Transformation of global leadership guidelines to the local context in Thailand

Bachelor Thesis, 2014

78 Pages, Grade: 1,3


Table of content

1. Introduction
1.1. Rationale and research interest
1.2. Research approach
1.3. Structure of the thesis

2. Theoretical part
2.1 Leadership guidelines
2.1.1 Content of guidelines
2.1.2 Structure of guidelines
2.1.3 Implementing guidelines
2.1.4 Problems of leadership guidelines
2.2 Leadership
2.2.1 Participative vs. autocratic leadership
2.2.2 Limitations of a cross-cultural perspective
2.3 Motivation: Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
2.4 Culture definition
2.5. Cultural dimensions by Hofstede
2.5.1 The four dimensions presented by Hofstede
2.5.2 Criticism of the Hofstede study
2.6 GLOBE Study
2.6.1 The nine dimensions presented by GLOBE
2.7 Culture of Thailand
2.7.1 Thailand in the Hofstede study
2.7.2 Thailand in the GLOBE study
2.8 Summary of the theoretical part

3 Empirical Part
3.1 Methodology
3.1.1. Analysis of leadership guidelines
3.1.2 Theoretical assumptions for the content of guidelines
3.1.3 Theoretical considerations for the interview guideline
3.1.4 Sampling Strategy
3.1.5 Data analysis
3.2 Interpretation
3.2.1 Interpretations of the results
3.2.2 Limitations
3.3 Recommendations for transforming guidelines
3.3.3 Recommendations for transforming content
3.3.4 Recommendation for the implementation process
3.3.5 General notes on guidelines in the local context

4 Conclusion and outlook

5 Bibliography of Publication

6 Appendix


At this point I want to thank very much all interview participants for their support, their valuable insights, and their interest in this research.

Management Summary


Thailand is an important business hub within Southeast Asia. Global corporations that enter the Thai market are confronted by different cultural values, behaviors and expectations. This is especially challenging for leadership as corporate values and behaviors have to be transferred to the local staff. Leadership guidelines are an instrument to align the corporate leadership values to local employees. In order to be relevant in the local context, the global guidelines have to be transformed.


This thesis subsequently aims to answer the question as to how global leadership guidelines can be transformed to the local context in Thailand.


To answer the research question qualitatively, guided expert interviews were conducted with managers in Thailand to identify cultural implications for leadership. The material was then analyzed by content analyses and interpreted by linking it to relevant literature.


The research identified several implications for the content and development of guidelines. As for the content, it became clear that the face saving-value in Thailand requires increased sensitivity for reprimanding subordinates. Leaders are required to take an interest in personal matters of subordinates. Also, they should regularly follow up with them. Furthermore, subordinates prefer guidance on how to reach goals. Another major finding is that leadership guidelines should facilitate a familial and harmonious environment. For motivating employees, it became clear that Thai staff members are motivated by social aspects and the need for esteem whereas self-actualization is less important. Taking this finding into consideration, it is proposed that guidelines for transformation be suggested accordingly. This requires introducing detailed descriptions and to rephrasing certain statements. The implementation process should be designed in a way that allows discussions without superiors being involved in order to facilitate the contribution of employees without being inhibited by hierarchy.

List of abbreviations

illustration not visible in this excerpt

List of Figures

Figure 1: Culture manifestation at different levels

Figure 2, Cultural Dimensions Thailand

Figure 3: Thailand values and practices

Figure 4, Content analysis framework

List of Tables

Table 1, Example of content analysis

Table 2: Common concepts in leadership guidelines

Table 3, List of participants

Table 4: Overview of results and recommendations


Thailand is commonly known as the land of the smiles and is visited every year by millions of tourists. But besides its relevance as a holiday destination it is an important industrial hub in Southeast Asia. The capital city of Bangkok and the metropolitan area serves as the manufacturing base for many international corporations. The importance of the country as a manufacturing hub is likely to increase, especially with regard to the implementation of the ASEAN Economic Community in 2015, in short AEC. This will create a common market with over 600 million people (German-Thai Chamber of Commerce 2013). The country has an attractive position within this community, thanks to its central geographic location. If global corporations enter the Thai market by setting up a subsidiary or through mergers and acquisition, it is likely that the values, expectations and behaviors of the home country management differ from those of local employees, in particular if a corporation comes from a different cultural sphere. Therefore corporations are confronted with the process of harmonizing corporate cultures (Barmeyer, Davoine 2006, p. 228).

1.1. Rationale and research interest

A possible approach to harmonize the cultures is made possible by corporate guidelines that clarify the behavior of the company towards various stakeholders and to codify its values. Leadership guidelines as a subpart of corporate guidelines can play an important role as they affect expectations, values and the behaviors of employees of a company as well as the relationship between leaders and followers. They can serve as a tool to implement a common leadership culture. Where leadership guidelines were widely discussed in the 1980s and 90s, particularly in the Germanic language realm, they appear to receive less interest from science nowadays. Schilling (2005, p. 123) presumes that the reason for this is that leadership guidelines have already become a standard in German corporations. With German and other European corporations entering foreign markets, it can be necessary to align these guidelines to new markets and cultures. Since corporate culture is influenced by national culture (Olie, Köster 2005, p. 73), leadership guidelines are influenced by the respective home country culture. Conclusively, if global corporations enter foreign markets, their guidelines should be transformed to the local context in order to retain their function as guiding principles that are in line with both the corporations’ and their employees’ values. This research deals with the societal culture of Thailand as the main variable along which leadership guidelines are transformed. Therefore, the research question is:

How can leadership guidelines of global corporations be transformed to the local context in Thailand?

As a result of the research conducted, recommendations are given on how guidelines can be formulated to fit the local environment and the expectations of employees. The main subject of this research is the content of leadership guidelines. A second subject is the development process of guidelines. Suggestions are given to guide the implementation process in a culturally congruent manner. As a restriction must be declared that a detailed discussion in the context of a change management process (Thielen 2003, p. 165) is not implemented as it would exceed the scope of this research. The approach of this thesis will be discussed in more detail below.

1.2. Research approach

To answer the research question, one must first examine the theoretical background of leadership guidelines and to analyze their content. The next step examines the culture of Thailand and draws implications for leadership practices and guidelines. This is done by an extensive literature review on culture and by empirical data generation using qualitative expert interviews with managers in Thailand. Since subsidiaries of global corporations usually work with both host and home country nationals, expatriate or Thai leaders with international experience are interviewed. This is in order to gain insights from a multicultural perspective that sharpens the view for differences in behavior and attitudes. The structure of this research will be described in the following section.

1.3. Structure of the thesis

The first step of the research process is to examine the existing theory on leadership and culture. Leadership guidelines are first discussed in Section 2.1. Related to this is the leadership theory upon which guidelines are usually based and the hierarchy of needs by Maslow that serves as the basis for motivation in this research. Subchapter 2.4 provides a short introduction for the term culture and then two major studies on culture are discussed Chapters 2.5 and 2.6. The former discusses the cultural dimensions of Hofstede, which are up-to-date with regard to being one of the most important contributions to intercultural research, albeit it also in facing various criticisms. The latter then introduces the Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness Research Program, in short GLOBE. The culture of Thailand is then discussed by using the findings of these two studies.

The empirical part of this research consists of the analysis of Leadership guidelines for German companies under Subchapter 0. Seven concepts are deducted from the content analysis of the guidelines. Assumptions on how the local context affects the concepts are drawn in Subchapter 0 by using the preceding theory. These assumptions are subsequently used to develop the interview guidelines and as categories in analyzing the content of the material after all interviews are conducted. The detailed research process is discussed from Subchapters 0 to 0. After the interpretation of the results, subchapter 3.3 contains the recommendations that are given to answer the research question. Finally, the author discusses the results, reflects on the work, and makes suggestions for further research in Chapter 4.

2. Theoretical part

2.1 Leadership guidelines

The first chapter introduces the concept of leadership guidelines, its structure, and their content. There are various labels for the concept of leadership guidelines existing in theory and practice. Possible terms include basic objectives, fundamental principles, guiding principles or philosophies, management philosophies or just policies (Thompson 1958, p. 10; Richards, Max De Voe 1978, pp. 28–29) This thesis makes use of the term leadership guidelines. The following definition illustrates the concept.

Leadership guidelines describe or standardize relationships between superiors and subordinates within the context of a leadership concept (Wunderer 1995, p. 720).

From the definition above, one can see that these guidelines deal with the relationship between leaders and followers. They structure these relationships towards a desired leadership concept within the organization (Wunderer 1995, p. 722). Albeit often used synonymously in practice and science with corporate principles or guidelines (Thielen 2003, p. 42) they should be distinguished from the more general corporate principles or guidelines.

Corporate guidelines are defined as statements that are directed to employees, owners and business partners. They provide information about the targets and potentials of the corporation as well as the mode of behavior to reach those targets (Scholz 2000, p. 872).

As can be seen from this definition, corporate guidelines focus on several stakeholders such as customers and suppliers. Leadership guidelines on the other hand are targeted towards employees with regard to leadership. Therefore, they are a subpart of the corporate guidelines (Gabele, Kretschmer 1981, p. 7).

Leadership guidelines are based on three distinct sources (Gabele, Kretschmer 1981, pp. 22–23) within a company, namely:

- Leadership philosophy
- Organizational or corporate culture
- Values, interests, expectations and needs of employees

Thielen (2003, p. 61) notes that the leadership philosophy more likely describes intended beliefs whereas the organizational culture is already a given. Leadership guidelines are then an instrument used to manifest intended beliefs about leadership and integrate existing ones. They further guide employees on what expected behavior is in accordance with the corporate values (Wunderer 2009, p. 391). In addition, leadership guidelines determine how leader-subordinate relationships and communication should be structured. It must be noted that as guidelines, they are not the same as rules or leadership directives, they have no sanctioning function (Scholz 2000, p. 873).

Requirements for effective guidelines are that they are understandable, concise, and realistic with regard to the leadership practice and culture of the organization. Additionally, they should neither be formulated too generally nor too specifically and rigorously (Scholz 2000, p. 873). If formulated too specifically the guidelines could be too comprehensive, if too general they might be regarded as meaningless (Gabele, Kretschmer 1981, p. 75). This relates to the content of leadership guidelines that is discussed in the next section.

2.1.1 Content of guidelines

Usually, leadership guidelines are based on a cooperative or delegative leadership style. (Weibler 2012, pp. 443–445; Wunderer 2009, p. 390; Pietschmann et al. 1999)

Wunderer (1980, p. 431), distinguishes the content of guidelines amongst the three dimensions of principles, goals, and instruments. Principles are expected behaviors. Goals or targets deal with effectiveness and efficiency, for example need satisfaction, self-actualization, and motivation. Instruments are then leadership tools such as motivation, cooperation, and communication.

Using a content analysis of leadership guidelines for 51 German Corporations, Gabele and Kretschmer (1985, p. 57) identified the key expectations for employees. According to their study, employees and managers were the most addressed target group. The most frequently used concept was delegating tasks and responsibility, followed by informing the subordinates. Other concepts that were often found include setting goals, motivating employees, and criticizing subordinates. Being a role model was found in 15 guidelines (Gabele, Kretschmer 1985, p. 53). The next section discusses various approaches to structuring the content.

2.1.2Structure of guidelines

There are numerous ways to structure the content of leadership guidelines. The following criteria can serve as a framework for the formulation of guidelines (Pietschmann et al. 1999):

- They should serve as a guideline for behavior by giving examples
- They should conform to actual behavior
- Short captions
- Six to ten statements
- Subordinates can claim realization
- They should be in line with corporate vision and mission

This framework should be adapted to the respective organizational requirements. Crucial is that guidelines conform with actual behavior and are in line with vision and mission, because they could otherwise lose their credibility. Short captions which are limited to ten captions ensure that the guidelines are not too specific and comprehensive. Examples can then help to further specify the captions.

Nonetheless, guidelines can also be structured in a more comprehensive manner, as the following paragraph goes to show in a four part structure (Knebel, Schneider 1994, pp. 28–41). The first part, which can be the preamble, goals, and leadership principles of the organization, is described. Issues that are discussed in this section deal with cooperation and communication of employees. The second part describes the duties and authorities of leaders. This includes setting clear goals, criticism of subordinates, development of employees, and the provision of adequate information for them. The third section deals with the subordinate duties such as keeping their superiors informed and the willingness to continue learning constantly. The last section deals with organizational issues such as hierarchies and promotion of employees.

As can be seen from this structure, the two main target groups of leadership guidelines may also be addressed separately. Another way to categorize the content is to structure it based on leadership functions. In practice, leadership principles are not divided as strictly as above, rather they are blurred and need to be adapted to the specific needs and situations in the organization. To do so, the implementation process in the organization is essential.

2.1.3 Implementing guidelines

Three possible ways to implement a process are derived from expert interviews with managers, according to Gabele and Kretschmer (1985, p. 120):

- Development through top management
- Development through an expert group that does basic research
- Development through a project group and subsequent discussion in working groups.

In the first approach, the leadership guidelines are developed and implemented at the executive level. The second approach is similar to an internal research project. An expert group uses interviews and surveys to come to a first draft of guidelines. Afterwards, the draft is discussed in expert groups. The disadvantage of this approach is that it can take several years until it is implemented. In the third approach, a project group develops a first draft of guidelines within the group. The draft is then discussed with top and middle managers, e.g. in seminars or conventions. The following paragraph exemplifies an implementation process by a project group (Knebel, Schneider 1994, pp. 44–48).

To begin, a decision is made by top management to implement leadership guidelines. The support of top management is essential for a successful implementation. A project group is then created that has the responsibility to develop the guidelines. The team ideally consists of leaders from different departments within the organization as well as human resource managers and, if necessary, external consultants. Before the actual formulations of the guidelines, there should be an analysis of experiences of other corporations with the implementation process. The current state of the company’s leadership situation should be analyzed and evaluated. Afterwards, the goals of the guidelines are formulated. In the next step the actual guidelines should be drafted and discussed with the leaders of the different levels and departments. After rephrasing and completing them, they can be printed and handed out to employees of the organization.

Seminars to foster the exchange of experiences after the implementation can help avoid problems. It is also necessary that the written guidelines end up being lived up to by top management (Pietschmann et al. 1999). In practice, leadership guidelines can face various obstacles, which are discussed below.

2.1.4 Problems of leadership guidelines

Leadership guidelines can suffer from a lack of incentives and sanctioning and they may not be realistic with regard to the actual leadership practices. To address these problems, the guidelines should be evaluated by management and employees of the organization. Leadership guidelines can also lead to a demotivation of employees if reality and intention are incongruent (Pietschmann et al. 1999, p. 508). Human resource instruments such as performance reviews or job interviews should therefore connect to the values that are stated in the leadership principles (Weibler 2012, pp. 444–445).

In conclusion, it can be said that leadership guidelines are a way of providing a company-wide framework for desired superior and subordinate relationships. As part of the corporate guidelines, they are in line with the leadership philosophy, corporate politics as well as corporate culture. Usually, they encourage a cooperative leadership style. To give a more clear understanding about the leadership context, the next chapter discusses this style in more detail.


In order to avoid misunderstandings, it’s necessary to declare that the terms leader and superior are treated synonymously. The same approach is used for subordinate and follower. This chapter begins with a short definition of the concept of leadership as it is understood in this thesis. Nonetheless, there are many possible approaches that define the concept of leadership (Steinle 1995, p. 524).

Leadership is defined as the goal-oriented influence of subordinates’ behavior by using means of interaction and communication (Thielen 2003, p. 50).

Following this definition, influencing subordinates towards a goal can be achieved using various means of communication, either in that the leader or superior decide and then tell subordinates what to do or by actively involving them into the decision- making process. These two extremes are commonly referred to as autocratic and participative leadership with different graduations in between being possible. The continuum of the different styles will be discussed in the next section.

2.2.1 Participative vs. autocratic leadership

As mentioned in Subchapter 2.1.1, leadership guidelines usually focus on a delegative leadership style. Delegation means that a leader gives employees the responsibility to take out certain tasks. This style can be seen as a form of participative leadership, opposed to autocratic leadership (Bass, 2008, p. 461). Tannenbaum and Schmidt presented autocratic and participative leadership as two extremes in a continuum, the appropriate style depending on factors in the leader, the followers, and the situation. The continuum is discussed in the following two paragraphs (Tannenbaum, Schmidt, Warren 1973, p. 4).

On the one hand, the leader tells the employees what to do and the followers do not participate in the decision making process. In this research, this is referred to as the ‘tells’ style as per the label of Sadler and Hofstede (Sadler, Hofstede 1976, pp. 87–88). The next autocratic style is that the leader makes the decision, but tries to persuade the subordinates to accept it. On the more delegative side, the leader makes the decision but asks the subordinates to share their opinion. In the subsequent gradation the leader makes a decision, but allows the followers to share their ideas and he or she makes adjustments, if necessary. The next concept is that the leader tells the subordinates the problem and awaits ideas from the subordinates on how to solve them. The most participative decision making styles is that the manager allows the team or group to make a decision.

The approach actually used depends on some of the leader’s factors, such as his or her value system and beliefs. Subordinate factors include their motivation, their personality, and expectations. Situational variables include the type of organization, the urgency and nature of the problem, and the experience of group members.

2.2.2 Limitations of a cross-cultural perspective

As with the Tannenbaum Schmidt continuum, most concepts on leadership were developed in the west, foremost in the United States. Hence, the concepts are likely biased towards individualistic western values. Here the concept of leadership focuses on talented individuals that can lead organizations to success (Erez, Earley 1993, p. 177; Dickson et al. 2009, pp. 238–239). It can be doubted if this concept is transferrable universally across cultures. The same holds true for Maslow’s hierarchy of needs that is described below.

2.3 Motivation: Maslow’s hierarchy of needs

Motivating employees is a substantial part of the job of being a leader and subsequently, it is also found in leadership guidelines (Schilling 2005, p. 125). The theoretical foundation of this research regarding motivating employees is based on the hierarchy of needs by the American psychologist Abraham Maslow. He proposed that the most basic needs such as food and safety have to be fulfilled in order to focus on other, more sophisticated needs. When one need is satisfied, the next higher need is pursued. The needs are presented in the following paragraphs (Maslow 1943, pp. 372–382).

Physiological needs: These most basic needs include the need for food, water and homeostasis, e.g. regulation of body temperature, sleep, breathing, and sexual intercourse.

Safety needs: This refers to the need of being safe from physical dangers and to have a routine and structure. Maslow postulated that an ordinary person is satisfied in this need in the American society.

Love or social needs: After physiological and safety needs are fulfilled, the next highest needs are belonging and affiliation, maintaining friendships, and being loved by others.

Esteem needs: These needs include self-respect, self-confidence, and achievement. It can also mean striving for status, recognition, and appreciation by others.

Self-actualization: Amongst the highest set of needs, Maslow places value on the need for self-actualization. This means that people finally strive for fulfillment, to follow their talents, and own interests.

As with the research on leadership, it is likely that this ranking reflects the need for hierarchy in the American society at the time of writing (Hofstede 1980, p. 55). One can doubt whether this hierarchy would appear in the same order in an Asian culture like that of Thailand (Komin 1990, p. 702). The upcoming chapters will introduce the concept of culture and discuss major studies with their findings on Thailand.

2.4 Culture definition

Matsumoto (1996, p. 16) defines culture as “the set of attitudes, values, beliefs, and behaviors shared by a group of people, but different for each individual, communicated from one generation to the next.” This definition implies that culture is learned rather than inherited and each person differs in which degree he or she has adopted his or her values. Geert Hofstede, a Dutch social psychologist, further specifies the definition of culture by putting values and behaviors into a ranking with values being the most basic subpart. He describes culture as the way people are programmed mentally (Hofstede et al. 2010, pp. 4–6). According to his definition, culture consists of the learned patterns of thinking, feeling, and potential acting. These patterns are shaped by the environment one lives in and by the experiences one has, therefore they are mainly shaped early in childhood. The different levels of his definition are briefly discussed in the paragraph below (Hofstede et al. 2010, pp. 8-9).

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Figure 1: Culture manifestation at different levels, adaption from Hofstede (Hofstede et al. 2010, p. 8)

Hofstede (et al. 2010, p. 9) describes values as ”broad tendencies to prefer certain states of affairs over others.” They deal with what is considered to be desirable and what isn’t. Examples are dirty versus clean, good versus evil, etc. Rituals are collective activities that are considered to be socially essential, but are not necessary for their own sake. Heroes are people or imagery characters that have characteristics that are highly valued in society and who serve as a role model. On the outer ring are symbols which include gestures, styling, and status symbols. Since those symbols frequently change, they are considered to be the most superficial manifestation. Hofstede summarizes these three concepts as practices.

Using this definition of culture, Hofstede developed so-called cultural dimensions. They are discussed in the following chapter.

2.5. Cultural dimensions by Hofstede

Using Data from an IBM survey in 72 countries, Geert Hofstede developed a cultural dimensions framework consisting initially of four different dimensions (Hofstede 2001, p. 41), but he later added a fifth dimension. This chapter describes each of the four initial dimensions in detail

2.5.1 The four dimensions presented by Hofstede

Power distance

Hofstede defines power distance as “the extent to which the less powerful members of institutions and organizations within a country expect and accept that power to be distributed unequally“ (Hofstede et al. 2010, p. 61). Stressing members of organizations, it becomes clear that power distance has a strong impact on leadership. For instance, in a high power culture in which followers expect an unequal distribution of power, an autocratic style should be more effective since the effectiveness of a certain style depends largely on the values held by followers (Hofstede 1980, p. 57). Subordinates and superiors are more unequal, the former tend to expect the latter to tell them what to do. Older leaders are more respected than younger ones and a manager who acts in a paternalistic way is considered a good leader (Hofstede 2001, p. 101).

Aside from organizations, cultures that are high in power distance assign different ranks to people within society. Children-parent, student-teacher, and subordinate-superior relationships are characterized by inequality. Low power societies on the other hand are characterized by egalitarianism. In the workplace, superiors and subordinates should be ideally equal. A more consultative decision making process is generally appreciated (Hofstede et al. 2010, pp. 73–74).

Masculinity vs. femininity

The masculinity-femininity dimension describes the way in which societies deal with gender differences. In the survey at IBM, women tended to pay more attention to social goals and men to career and money (Hofstede 2001, p. 279). Cleared from occupational differences, several patterns showed up across different countries. Using those patterns, Hofstede developed a dimension with masculinity at one and femininity at the other end. A majority of people hold masculine values in masculine countries and vice versa (Hofstede 2001, p. 281). Countries that score high in this dimension pay high attention to behaviors such as assertiveness and performance. Traditional gender roles, in which the man works and the wife takes care of the household are more prevalent. In such societies, men are supposed to focus on career advancement and competition in the workplace. There are usually more men than women in higher management positions (Hofstede 2001, p. 312).

To the contrary, there are feminine cultures that focus on social goals and quality of life. There, more women can be found in higher management or in technical positions. Managers are supposed to seek a consensus and have both male and female characteristics (Hofstede 2001, pp. 312–317).

Uncertainty avoidance

The next dimension is uncertainty avoidance. It is defined as “the extent to which the members of a culture feel threatened by ambiguous or unknown situations“ (Hofstede et al. 2010, p. 191). Uncertainty can lead to anxiety. Therefore, humans have developed different ways of coping with it through laws, religion, and technologies. These ways differ across societies. Those with a higher need for uncertainty avoidance also have a greater need for rules. Another way to cope with uncertainty is through social rituals, e.g. praying for a good harvest in some religious rituals (Hofstede 2001, pp. 146–148).

Cultures that are high in uncertainty avoidance have a greater need for extensive legislation and a higher tendency to resist change. People in these cultures have a higher need for clarity and structure, also with regard to the work situation. On the other hand, low uncertainty avoidant societies have fewer rules and are more open to change and innovate. With regard to the workplace, employees have a lower need for formal rules and are more likely to accept generalists at the job floor (Hofstede et al. 2010, p. 211).

Collectivism vs. individualism

Another cultural dimension that Hofstede developed is the individualism vs. collectivism scale. People in Individualist cultures therefore refer to themselves as ‘I’ whereas people in collectivist societies refer to themselves as ‘we’ (Hofstede et al. 2010, p. 91).

In collectivistic societies, people are more likely to subordinate their personal goals to those in their group. The communication style is indirect and relies on the context of how things are said. The self-conception of being a part of an in-group means also that people consider their job and the organization they work to be part of their self-identity (Matsumoto 1996, p. 108). The relationship between subordinate and superior is based on an exchange of loyalty for protection (Hofstede et al. 2010, p. 120).

Individualist societies on the other hand emphasize the individual. Here, the communication style emphasizes content over context, therefore it is a more direct communication (Kim et al. 1994, p. 124). In work situations, the focus is on the task rather than on people (Hofstede et al. 2010, p. 123). A leader’s behavior that fosters competition among team members can be successful in individualist countries, but is unlikely to succeed in collectivist societies where preserving group harmony is important (Erez, Earley 1993, p. 181).


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Transformation of global leadership guidelines to the local context in Thailand
Würzburg-Schweinfurt University of Applied Sciences
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Leadership;, Thailand;, Guidelines;, Philosophies;, Creeds;, Interview;, Inhaltsanalyse;, Qualitativ;, Personalführung, Intercultural management, asia
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Patrick Benesch (Author), 2014, Transformation of global leadership guidelines to the local context in Thailand, Munich, GRIN Verlag,


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