned video has also been found helpful in classroom instruction of both young and adult hearing impaired persons. It helps in producing a very rich learning environment (Koskinen, 1988; Daniel, 1993, Christiaansen 2000).

Direct Instruction is an approach to teaching which is teacher- directed. It emphasizes the use of small- group, face- to- face instruction by teachers and aides using carefully articulated lessons in which cognitive skills are broken down into small units, sequenced deliberately, and taught explicitly (Schug, Tarver and. Western, 2001; Carnine, Silbert,. Kame'enui and Tarve, 2004). Direct instruction is a teacher directed instructional strategy, which involves the teacher giving instruction to a group of students. It involves presentation of instruction through live teaching by the teacher with students in attendance. It may also involve the teacher explaining a new concept or skill to the students, testing their understanding by making them practice under his direction and encouraging them to continue to practice. (Joyce and Weil, 1996). Here, the teacher’s obligation is to find ways of clustering and connecting ideas, facts and information so that students can effectively process what is being presented (Lasley and Matczynski, 1997; Carnine, Silbert,. Kame'enui and Tarve, 2004). The direct mode of instruction is a generic teaching model which has been conventionally and predominantly in use in schools all over the world and most especially in Nigeria (Johnson,Aragon, Shaik, andPalma- Rivas,1999; Salawu, 1999; Price 2009). Studies have shown that students, who receive instruction directly from the teacher, spend more time attending to contents of the lesson than students who are expected to find out for themselves (Polloway and Patton, 1992; Westwood, 1997). Direct instruction has also been identified as one of the alternative instructional practices effective for working with students with special needs. As evidences suggest, students with disabilities most frequently do well in structured programmes, where direct teaching methods are employed, (Lloyd, 1988; Olson and Platt, 1992).

Learning outcomes are mainly expected results from instruction. Every set of instruction or teaching is carried out for the major purpose of producing learning in the student. It is to enable the recipient acquire some new knowledge, skills, or attitudes that make it possible for them to do things they were not previously able to do. Learning outcomes describe a sample of the type of performance that learners will be able to exhibit after exposure to instruction. These performances are measurable or observable responses in the cognitive, affective or psychomotor area, which are as a result of learning (Gronlund, 1995; Wallace, 2005). Learning outcomes expected from instruction could be categorized into the following: intellectual skills, cognitive strategy, verbal information, motor skills and attitudes (Gagne, 1997; Oyedeji, 1998). In the same vein, the main goal of library use instruction is to make students more successful information seekers as it provides students with information utilization skills that will carry them into the future (Beer, 1998; Furlong and Roberts, 2001; Wertzberger, 2001). It is evident that the elements of library use instruction comprise basically of knowledge about the workings of the library as well as information location and retrieval skills. However, the importance of feedback, to measure the effectiveness of instruction or how much the pupils have learnt should not be overlooked. Henthorn, (2001) opined that evaluating the students knowledge of library materials and search strategy as well as skills and abilities in the areas of comprehension and application will help in determining the achievements and or deficiency of the programme, which will then result in educational decision making. The effectiveness of formal library instruction was investigated through a library user test conducted by Fox and Weston (1993). Their report indicated that the students who received formal bibliographic instruction had a higher level of self- assessment and actual knowledge of some library skills than those, who did not receive any formal instruction. This underscores the importance of library use instruction for students with hearing impairment

Gender is an enduring characteristic of students that stands as an important variable which could produce differences in individuals. As noted by Mead (2003), gender is one of the universal dimensions on which differences are based. Gender is intertwined with identity, expression, presentation, relationships and societal role and structure, among other things. As noted by the United Nations (2008) gender refers to the social attributes and opportunities associated with being male and female and the relationships between women and men and girls and boys, as well as the relations between women and those between men. Gender determines what is expected, allowed and valued in a women or a man in a given context. In most societies there are differences and inequalities between women and men in responsibilities assigned, activities undertaken, access to and control over resources, as well as decision- making opportunities. Gender is part of the broader socio- cultural context. Other important criteria for socio- cultural analysis include class, race, poverty level, ethnic group and age. As noted by Abiodun (2006) and Ademokoya (2006) gender is a factor that could in addition to the disability account for how learners with hearing impairment perform in their academic pursuits.

Hearing plays a fundamental role in communication and when someone has difficulties hearing he is likely to experience difficulties with communication (Waite and Melling, 2007). Effective communication is the key to effective instruction. Therefore, the major challenge with instruction of learners with hearing impairment is basically that of effective communication (Norton, 1992; Ademokoya, 2007). Therefore, in order to ensure appropriate and meaningful education for persons with special needs, schools providing integration services to children with special needs need to be equipped with adequate instructional materials and suitably trained staff. However, studies assessing the provision of education for persons with hearing impairment and other people with special needs in Nigeria indicate that most of such schools, lack adequate educational materials and suitably trained staff. Most especially, basic educational materials and audiovisual resources are not available in most of the schools for students with hearing impairment in Nigeria. As evidences suggest, most students with hearing impairment, who enroll in regular schools, are on their own, as they receive no special support to help them (Anumonye, 1991; Eleweke, 1997). In relation to this, studies by Fayose (1983), Adeoti- Adekeye (1996), Obajemu (2002) and Olafinsawe (2006) on school library services in Nigeria indicate that all schools libraries in their studies were completely undeveloped and improperly organized, the facilities were inadequate and the collections were obsolete. These libraries were grossly deficient in provision of audio- visual materials. It is therefore evident that educational materials are scarce in public schools in Nigeria, including those that offer services to students with hearing impairment. This situation has also put persons with hearing impairment at a greater disadvantage in the school system. This disadvantage, it is also believed will take its toll on the learning outcomes of the affected individuals.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

The major challenge facing persons with hearing impairment is ineffective oral communication. This is further compounded when auxiliary resources and services to make orally delivered information available to them are absent. There have also been concerns regarding the inadequacies in provision of educational materials in schools in Nigeria. More importantly, research reports indicate absence of adapted media in Nigerian schools that provide integration services for persons with hearing impairment. This affects effective communication with these children thereby resulting in inadequate and ineffective instruction and poor learning outcomes. Thus, life- long skills like library use skills become inadequately accessible to students with hearing impairment in such schools. This is related to the fact that library services for students with special needs and more importantly students with hearing impairment remain largely unexplored. It is against this background that this study set out to investigate the effects of captioned video instruction and direct teaching strategies on the learning outcomes in library use instruction of secondary school students with hearing impairment in public secondary schools in Oyo state.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The objectives of this study are to:

1. Investigate the effects of captioned video presentation and direct instructional strategy on the learning outcomes in library use instruction of secondary school students with hearing impairment in Oyo state.

2. Determine the difference in the effects of captioned video instruction and direct instruction on the learning outcomes in library use instruction of secondary school students with hearing impairment in Oyo State.

3. Investigate the effect of interaction between gender and captioned video/direct instructional strategies on the achievement of secondary school students with hearing impairment in library use instruction.

1.4 Research Questions

The following questions were answered in the study:

1. What is the position of libraries in the schools involved in the study?
2. How much are the participants involved in the study exposed to library use instruction?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses were tested in this study at 0.05 level of probability:

1. There is no significant difference in the learning outcomes of students with hearing impairment in the experimental and control groups.
2. There is no significant difference in the learning outcomes in library use instruction of the male and female students with hearing impairment exposed to direct instruction.
3. There is no significant difference in the learning outcomes in library use instruction of the male and female students with hearing impairment exposed to captioned video instruction.
4. There is no significant interaction effect of gender and instructional strategies on the performance of students with hearing impairment in library use instruction.
5. There is no significant difference in the learning outcomes of students exposed to direct instructional strategy and captioned video instruction.
6. There is no significant difference in the learning outcomes of students exposed to direct instruction and the control group.
7. There is no significant difference in the learning outcomes of students exposed to captioned video instruction and the control group.
8. There is no significant difference in the learning outcomes of subjects exposed totreatment in knowledge acquisition.
9. There is no significant difference in the learning outcomes of subjects exposed to treatment in practical application of instruction .

1.6 Significance of the Study

Library and media services to the hearing impaired are largely unexplored in Nigeria. Therefore, an investigation into the effects of captioned video and direct mode instruction on the learning outcomes of secondary school students with hearing impairment in Oyo state is significant, as it will add to the body of literature on library services to persons with hearing impairment. It will provide additional information on the effectiveness or otherwise of captioned video as an aid in the instruction of students with hearing impairment in Nigeria. The study will also provide empirical evidence as a basis for recommendation on library services to persons with hearing impairment in Nigeria.

1.7 Scope of the Study

The scope of this study is limited to captioned video and direct instructional strategies in library use instruction and the examination of their effects on the learning outcomes of secondary school students with hearing impairment. The study focused mainly on public secondary schools that offer integration to persons with hearing impairment in Oyo State. Oyo state is considered suitable for this study, as it has been found to have the highest concentration of schools for the hearing impaired (Mba, 1991). The schools used for this study are Ijokodo Senior High School, Ibadan, Methodist Senior Grammar School, Bodija, Ibadan and Durbar Senior Grammar School, Oyo.

1.8 Limitations of the study

This study used data collected from a set of students with hearing impairment in their second year in senior secondary school in only one state in Nigeria. A larger sample of person with hearing impairment may provide the basis for better generalization. This study has also been able to investigate only one moderating variable; an investigation into some other variables may provide more interesting results.

1.9 Operational Definition of Terms

The following terms are given operational definitions to reflect the meaning they have in the context of this study:

Captioned Video Instruction: This refers to a set of instructions on library use as recorded on a magnetic tape to include sound, vision and written words representing the teaching instructions. This could be played back to project on the screen moving pictures and the written words as accompanied by the spoken words.

Instructional Strategy: This refers to the style of presentation of instruction. In this study, it refers to captioned video and direct instructional strategies.

Students with Hearing Impairment: This refers to students who have severe hearing loss and are being educated alongside their hearing counterparts in an inclusive school environment.

Direct Instructional Strategy: This stands for presentation of instruction through face- to- face teaching of the students.

Library Use Instruction: This is a set of instructions aimed at teaching library skills to the hearing- impaired secondary school students. The contents include instruction on concept of school libraries, library collection and arrangement, library use procedure, using the catalogue, using the reference sources as well as electronic sources of information.

Learning Outcomes: This refers to the performance of students, asreflected in scores obtained from the library use instruction test and the library practical use checklist used in study.

Effects: This refers to observable impacts of the treatment on the learning outcomes of the participants in the study

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0 Introduction

This chapter presents a review of literature on the following sub- headings.

- Hearing impairment and its effects on the individual
- Educational provision and people with hearing impairment
- Hearing impairment and learning outcomes of secondary school Students
- Libraries and Nigerian secondary schools
- Library instruction and students with hearing impairment
- Gender and learning outcomes of persons with hearing impairment
- Instructional strategies for students with hearing impairment
- Video and educational instruction for students with hearing impairment
- Importance of captioning and captioned video
- Direct instructional strategy and captioned video instruction

2.1 Hearing impairment and its effects on the individual

Hearing impairment is the educational term for individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing to the extent that they require special services to achieve optimally in the school environment. It is a generic term that includes hearing disability ranging from mild to profound levels, thus encompassing individuals who are deaf and those who are hard of hearing (Mba, 1991, Ball State University, 2008). Essentially, persons with hearing impairment belong to a group known as exceptional children or children with special needs. The special needs of this group arose from the disability being suffered by the individual. However, the common thread of persons with hearing impairment is the inability to understand spoken language through hearing alone while the major challenge facing them is communication (Harrington, 1994, Ball State University, 2008).

A learner with deafness according to Heward (2000) is an individual who is unable to use his sense of hearing to understand speech, although he /she may perceive some sounds. Even with a hearing aid, the hearing loss is too great to allow the individual with deafness understand speech through the ears alone. The individual with deafness has a profound hearing impairment and he is dependent on vision for language and communication even with the use of amplification (Paul and Quigley 1990). According to Bakare (1988) and Ademokoya (1995) a person with deafness is someone who may be severely or profoundly hearing impaired with 60bB and above while the person with hard of hearing may be either mildly or moderately hearing impaired with 40dB – 60dB hearing loss. Though, the person with hard of hearing has a significant hearing loss that makes some special adaptation necessary, it is possible for him to respond to speech and other auditory stimuli. However, with the help of hearing aid, individuals with hard of hearing are able to use hearing to understand speech.

Hearing impairment may also be described in terms of age of onset. The hearing loss may be congenital (present at birth) or adventitious (acquired later in life). Pre- lingual and post- lingual hearing impairment also refer to whether hearing loss is sustained before or after the development of spoken language. The term pre- lingual hearing impairment refers to deafness that occurs before language develops and is contrasted to the term post- lingual hearing impairment which refers to hearing impairment which occurs after language is developed. Persons with pre- lingual hearing loss (present at birth or occurring before the acquisition of language and the development of speech patterns) are more functionally disabled than those who lose some degree of hearing after the development of language and speech (Denmark, 1994; Ball State University, 2008).

Hearing impairment can have profound consequences on an individual as it imposes some limitations on the individual. Hearing impairment disorganises the whole personality of the affected person, his physical mental, social and psychological well- being. Cognitive and intellectual adjustments are also affected since all encompasses communication. Individuals with hearing- impairment also find their range of experience constrained by communication limitation (Ekweke, 1991; Mba, 1991; Meyen and Bui, 2007). The American Speech- Language- Hearing Association (2008) identified four major effects of hearing impairment to include delay in the development of speech and language, learning problems that result in reduced academic achievement, communication difficulties leading to social isolation and poor self concept as well as impact on vocational choices. Person with hearing impairment suffer from lack of opportunity to interact fully and manipulate their environment. However, as noted by Hallahan and Kaufman (2000), the most severely affected areas of development in persons with hearing impairment include comprehension and production of language and speech. A number of research studies have also concluded that persons with hearing impairment have abnormal personality characteristics or inadequate social adjustment when compared to hearing people (Cole and Cole, 1989; Baker and Kyle 1990). They also lack knowledge about self and have difficulty in acquiring skills to become active and independent learners. They may also have reduced opportunities to be autonomous. (Clark, 1994; Luckner, 1994, Waite and Melling, 2007). Persons with hearing impairment have also been found to lag behind their hearing counterparts in cognitive development, as they often experience delayed development of speech, language and cognitive skills, which may result in slow learning and difficulty progressing in school (Moores, 1996; Heward, 2000, World Health Organization, 2006). Specifically, American Speech- Language- Hearing Association (2008) noted that children with hearing loss have difficulty with all areas of academic achievement while the gap in academic achievement between children with normal hearing and those with hearing loss usually widens as they progress through school. Essentially, hearing impairment leads to sensory deprivation which brings about difficulty in language acquisition which is the key to knowledge and understanding of the world. This usually results in educational, emotional and psychological problems for the individual affected. However, despite these effects, persons with hearing impairment have a right to education.

2.2 Educational provision and persons with hearing impairment

According to 2005 estimates by the World Health Organization (WHO), 278 million people worldwide are living with hearing impairment while 80% of persons with hearing- impairment also live in low- and middle- income countries. This number of people with hearing impairment is also rising mainly due to a growing global population and longer life expectancies. (WHO, 2009). Regardless of their disabilities, persons with hearing impairment have the same right to education as non- disabled persons and they require active intervention and specialized services. Harrington (2002) asserted that there is a wide variety of educational levels opened to persons with hearing impairment, from bare survival skill to an earned doctorate degree level. Special education programmes generally provide opportunities for children with disabilities to either participate in regular school settings, which is otherwise known as integration or to be given education under intensive segregated programmes. Therefore, educational placements for persons with hearing impairment range from integration to segregation and recently, inclusion.

Segregation programmes provide education to children with special needs in special school environments while integration provides education to children with special needs in regular school environment (Ikpaya, 1991). The United Nations recommended that the education of persons with disabilities should as far as possible take place in the general school system. Integration which recently progressed to inclusion was considered to be the most realistic form of special education in Nigeria and it was also accepted that special classrooms and units be provided in ordinary schools (Ogundare, 1996, NPE, 2004) Integration which has now moved to its more advanced level of inclusion, has been described as a significant educational reform programme in the 1990s and 2000s (Ademokoya 2008). However, Milter (2000) defined inclusion as a reform process aiming at ensuring that all learners, regardless of their physical or sensory defects have access to the whole range of educational and social opportunities offered by the school. Inclusion therefore implies the removal of all persons and learners with disabilities from segregated settings (institutions and special schools) into the community living and regular classes where they can live and learn side by side with non- disabled persons or learner (Westwood, 1999). Nigeria is however yet to get to this stage. Regardless of the educational placement of these students, they are expected to make use of library resources in their educational pursuit.

Education for person with hearing impairment in Nigeria started in 1956 through the initiatives of ‘Friends of the Deaf’ which led to the establishment of the Wesley School for the Deaf in Lagos. This was estimated to be about 200 years behind Europe and America. This was followed by the establishment of Ibadan Mission School for the Deaf in 1960. (Adepoju, 1984; Onwuchekwa, 1988; Adima, 1989). Other schools for persons with hearing impairment emerged later. All these schools were taken over by government in 1976 (Oni, 1990). Eleweke (1997) further reported that there exists a special school for children with hearing impairment in the majority of the 36 states in the country. These comprise of both special and integrated ones. There are presently schools and institutions established to provide education to children with hearing impairment from primary through tertiary level. However, at the secondary and tertiary levels majority of children with hearing impairment undergo integrated education.

According to Atinmo (1987), provision of secondary education for people with hearing impairment in Nigeria started after the 1977 National policy on Education. Oyebola, (1988) identified Methodist Grammar School, Bodija, Ibadan as the first secondary school in Nigeria to provide educational facilities for both normal and children with hearing- impairment. Others were also established as the need arose. At the tertiary level, Atinmo, and Dawha (1998) identified Universities of Calabar, Ibadan and Jos as well as College of Science and Arts, Enugu as institutions that admit persons with disabilities – the hearing impaired inclusive – into various courses of study. Nigeria still practices both integration and segregation education for persons with disabilities. Though there have been advances from Integration to inclusion, provision of mainstream education for persons with disabilities –those with hearing impairment inclusive- is still at the integration stage. This, Eleweke (2002) noted is even facing some formidable barriers in its implementation. These barriers include lack of equipment and materials, lack of vocational preparation programmes and inadequate service delivery and funding among others. Since libraries suppose to be part of educational provision in these schools, it is pertinent that appropriate skills are imparted to the students. This will also involve the use of adapted media.

2.3 Instructional strategies for students with hearing impairment

Instructional strategy otherwise known as teaching strategy involves planning to influence directly or indirectly, the learning process by varying the learner’s behaviour, tailoring the subject matter to meet his needs and interest as an individual and arranging a variety of media and laboratory experience for the students (Vijayalakshmi, 2004). It is something a teacher arranges in order to establish interaction between the teacher, the student and the subject matter. Teaching strategies are usually formulated in an attempt to move a student from the pre- strategy stage to the point of mastering some knowledge, skills and or attitudes. There are various instructional strategies available for teaching and learning processes. Some strategies are more effective than others and there is no single instructional strategy considered best for all students and all subject matters (Moores and Schants, 1987; Vijayalakshmi, 2004). It is therefore necessary to select the best strategy for the particular student population being handled in instruction.

As noted by Ademokoya (1994), Eniolorunda (1998) and Heward (2000), the learning process of children with disabilities is inferior to that of normal children. Consequently, the teacher must use special instructional methods that compensate for the deficiency in order to make learning effective. Various strategies useful with normal persons could be adapted to teach persons with hearing impairment. Alade (1992) and Ademokoya (2006) contended that any teaching strategy adopted for the curriculum designed for hearing persons must be modified to ensure that the students with hearing impairment understand the requirement of the strategy. Research evidences have suggested instructional strategies that could be employed for people with hearing impairment to include direct instruction approach, child initiated activities and eclectic approach. Others are interactive instruction and peer mediated instruction as well as modeling (Wolery, 1992; Drecktrah and Chiang, 1997; Jones, 1997; Jitendra and Torgerson- Tubiello, 1997). However, Keller (2005) asserted that all of these strategies will work on some of the students while some strategies will not. The degree of impairment and the background training of the student will affect the usefulness of the various strategies

Olson and Platt (1992) divided instructional strategies that could be employed for people with specials needs – persons with hearing impairment inclusive – to teacher directed and student directed instructional strategies. The teacher directed instructional methods include direct instruction, unit method and reciprocal teaching while student directed instruction include peer tutoring, cooperative learning and whole language approach.

Direct instruction is a teacher directed instructional strategy, which involves the teacher given instruction to a group of students. The teacher’s obligation is to find ways of clustering and connecting ideas, facts and information so that students can effectively process what the teacher presents (Lasley and Matczynski, 1997). As noted by Carnine, Silbert, Kame'enui and Tarve (2004) direct instruction derives mainly from two lines of scholarship and curriculum development. One of these is based on a synthesis of findings from experimental studies conducted by many different researchers, in which teachers were trained to use particular instructional practices. These practices then were assessed for their effects on student learning, and the effects were compared with effects for similar students who had not been taught according to the experimental method. The synthesis growing out of these studies identified common teaching functions abstracted from the experiments that had proved effective in improving student learning. These teaching functions included teaching in small steps with student practice after each step, guiding students during initial practice, and ensuring that all students experienced a high level of successful practice. It was sometimes called systematic teaching, or explicit teaching, or active teaching. The direct mode of instruction is a generic teaching model which has been conventionally and predominantly in use in schools all over the world and most especially in Nigeria (Johnson,Aragon, Shaik, andPalma- Rivas,1999; Salawu, 1999; Price 2009). Direct instruction has been identified as one of the alternative instructional practices effective for working with students with special needs and most especially students with hearing impairment (Olson and Platt, 1992, Keller, 2005).

Video has also been found as a useful method of instruction to individuals, small and large groups as well. According to Davis (1998) for the past several decades, teachers have been trying to exploit and manipulate video to enhance classroom teaching and learning. The video may be used to replace the teacher, compliment other instructional media or supplement instruction (Barford and Weston, 1997; Sampath, Panneerselvam and Santhanam, 1998). In the earlier situation the video is used in a way that the involvement of the teacher is not required as in classroom discourse.

In relation to person with hearing impairment, studies by Koskinen (1988); Hairston (1994) and Withrow (1994) revealed that captioned video has also been found helpful in classroom instruction of both young and adult persons with hearing impairment. Thus, both direct instruction and captioned video instruction have been identified as strategies that could benefit persons with hearing impairment in educational instruction. This has also been corroborated by Kumar and Scarola (2006). However, Lasley and Matczynski (1997) noted specifically that direct instruction is best used when teachers are teaching skills. In the same vein captioned video instructional mode has been specifically found useful in teaching library use skills (Austin, 1981; Messelheiser, 1996). Both strategies of instruction involve well structured and step- by- step presentation of instruction.

Freese (1986) asserted that persons with hearing impairment are at a disadvantage when using materials intended for a hearing population due to the barrier of communication between people with hearing impairment and the hearing community. This fact underscores the importance of media in education of the hearing impaired. The implication of this is that, in order to assist the hearing impaired attain full participation in life of their society, the utilization of appropriate technology as applied to media services is highly indispensable. Various technologies have been identified to assist in the education of persons with hearing impairment. These include close captioning decoders, and telecaption adapter (Knight, 1981). The close captioning decoder is a special device designed to receive electronic code and translate such to subtitles. This would in effect enable the hearing impaired “hear” the dialogue on television in the form of subtitles appearing at the bottom of the screen. As noted by Kumar and Scarola (2006), closed captions are the text equivalent of the spoken portion of a video presentation designed to aide people with a hearing impairment. It allows people to see the words, read the words, hear them being said, and see them in context with the action on the television screen. They work together to produce a very rich learning environment.

In relation to this McGovern (1993) reported the federal legislation in the United States of America which made it a legal requirement for all television set (13 inches or larger ones) to have built- in captioning decode circuitory. This is to enable viewers including the hearing- impaired see subtitles on their programming. Studies have also revealed that captioned media have been found useful with people who have hearing impairment. Amongst these are captioned film, captioned video tapes and captioned television (Freeze, 1986; Koskinen, 1988; Hairston, 1994; Withrow, 1994). One of the most commonly used strategies for improving comprehension and retention of video content is closed captioning. While originally designed for individuals with hearing impairments, captioning is now widely used for teaching reading and listening skills to children, adults, and foreign language learners (Shea, 2000; Linebarger, 2001; Nugent, 2001; Evmenova and Behrmann, 2008).

In related development, Harrington (1994) reported that signed video has been found useful with persons with hearing impairment. He however added that captioned video has advantages over signed ones. These advantages include being more accessible to both the oralist and the signing persons with hearing impairment as well as being more available. It is thus obvious that while signed video could be helpful to mainly the signing persons with hearing impairment, captioned video could be helpful to both the signing and the oralist persons with hearing impairment.

Attempts have been made to use captioned media in instruction of persons with hearing impairment. Studies have also established the usefulness of captioned media in the instruction of both young and adult persons with hearing impairment. Withrow (1994) reported on projects implementing captioned media resources in mainstream classrooms for persons with hearing impairment. Koskinen (1988) in two studies employed captioned television in reading instruction for elementary school deaf students. He reported that the students were comfortable, stayed on task and responded accurately to lessons. Evmenova (2008) investigated the effectiveness of alternative narration, various adapted captioning (highlighted text and picture/word- based), and interactive searching the video for answers on content comprehension of non- fiction general education videos by students with intellectual disabilities . The study showed that students enjoyed learning with adapted video clips. It was further concluded that adapted videos offer effective adapted curriculum materials and interventions supporting inclusion of students with disabilities into content based education

Apart from being useful with persons with hearing impairment, captioned materials have also been found useful with persons with learning disabilities and normal children. In this vein, Reily and Barber – Smith (1982) employed the use of captioned film in teaching persons with learning disabilities. Their study revealed that those who read the script and saw the film demonstrated greater increase in number of words recognized. Koolstra and Beentjes (1999) also carried out a study on the vocabulary acquisition of normal children using subtitled television programmes. The result showed that the vocabulary score in the subtitled condition were higher than the non- subtitled condition.

However, though evidences show that captioned materials have been found an effective instructional media for persons with hearing impairment, a study by Meyers- Sinett (1997) revealed the contrary. In a study to investigate the effect of English captioning with American Sign Language on hearing impaired students, Meyers- Sinett made use of three presentations: a bilingual video which incorporated American Sign Language with Standard English captions; a monolingual English video with Standard English caption; and a monolingual American Sign Language only video. The study revealed that there were no significant differences in students written measures of reading comprehension recall across any of the three presentations of information.

2.4 Libraries and Nigerian secondary schools

Libraries are important for children who are schooling. This is why the library stands as the heart of the school system is the library. The library has been recognized by the National Policy on Education (2004) as one of the most important educational services which also stands as the heart of the educational enterprise. As indicated by Usoro and Usanga (2007) information is power and access to information is indispensable to individual advancement as well as corporate educational development. School children, therefore need the library for effective learning. The school library provides information and ideas that are fundamental to successful functioning in society and gives students lifelong learning skills, develops the imagination, citizenship, critical thinking skills, and ability to use information in different media (IFLA, 2000). School libraries are found in primary and secondary schools ands are expected to serve everyone in the community, including students with disabilities, who need special materials and services. According to Unanga (2007), the school library helps children learn to enjoy reading, learning, and using library resources as lifelong habits, and gives them the chance to evaluate and use information. It exposes them to a range of thoughts, opinions, and ideas, and gives them awareness of other cultures.

School libraries can provide a flexible place for learning where project work, individual study, group research and reading can all take place. By supporting and giving access to a broad range of information sources, the school library can stimulate learning and motivate pupils by providing the means to freely pursue subjects which engage them (Teacher Net, 2007). More importantly, the school library has a role to facilitate the planning and implementation of learning programs that will equip students with the skills necessary to succeed in a constantly changing social and economic environment. At the secondary school level, senior students need library facilities more because they are required to do a lot of work on their own (Fayose, 1995, Department for Children, Schools and Families, 2007). This, therefore, underscores the importance of library use instruction at the secondary school level as it develops in pupils and teachers the appropriate skills that would facilitate the full exploitation of library resources and in effect enhance the acquisition of life long learning skills (Ogunseye, 2001).

Various studies have been carried out on the position of school library services in Nigeria Earlier studies by Fayose (1983) and Adeoti- Adekeye (1996) on school library services in Ibadan, Benin and Ilorin indicate that library services in all schools in their studies were grossly inadequate and deficient. In more recent studies, Obajemu (2002) assessed the library collection, staffing, building space, furniture and the profile of eight secondary schools in Oshodi/Isolo Local Government Area of Lagos State, Nigeria. The evaluation was based on the "Lagos Library Board for Schools Libraries Standards". The findings show that the school libraries were completely undeveloped, under- staffed, under- used and improperly organised. Also the facilities were inadequate and the collections were obsolete. In a similar vein, Olafinsawe (2006) carried out the analysis of the library collection, staffing, building space and furniture of Ile- Oluji/Okeigbo Local Government Area, Ondo State. The findings showed that these school libraries were yet to achieve any meaningful growth in terms of educational development of the Ondo State, talking less of the UNESCO standard. It is therefore evident that library services in Nigerian schools are not yet really developed and made adequate to assist student in such school in their educational development. This implies that the students may not have access to functional library services not to even talk about being exposed to library use skills. This will undoubtedly rob them of the exposure and lifelong skills needed to cope with life after graduation from school. More importantly, students with hearing impairment in such schools that offer services to students with hearing impairment are put at a greater disadvantage in the school system. This disadvantage, it is also believed will have its tolling effect on the learning outcomes of the affected individuals.

2.5 Hearing impairment and learning outcomes

Learning is described by Banhart (1995) as the gaining of knowledge or skill or the possession of knowledge gained by a study or scholarship. He further defined outcome as a result or consequence. Thus learning outcomes could be regarded as the result of knowledge or skill gained through a study or scholarship. It could also be referred to as performance. Evaluation of learning outcomes permits an assessment of individual achievement to satisfy external requirements, and provides information that can be used to improve curriculum, and to document accomplishments or failures. Evaluation can provide feedback and motivation for continued improvement for learners, faculty, and innovative curriculum developers. Various learning outcome assessment methods that can be used in education range from paper- and- pencil tests to computerized tests (Woitczak, 2002). Evidences suggest a wide variation between the performance of persons with hearing impairment and their hearing peers due to the hearing loss they suffer. Studies assessing the cognitive development of students with hearing impairment have found them to lag behind their hearing peers (Heward, 1996; Moores 1996). As noted by Marsharck, Convertino,& LaRock, (2004) despite the efforts of educators and parents, the academic performance of children with hearing impairment frequently lags behind that of their hearing peers (Traxler, 2000; Lang, 2003). This is because, according to Marschark (2003), individuals who are deaf are likely to deal with the world differently from individuals who are not. Studies by Marschark and Mayer (1998) and McEvoy et al (1999) also reveal differences in organisation and utilization of information in recall of individual items. In these studies, students with hearing impairment remembered less than hearing peers and what they did recall generally consisted of fragments or disconnected words and phrases. In the same vein Marsharck, Convertino,& LaRock, D. (2004)) reported that in studies of memory, problem solving and other academic tasks, students with hearing impairment have been found to focus more on individual item information rather than relations among items. This has also been found to affect learning and performance in academic domains (Ottem, 1980; Marschark, 2003).

2.6 Gender and learning outcomes of students with hearing Impairment

Barlet, Burton and Peim (2001) contended that there is a growing concern on social factors and their relationship to educational achievement. They further noted that the most significant and enduring achievement of recent studies in relation to social factors include questions of class, culture, gender and ethnicity. Kastl (2009) posits that, discussions on the concept of gender frequently begin with the perspective which starts with the binary view of male and female. According to the United Nations (2008), gender refers to the social attributes and opportunities associated with being male and female and the relationships between women and men and girls and boys, as well as the relations between women and those between men. These attributes, opportunities and relationships are socially constructed and are learned through socialization processes. Gender is one of the enduring human characteristics that may be considered as having effect on the performance of individuals. It is also one of the enduring characteristics of subjects which serve as an important variable in experimental studies. Ademokoya (1994) noted that gender as an intervening variable could be an enduring factor which can positively or otherwise affect the subjects’ performance in an experimental or learning task. It is believed that since no two human beings are the same in physical and intellectual attributes, then one should not expect both male and female students to perform uniformly in academic endeavours (Biehler, 1981). Okoye (1987) also asserted that owing to some biological differences in male and female students, boys and girls are bound to perform differently in some academic tasks. As noted by Abiodun (2006) and Ademokoya (2006) gender is a factor that could in addition to the disability account for how learners with hearing impairment perform in their academic pursuits. However studies have revealed contrary findings on the effect of gender as a variable. According to Barlett, Burton & Penn (2001), evidences indicate that girls do better than boys overall in school examinations. This supports findings by Gillborn & Mirza, (2000). In relation to persons with hearing impairment, Akalefu (1988) examined the academic performance of students with hearing impairment from an integrated school and her findings revealed that there was no significant difference between the performance of the male and female students. A study by Alade (1989), also examined the performance of both hearing students and students with hearing impaired from an integrated school in Ibadan. Her findings showed that both male and female students in both groups performed relatively equally. Other related studies by Okocha (1992) and Ademokoya (1995) also revealed that gender has no significant impact on the performance of students with hearing impairment. This was further corroborated by Redmon (2007), whose study revealed that there were no statistically significant differences found for scores of students in the study based on students' gender.

2.7 Library use instruction for students with hearing impairment.

Library use instruction which is otherwise known as user education, bibliographic instruction or library skill is a process of making patrons to learn how to make effective use of the library and its resources through the acquisition of skills in identification, location, retrieval and exploitation of information. Library use instruction is based upon the belief that information seeking is an essential skill for life- long learning which can be learned and improved throughout a person's educational and professional career. (Muogolin, 1986; University of Nebraska- Lincoln. 2008). According to Cullen and Kirby (1986), user education programmes tend to be of a how to do something type or introduction of the layout and workings of a particular library. It could then be concluded that library use instruction is an awareness programme given to would – be patrons of libraries on the workings of the library and how to make effective use of the library and its resources. These patrons may consist of those who are completely unaware of the library and its services; those who are vaguely aware and those who though aware, fail to exploit it fully due to lack of understanding or recognition of its full capabilities Learning how to use a library is a means of empowering oneself by becoming a confident and critical user of information.

The main goal of library use instruction is to make students more successful information seekers as it provides students with information utilization skills that will carry them into the future (Beer, 1998; Furlong and Roberts, 2001; Wertzberger, 2001). According to Wertzberger (2001), learning how to use the library has never been easy, but this is further complicated by the contemporary environment of rapid technological change and proliferation of information sources (Ottong, 2002). Library professionals recognize the importance of library use instruction at the secondary school. Ury (1996) noted that the skills needed by many students who enter college unprepared to function efficiently and effectively in an academic library might be taught while they are still at high school. Bornett (1996) was of the opinion that all schools should provide regular introduction for pupils library use. Deer (1998) noted that libraries are ideally placed to help young adults acquire information skills.

In Nigeria, Fayose (1995) recommended library skills for secondary school students to include introduction to school libraries, the catalogue, classification and shelf arrangement as well as parts of a book among others. Also, Ogunsheye et al (2001) in a syllabus developed for library use education programme suggested the content for secondary schools to include library collection and arrangement, rules and regulations; procedure for library use, library catalogue, reference materials, parts of a book and electronic sources of information.

It is therefore evident that the elements of library use instruction comprise basically of knowledge about the workings of the library as well as information location and retrieval skills. However, the importance of feedback to measure the effectiveness of instruction or how much the pupils have learnt should not be overlooked. The effectiveness of formal library instruction was investigated through a library user test conducted by Fox and Weston (1993). Their report indicated that the students who received formal bibliographic instruction had higher level of self assessment and actual knowledge of some library skills than those who did not receive any formal instruction. The content of library use instruction for secondary school students, include knowledge about classification, shelf arrangement and loan procedure to information on library rule and the catalogue (Fehn, 1996; Fehn, 1997; Otto, 1998). Bornet (1996) also suggested that the content could include talks on what students have learnt. According to Henthorn (2001) evaluating the students’ knowledge of library materials and search strategy as well as skills and abilities in the areas of comprehension and application will help in determining the achievements and or deficiency of the programme which will then result in educational decision making.

The goal of library instruction to persons with hearing impairment is based on the general concept of making them to be able to identify, procure and make an efficient use of information resources to meet their information needs. The barrier of communication between the community of persons with hearing impairment and hearing community are very real and the persons with hearing impairment may be cut off from vital sources of information if appropriate measures are not taken. This corroborates Yoshida (1993) who asserted that libraries serving people with hearing impairment must compensate for the users disabilities by facilitating easy access to appropriate materials. It also important to note that, teaching people with hearing impairment skills in accessing information will make an important contribution to their education (Murray, 2002).

2.8 Video and educational instruction for hearing impairment

Video comprises of the video recorder and the video materials like tapes on cassettes, reels or cartridges as well as disc. The video recorder is a machine that records pictures and sound while the video tape is very similar to, but wider than the audio tape. Video is at best defined as the selection and sequence of messages in an audio- visual context (Woolford, 1982; Elaturoti, 1990, Canning- Wilson, 2000). Though video technology was invented in 1956 as claimed by Abbot (1985) and Chaptal (1998), it only became widely used in the mid 1970s. Dobrow (1994) also noted that the video recorder was increasingly found in homes just as it is increasingly evident in businesses, classrooms and libraries. This directly points to the value of video as a medium for delivering all sorts of information. In this regard, Ostrov and Hall (1994) described the video as an effective method of getting information across in the audiovisual age.

The medium of video is highly valued in teaching; Salawu (1999) asserted that video is widely used in educational programmes as it provides real experiences in almost all the fields of learning. Barford and Weston (1997) also observed that with the help of the video recorders, video camera and sender, lectures can be delivered by a trainer to quite a number of students in various locations on the same subject at the same time. They further explained that a teacher could use that video in instruction either as a substitute for lectures, a supplement to lectures, and an individual learning package or as a part of a multi- media package. This is an indication of various ways in which video could be applied in educational instruction. However for the purpose of this study the video package served as a strategy of instruction. Abimbade (1997) observed that for a video developed to teach, the video teacher should deliver the lesson in such a way as to introduce why the topic is being recorded and viewed. In the same vein Adams (1990) suggested that, in order to make the material comprehensible, the method and language of presentation should be put into consideration. These facts were also considered in the development of the package for this study.

Video has even been favoured above television transmission in teaching and learning. (Jenkins, 1981). As a result of his study on television and literacy, Aderinoye (1984) recommends that television lessons should be transferred into video tape to take care of hundreds of television viewers who found it difficult to cope with the stations time. Palmer (1993) in his study of television in literacy education from the Arab region noted that another way to realize additional education value from the programme is to package them into videocassettes with accompanying printed lessons. All these point to the flexibility of video use in teaching and learning situations.

Various studies have been carried out on the effectiveness of video presentations in teaching and learning. Radziewicz (1985) investigated the effectiveness of video presentations as a means of parent education, using 22 parents of infants with hearing impairment, 11 of whom were exposed to videotape presentations. The result of the study indicated that the parents who had viewed the videotape presentation demonstrated a significant increase in knowledge regarding hearing loss while the other eleven did not exhibit such an increase in knowledge.

Similarly, studies by Ellington (1986), Oritz (1990) and Goldman (1990) as cited by Salawu (1999) all confirmed the effectiveness of video presentation in teaching. A survey by Canning- Wilson (2000) suggests that the students like learning language through the use of videos. One of the results of her survey shows that learners prefer action/entertainment films to language films or documentaries in the classroom. She states although these films may seem to hold student interest, she believes that it could be inferred that student comprehension of the video may be due to the visual clues instead of the auditory components.

The use of video instruction is not new in librarianship. Most especially, the use of traditional VHS has been much more researched in librarianship (Maness, 2006). The medium of video has been widely employed in library use instruction. Cullen and Kirby (1986) asserted that user education is probably the most common area where the use of in- house produced media presentation has been employed. Davis (1986) reported the use by University librarians in three Indiana State of video projection for teaching students to use LUIS (Library User Information Service. Reports by Nikami (1993), Shiba (1993) and Tunley (1995) indicated video packages developed by some libraries in Japan and Manchester mainly for user education. According to Lornzeen (2002) Michigan State University produced a library instruction video titled The Big- Time Library Show to teach basic concepts about the campus library system. The video was produced by the campus PBS station and as such was of high quality. While a study of students who watched the video showed it was largely successful, it also pointed out several concepts that needed to be presented differently.

In relation to instruction of persons with hearing impairment, captioned video is one of the most commonly used strategies for improving comprehension and retention of video content. Harkins (2000) noted that captioned video has great potential in making instruction as visual as possible to persons with hearing impairment. This technology was originally designed for individuals with hearing impairments. However, captioning is now widely used for teaching reading and listening skills to children, adults, and foreign language learners (Shea, 2000 and Linebarger, 2001)

On the other hand, there are studies that do not support video presentation in teaching. Ojogan (1990) compared the effect of video instructional television and the traditional method on students’ attitude and achievement in English language. The findings showed that there was no significant difference in achievement scores between the subjects exposed to video instructional television and the traditional method. Cox (1995), also carried out a comparative study on video based versus live presentation of staff development on teachers’ cognitive learning and attitude. The study revealed that the teachers learnt content material equally well with either of the two delivery systems. These contrasting evidences, as shown above, on the effectiveness of video in instruction did not allow for clear- cut conclusion on the issue. However, Salawu (1999) posited that the techniques as well as the way a particular medium is used would go a long way in determining its effectiveness or otherwise, and the video is not an exemption here.

2.9 Importance of captioning and captioned video

Captions put words in a motivating environment, where the audio and video contexts help viewers understand printed words they might not know how to read. According to the National Centre to Improve Practice- NCIP- (1998), the addition of captions to commercial and public television programs provide many opportunities for screen reading. Captions are available on hundreds of broadcast and cable television programs, home videos and educational videos (usually indicated by "closed captioned" or "CC" in a newspaper's television listings). In order to see the captions, which are encoded as data and hidden in the video (hence the term "closed captioned"), a viewer needs a decoder. Since July 1993, all television sets 13 inches or larger have decoders built in; viewers can also access captions through set- top telecaption adapters.

Captions generally appear in all- upper case letters (NCIP, 1998). According to Parks (2000), programs are captioned at different speeds depending on the sophistication and speed of delivery of the language of the spoken text. Some programs are captioned almost verbatim while others are paraphrased for ease of readability. Captions were originally developed for viewers with hearing impairment but educators of students with normal hearing have found that captions can turn television into a moving storybook. According to Davis (1988) when captioned technology emerged at the forefront some years back, many educators quickly recognized its potential in helping students to process language via the additional modality of printed word. This has also been corroborated by Harkins (2000)

NCIP (1998) asserted that researches have been conducted with students with persons with hearing impairment, hearing students reading below grade level and students learning English as a second language (also with adults, both native speakers of English and those learning English as a second language). Results that have emerged consistently across these studies strongly suggest that captioned TV and video motivate reluctant readers to read and boost their reading confidence. Reading captions also seems to improve sight vocabulary and vocabulary acquisition. It also seems to improve reading comprehension when compared to text only or television only. As noted by Bean & Wilson (1989) research studies on the benefits of using captioned TV with second language learners of all ages confirmed the findings of earlier years as students using captioned materials showed significant improvement in reading comprehension, listening comprehension, vocabulary acquisition, word recognition, decoding skills, and overall motivation to read.

2.10 Direct instructional strategy and captioned video instruction

Direct Instruction is an approach to teaching which is teacher- directed. . It involves a scripted lesson plan method, whereby the teacher passes facts, notes or action sequences on to the students in the most direct way possible. It emphasizes the use of small- group, face- to- face instruction by teachers and aides using carefully articulated lessons in which cognitive skills are broken down into small units, sequenced deliberately, and taught explicitly. The students are engaged to learn by memory and classroom responses ((Mosley, 1997; Schweinhart, 1997; Schug, Tarver and. Western, 2001; Carnine, Silbert, Kame'enui and Tarve, 2004). It is primarily a form of lecture consisting of explanation, example and opportunities for practice. The notion of lecture as used in direct instruction in secondary classrooms differs considerably from the notion of a lecture that is in use in the university or college (Bunch, 1988). Here, the teacher’s obligation is to find ways of clustering and connecting ideas, facts and information so that students can effectively process what is being presented (Lasley and Matczynski, 1997; Carnine, Silbert,. Kame'enui and Tarve, 2004). Direct instruction is sometimes synonymous with didactic teaching, active teaching and explicit instruction (Borich, 1988; Joyce and Weil, 1996). It is primarily a teacher centred strategy in which the teacher is the major provider of information. It is helpful that the teacher establishes a framework for the lesson and orients the students to the new material before presenting and explaining the new material. This may take the form of introductory activities that elicit students’ relevant existing knowledge or a review of the previous days work. After this, instruction can begin with the presentation of the new concept or skill. After explanation, comes evaluation in which the teacher checks for students understanding of the new concept or skill. The next ingredient in direct instruction is opportunity for independent practice. The direct mode of instruction is a generic teaching model which has been conventionally and predominantly in use in schools all over the world and most especially in Nigeria (Johnson,Aragon, Shaik, andPalma- Rivas,1999; Salawu, 1999; Price 2009).

Direct instructional strategy has been employed in various studies with various degrees of success. Aarnoutse (1997) investigated the effectiveness of a listening programme using the reciprocal teaching procedure and direct instruction model. Results indicated that students trained by the programme performed better during the post test than the control group. Brooks, Hamann and Vetter (1997) designed and implemented a programme to improve students’ vocabulary and comprehension using 59 students in grades 1, 2 and 3 in a low income area of a large city in Central Illinois. Findings from post intervention data suggest that direct instruction through thematic literature units, resulted in a steady growth in vocabulary by the students. A study by Duvall, Miller, Miller and Tillman (1997) to evaluate an intervention for increasing prosocial behaviours while decreasing inappropriate behaviours among documentary school children employed the use of direct instruction in social skills and cooperation learning structures. Post instruction data indicated an increase in prosocial behaviour and a decrease in negative behaviour. Schug, Tarver and Western, (2001) reported on a project involving more than 70,000 students in 180 schools throughout the United States. The project compared students taught according to the different models with a control group and with one another. Analyses of data collected showed that the direct instruction model produced the highest student outcomes on all three types of measures — basic skills, academic skills, and affective skills Students who had received direct instruction performed well not only on measures of basic skills but also in more advanced skills including reading comprehension and math problem- solving.

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Title
Effects of two instructional strategies on achievement in library use instruction among secondary school students with hearing impairment in Oyo State, Nigeria
College
University of Ibadan  (Education)
Grade
PhD
Author
Year
2011
Pages
119
Catalog Number
V280726
ISBN (eBook)
9783656740247
ISBN (Book)
9783656740230
File size
1739 KB
Language
English
Tags
effects, state, nigeria
Quote paper
Rotimi Egunjobi (Author), 2011, Effects of two instructional strategies on achievement in library use instruction among secondary school students with hearing impairment in Oyo State, Nigeria, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/280726

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