The Impact of Ecuador's Political Framework on the Progress of its Eco Tourism Industry


Research Paper (undergraduate), 2014
69 Pages

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Table of Contents

1 .Introduction

2. Methodology
Motivation
Research Design and Methods
Choice of theory and analytical tools
Questionnaire and Expert Interview
Limitations

3. Theory
Sen’s understanding of sustainable development
Happy Planet Index
Eco tourism

4. Political Framework for Development
Potential key industries for Ecuador's sustainable development
The banana industry
The cacao industry

5.Survey and Interview Analysis
Ecuador's preconditions for sustainable tourism
Benchmark against Costa Rica

6. Analysis and Discussion
Tourism as leading industry
Implementation of a two step strategy
Measurable effects of strategy
Current impediments and chances

7. Conclusion

8. Bibliography

9. Appendix

Abstract

Tourism provides a powerful development vehicle to many of the poorest countries. With the new discussion about the need for sustainable industries eco tourism became more and more popular in those countries who are fortunate enough to have a high biodiversity and beautiful nature in general.

This paper examines which framework conditions influence the development process of the eco tourism industry. The destination of Ecuador has been selected as case study Costa Rica served as a benchmark country as it is the current market leader in the global eco tourism industry.

The paper came to the conclusion that Ecuador is lacking behind Costa Rica even though it has better preconditions. The reason for the minor performance was found in the lacking support of the political forces in Ecuador. This hints for the importance of effective governance in developing national industries.

Abbreviations and Definitions

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2. Core Definitions

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Illustration Index

Illustration 1: Banana Exports by Region (showing small growth rates due to satisfied global market)

Illustration 2: Price Fluctuation in Importing Countries, 2012

Illustration 3: Logical Structure of Survey

Illustration 4: Nationalities and Countries of Residency of Participants

Illustration 5: Quality Ranking of Natural Offerings

Illustration 6: Traveler's Knowledge

Illustration 7: Safety Perception

Illustration 8: Quality of Marketing Material

Illustration 9: Travel Recommendation

Illustration 10: Competitive Matrix

Illustration 11 : Access to Tours and Information

Illustration 12: Direct Contribution of Tourism Industry to GDP

Illustration 13: Tourism internal importance

Illustration 14: Ecuadorian Exports

Illustration 15: Direct Contribution of Tourism Industry to GDP

1. Introduction

In 2007 Rafael Correa, President of Ecuador, announced in the General Assembly of the United Nations, that his country considers to not exploit the ITT[1] oil field in the Yasuni National Park.

However, his condition was that the world community promises to compensate parts of the financial loss resulting from this action of not extracting and selling the oil. According to President Correa, Ecuador’s proposal addresses the global risks of climate change and therefore common benefits should meet shared costs (Iniciativa ITT Yasuni, 2012).

Even though the initiative failed in 2013, the proposal opened up a new discussion about sustainable development in the 21st century. For example, in the Yasuni ITT Trust Fund’s terms of reference is stated that Ecuador will “put social and environmental values first, (while attempting to explore) other ways to benefit from the country economically.” (Iniciativa ITT Yasuni, 2012). In order to achieve this objective, new industries like sustainable tourism have to move to the center of policy makers’ attention.

While tourism might not seem the most obvious development strategy of a country, the statistics highlight the importance of this industry for developing countries. Between 1978 and 1998 there has been an increase in tourists entering developing countries from 23,3 million to 189,7 million (Beyer 2014, 10-14). In 2011, the number had increased to 459 million (UNWTO 2014) and this trend is expected to continue as the estimate for 2015 is that 57% of the global tourism is going to take place in developing countries. Given that the global tourism revenue in 2012 has reached 1.1 trillion USD[2] and that approximately 101 million people work in the tourism industry[3] the focus of development agencies on the tourism industry is comprehensible. The importance to developing countries can be seen even more as the tourism industry contributes up to 25% of the GDP in some emerging countries and even up to 40% of the GDP in some “least developed countries”[4] (Beyer 2014, 10-14)

Out of the many potential developing countries Ecuador provides a superb case study for the understanding the necessary conditions for a successful development approach based on eco tourism. The current government demonstrated its desire to build a sustainable Ecuadorian society. With the concept of “BuenVivir”[5] Ecuador follows a holistic development approach, which attempts to enter a modern world, improve the living conditions of its citizens and at the same time maintains its traditional values (Fernández et. al 2014, 102). “BuenVivir” must be seen as more than the provision of jobs and the achievement of basic human rights. It has to be seen as an idea, which all parts of society follow in order to create a country with a high living standard (Inlago 2014). Thus the new Constitution of 2008 dedicates an entire section to “El régimen de Buen Vivir” (Asamblea Nacional 2008, 159-184) and furthermore includes new aspects like “Ambiente sano” or “Derechos de la Naturaleza”[6]. In article 275, the constitution states explicitly the connection between development and the sustainable idea of “BuenVivir”. While there are also critical voices about the seriousness of Correa, the overall opinion is that the situation improved during his presidency.

Next to the political attitude, Ecuador has the advantage of biological and geographical diversity. This combination of political atmosphere of departure and seemingly endless options for a tourism industry make an eco tourism industry an ideal component for the development strategy of Ecuador.

2. Methodology

In order to answer the research question “Under which framework conditions can eco tourism assist the sustainable development process of Ecuador?” I decided to first define sustainable development. Based on this knowledge I assessed the current situation of Ecuador and compared it with its potential for sustainable tourism. My finding has been a current under-utilization of eco tourism in Ecuador. Therefore I assumed a “branding problem”, which I wanted to verify with primary research. The new findings suggested that there is indeed a lack of effective branding, but that the main issue is insufficient political support for developing the tourism industry.

Thus in my analysis I decided to focus on the interplay between the micro and macro level within Ecuador's society, i.e. the political framework for development. The choice for this specific area as core issue of the analysis has been motivated by the recognition how much Costa Rica's tourism industry benefited from the political support over the last years while Ecuador developed much slower without this support. Thus the paper came to the conclusion that if the general preconditions are present, the political framework is the single most important factor deciding how well an industry will develop.

Motivation

The motivation for the topic of this semester project has been to understand the necessities of a successful development process within a country. As the project is part of an internship semester, the country of examination has been predefined as the location of the internship. During an initial research phase, it could be seen that the topic of sustainability gained a central role in the Ecuadorian development politics over the last years. Within the country, Ecuador has several industries, which contribute to its development process. Industries such as the agricultural sector or the food processing industries could have been selected for a deeper research. The selection of tourism has been motivated by three main reasons. Firstly, the internship organisation explored the option of using tourism for development. During my work with the “Fundación COAGRO” I helped to increase the facilitation of sustainable community tourism in the province “Pichincha” in Northern Ecuador. Secondly, the aforementioned ITT Initiative attempted to use the territory in a more sustainable way than oil extraction. As the ITT oil field is located in a national park, tourism provides good conditions for exploring the economic benefits of this area in a sustainable way. And thirdly, tourism has in general a great potential for developing a country.

Thus the topic resulted from a combination of personal interests, country specific characteristics and the working environment during the internship semester.

Research Design and Methods

As analysis level, I chose to focus on the macro level, as the framework for the development process is defined in this sphere. The ultimate goal of development has to be to help the local population and thus the implementation has to be handled on a micro level. However, before the practical implementation, a bigger organisational framework has to outline the individual steps.

The analysis of the research topic has been guided by a three-step approach. Firstly, Armatya Sen’s understanding of freedom has been used to define the concept of sustainability. Secondly, the “Happy Planet Index”(HPI) has been used as a practical measurement stick for evaluating the current status of Ecuador. Thirdly the concept of eco tourism has been applied on Ecuador. Finally an analysis assessed the current practicality of the marco level framework During the choice of research methods I took advantage of the special situation of being in Ecuador. Thus, next to the obligatory secondary research, I discussed my findings with local experts. These interviews provided interesting insights in the local perspectives. Within the secondary research I exploited official Euadorian documents like the Ecuadorian Constitution, the concept plans of “BuenVivir” or PIMTE[7]. As well official reports from international organisations like the World Tourism Organisation or the German Ministry of Economic Collaboration and Development have been consulted as information sources.

Choice of theory and analytical tools

The main theoretical framework of sustainability is set by Armatya Sen’s theories concerning the understanding of freedom. Especially, his book “Development as Freedom” and his article “The Ends and Means of Sustainability”[8] influenced the theoretical approach of the project. In this text, Armatya Sen suggests that a sustainable development must be based on a mind-change within the population. Only if people are voluntarily pushing for an eco tourism approach, such an endeavour has the chance for success. Thus, from this perspective, sustainability can only be achieved via a bottom-up approach. The interest of this project is to analyse how a governmental development strategy can stimulate a mind set change in the people, so that a sustainable bottom-up effort is initiated.

On the next level, the HPI has been used to understand the current status of the sustainable development process in Ecuador. The main advantage of this index is that it combines the social and economic sphere with the ecological cost of obtaining the first two values. For a project focusing on a sustainability issue, it has been crucial to find an index, which is not just based on economic criteria like the GDP. The HPI is designed to point out which country’s development is based on sustainable progress.

Finally, eco tourism as defined by the World Tourism Organisation (UNWTO) is outlining a concrete option for economic progress. The governments provision of the necessary macro level framework is elemntary so that other parties can engage in an effective bottom-up manner in eco tourism.

All three chosen theories are combined by the element of sustainability, but analyse the topic from different angles.

Questionnaire and Expert Interview

The questionnaire has been distributed via social networks9. These networks have been selected as they are globally used and thus offer access to a wide variety of nationalities and perspectives. The main objective of the questionnaire has been to understand the question of why Ecuador could not develop an eco tourism industry yet. In this endeavour the questionnaire followed a logical structure. Firstly it examined the popularity of eco tourism. This indicated whether the problem is the industry itself or the application in Ecuador. The second step focused on understanding Ecuador's preconditions for eco tourism and the views of tourists who have been to Ecuador, those who have not been and Ecuadorians. The final step dealt with the quality of the Ecuadorian marketing efforts and the market penetration of the tourist campaigns. To corroborate the findings a follow-up expert interview has been conducted with Sra.10 Almeida, professor for eco tourism at the Universidad Catolico in Quito, Ecuador.

The survey has limits in its representative value. Eco tourism in Ecuador has a potential target group of all tourists who have the financial means to for such vacations. This can be seen roughly as the top billion as described by Collier11 and the middle and upper class of close-by Latin American countries, roughly 1.2 billion people (Banco Mundial 2012). A survey with 147 participants cannot be representative for such a target group. Therefore, all findings of the survey have to be seen as[9] [10] [11] tendencies. A more profound research project would have to extend the market research significantly.

Limitations

The project analysed the framework conditions and the eco tourism industry mostly isolated. In a real world scenario other industries would have to be included, as spillover effects occur.[12] The paper does not critically challenge Sen’s approach to sustainability and freedom, nor the usefulness of the chosen index or eco tourism. Due to space limitations it will be assumed that these theories are sensible choices for the research topic.

The project concentrates only on the macro level approach. However, this stage sets the scene for the implementation phase on micro level, therefore it is a logical choice to examine first the macro level. The analysis of micro level could be an extension of this project.

3. Theory

The theoretical framework of this paper consists of three parts: Sen's theory, HPI and eco tourism.

Sen’s understanding of sustainable development

According to Sen, “(d)evelopment can be seen (...) as a process of expanding the real freedoms that people enjoy” (Sen 1999, 3). His central argument is that development must bring freedom to people, so that they can choose by themselves how to live their lives. He continues, that a development process has to remove “unfreedoms” like poverty, social deprivation, poor economic opportunities or political tyranny. In his understanding, the term “freedoms” demonstrates a more profound level of development, than the traditional development indicators (Sen 1999, 3). To illustrate that, you can examine the difference between the indicator of increased personal income and the freedom of gaining financial self-sufficiency. An increased personal income indicates the availability of additional funds. However, it does not examine how these funds are used.[13] For accessing the freedom of financial self-sufficiency, the impact of the additional funds has to be analysed. In this way, Sen attempts to create a more accurate picture of the overall development, as he addresses the final outcome of a change instead of the magnitude of the isolated change itself.

Furthermore, Sen states that there are various “freedoms” which have the potential to enrich the life of humans. These “freedoms” can reinforce each other and thus create in combination a more beneficial result than what the sum of the individual benefits would have been. However, in order to achieve such a higher benefit, all “freedoms” should be coordinated in an institutional framework (Sen 1999, 4-5). With the concept of BuenVivir, the Ecuadorian government attempts to build a development strategy, which is based on the very same idea. While it uses traditional indicators to examine the progress within Ecuador, it aims for the final freedoms, i.e. to establish an Ecuadorian society in which the population can enjoy a good life.[14] Furthermore, this holistic approach attempts to create synergies between various sectors of life and thus contributes to a higher quality of life. For example, BuenVivir aims to create jobs, while maintaining the environment at the same time. As Sen suggests, the combination of both will result in a better outcome than each effort individually. Having a job creates economic security, however, without the opportunity for relaxation, humans cannot enjoy life. On the other hand, an accessible nature will reduce the stress level of a human being, but it cannot feed a family. Thus, while both situations are beneficial, individually they do not harbour sufficient development potential. However, both freedoms in combination will make life more liveable.

Sen also addresses the need for sustainability and the fragility of nature. He states, that sustainable development is necessary in order to safeguard the human living conditions, and that climate change is endangering this environment (Sen 2013, 6-8). Thus, Sen himself relates his ideas of sustainability to the requirement to preserve nature. The concept of sustainable tourism targets the same outcome.

A crucial step in this process is the decision of whether consensus or compulsion is the most beneficial vehicle to deliver change. Sen argues that sustainable development can only happen it people are voluntarily changing their behaviours, as they understand and appreciate the positive effects on their lives (Sen 2013, 10). Sustainable tourism seems to be suitable for this approach, as it targets a specific group of tourist, which is interested in learning about the culture, experiencing the local traditions and maintaining the eco system within the holiday destination. Such attitudes cannot be forced upon tourists, but it has to emerge from an individual interest, based on personal conviction. Thus for both tourists and locals, the idea of sustainability has to be integrated in their perspectives’ of “freedoms” (Sen 2013, 12). A newly strengthened tourism industry in Ecuador should therefore create a sustainable business plan for all stakeholders. The Ministry of Tourism would have to promote eco tourism as the most interesting and beneficial way to visit Ecuador.

Maybe even more crucial is however, the national dialogue with tourism agencies. Some might adopt the environmental friendly image only to attack more tourists and thus make higher profits, while actually endangering the desired outcome with unsustainable business practices. It would be the responsibility of Ecuador's Tourism Ministry to explain the long-term benefits of sustainable tourism especially for the tourism agencies. This is again in line with Sen’s ideas, when he states that a voluntary mind-set change can only succeed if public discussion is stimulated and an interactive knowledge exchange between various parties of the society takes place (Sen 2013, 16­17).

The theory of Sen highlights the need to go further than the traditional development indicators can go. In order to understand the development process researchers have to examine the freedoms a person has at the final decision point, rather than some indicators, which should be seen only as sub-arguments in the overall decision process. A sustainable progress has to be based on the voluntary decision for a mind-set change, as the individual recognises the resulting benefits for him-/ herself and the overall society.

Happy Planet Index

In order to discuss the impact of an industry on the sustainable development process of a country, it is crucial to first examine the current development status of this country. The HPI is a new sustainability index developed by the “new economic forum”.[15] The central criterion is the measurement of the well-being of citizens within a country. This is in line with Sen’s idea of aiming at final “freedoms” instead of focusing development strategies only on sub-indicators. Thus the HPI attempts to indicate how fulfilling the life of citizens is in a given country. In order to do this, it

measures the social and economic advancement of a country, while weighing it against the ecological costs required for achieving this status. Countries, which are normally seen as furthest developed, e.g. the EU members or the USA, receive high scores in the first two categories (life expectancy, experienced well-being), however, their high consumption of resources (ecological footprint) lowers their total evaluation to the middle of the sustainability ranking (nef 2012).

A recognised weakness of the HPI is the ignorance of the political situation. Some of the countries ranked in the top positions like Venezuela or Cuba, have issues with human rights and political freedoms, which affect the well-being of the citizens as well. This methodological shortage should be kept in mind while assessing the HPI data (nef 2012). In the case of Ecuador, it can be seen that the country achieves a relative high ranking - 28 out of 151 - with an average life expectancy of above 75 years (good score), a well-being level of 5.8 (medium score) and a ecological footprint of 2.4 (good score). For an oil extracting country, the ecological footprint is surprisingly low. This can be explained as up to 70% of the crude oil extraction has been exported to other states in the past (eia 2014).

The medium rank in the well-being category is a result of the mix between a smaller part of society who managed to achieve a higher level of social and economic well-being and a bigger part of the society which is still fighting against “unfreedoms” like poverty, hunger or insufficient education. The paper highlights the need for efficient governmental support to key industries in order to achieve a higher well-being level of the population.

Eco tourism

Eco tourism is a concept, which can be utilized for the practical application of a sustainable development strategy aiming for more freedoms and a better ranking in the HPI.

Eco tourism has its roots in the 1970’s, when the topic of environmental conservation turned from a purely western dominated perspective to a joint effort with the local inhabitants of a conservation area. While former preservation policies often forced indigenous people to deviate from their traditional lifestyles, the new understanding was that sustainability could only be achieved with the support and the inclusion of the local population (Uddhammar 2006, 656-675). This modern view is perfectly in line with Sen’s freedom approach as the indigenous people should have the freedom to live in their lifestyle, but at the same time have the chance to increase the quality of their lives and the HPI evaluation criteria.

As eco tourism is a relatively new concept, there is no universally accepted definition. Eco tourism can be described using the World Conservation Union definition, which delineates eco tourism as an “environmentally responsible travel and visitation to relatively undisturbed natural areas, in order to enjoy and appreciate nature (...) that promotes conservation, has low visitor impact, and provides for beneficially active socio-economic involvement of local populations” (IUCN 2014).

Consequently, common practices have to include the hands-on experience for tourists, local guides and accommodation style, small groups and a cross-cultural experience (Lindsay 2003). In this concept the tourist has to adept to special conditions as well.

One main objective of eco tourism is to provide income to the local population, so that they are not coerced to abandon their traditional territory, culture or lifestyle, due to the lack of other development alternatives.[16] However, well-functioning eco tourism cannot be achieved by the community alone, but requires a supportive governmental framework on the macro level (Uddhammar 2006, 676). An example for a well-functioning eco tourism project can be seen in the Maquipucuna Reserve in Ecuador. This eco lodge employs only local staff, presents regional tourist features, reinvests its earnings in the very same community and by this managed to increase the self-esteem and economic purchasing power of the local population (Lindsay 2003). If such bottom- up successes can be replicated in a large quantity, Ecuador should increase it’s ranking in the HPI as the additional income and the increased self-esteem would result in the reduction of “unfreedoms”. Of course such tourism offers have to be presented to suitable target groups as each traveler has different inherent push factors, which influence the choice of vacation type and destination. If Ecuador attempts to follow a sustainable tourism path, it should showcase its pull factors in a way that it attracts rather eco tourism travelers then e.g. party tourists (Chen et. al 2011). Only such travelers would be willing to adept to the local culture and to accept the priority of sustainability over the one of personal luxury.

That eco tourism is a viable option for development can be seen in its increasing popularity within South and Central American countries. These destinations have the required natural biodiversity to attract tourists who are interested in natural beauty and the governments of countries like Guatemala or Costa Rica demonstrated in the past their willingness to prioritize conservation efforts of natural resources (Briney 2014).

4. Political Framework for Development

Ecuador has experienced a dramatic change over the last decade. From being a prime example of a ’’Banana Republic” with high poverty rates, lacking economic opportunities and political unrests[17], it is now seen as a positive example of development in the Andean region (Inlago 2014). Under the current president Correa and the new constitution.[18] Ecuador has set its focus on health care, education, infrastructure and poverty reduction[19]. These achievements have mostly been financed by increased oil revenues, as a new law boosted the government's income significantly (St. Louis, 2013, 712-713).[20] This new situation created a relative stable development climate. However, there are still several critical areas and issues like the crime and drug problems in Muisne, which even culminated in the assassination of the new mayor in 2014 (LaRepublica 2014). While these regional issues are unlikely to hamper the overall development of Ecuador, its current dependency on oil revenues can threaten the continuance of the social programs and thus present the biggest long-term risk. Therefore, the next step of the government should be to diversify the national economy, in order to reduce the dependency on oil revenues and guarantee a sustainable long-term development.

Potential key industries for Ecuador’s sustainable development

The banana industry

A sustainable sector with a long tradition in Ecuador is the banana industry. Representing about 60% of the national agricultural production, this branch is the second most important export product - after petroleum - of the Ecuadorian economy. Between 1984 and 2010 the production increased constantly[21], so that Ecuador delivers now to more than 50 countries and is responsible for roughly one third of the global banana export[22]. While the export numbers in organic bananas are still negligible compared to the total exports, especially small farmers are currently engaging in this niche. With premium products distributed via e.g. fair trade networks, they achieve up to 60% increased unit-prices (Vega 2011). Overall it must be said however, that a product which sales for a price of ca. 1,50€ per kilo, has an elastic demand pattern[23] (Banastat 2014) and showed low growth numbers in the past due to already settled global markets, appears to be a rather unsuitable industry for delivering more “freedoms” to the Ecuadorian citizens in the future (FAO 2014).

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Illustration 1: Banana Exports by Region (showing small growth rates due to satisfied global market) - (FAO 2014)

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Illustration 2: Price Fluctuation in Importing Countries, 2012 - (FAO 2014)

The cacao industry

Another sustainable industry in Ecuador is the cacao manufacturing. While Ecuador lost its spot as the global cacao production center in the early 1900s to African and Asia countries, the last years showed a return of Ecuador to the prime producers of cacao. Due to its geographical conditions the Ecuadorian cacao[24] counts to the highest quality options in the world. Within Ecuador some of the poorest regions, e.g. the Esmeraldas province, benefited from this new development as the soil in this region is highly favourable for the gourmet cacao production (Ecuavisa 2013). The high quality of Ecuadorian cacao can be seen as several international food producers, e.g. Nestlé, moved parts of there production to Ecuador in the last years (Planamanecer 2009). While the profit margin in this industry is promising, the global demand for gourmet products is only 5% of the total cacao production and thus appears to be rather scant for building a development strategy on this industry (Ecuavisa 2013). However, it should be used for further diversification of the economy.

5. Survey and Interview Analysis

Ecuador’s preconditions for sustainable tourism

One of the potential industries which can help to diversify Ecuador's economy is sustainable eco tourism. The country is blessed with a geographical diversity of mountains, coast, tropical rainforest[25] and has additionally the tourist magnet of the Galapagos Islands. That Ecuador has a potential to establish itself as an “green travel destination” can also be seen at the recent successes at the “World Travel Awards” in which it won several of the so-called Oscars of the Travel Industry - among others also the award for the greenest destination in South America. To expand my knowledge about the preconditions for eco tourism in Ecuador I conducted a survey[26] among travelers and Ecuadorians. In total 144 people from 24 different nationalities and 21 countries of residency participated. The survey was guided by the following logical structure:

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Illustration 3: Logical Structure of Survey - (Henne 2014)

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Illustration 4: Nationalities and Countries of Residency of Participants - (Henne 2014)

The survey came to the following results: Firstly, it showed that the idea of eco tourism is appealing, as 140 out of 144 participants answered to be interested in such activities. However, this general interest cannot be seen as a perfect equivalent to the willingness for choosing such a vacation type. Nevertheless it indicates the potential usefulness of increased marketing efforts promoting eco tourism in Ecuador. The next recognition has been that those people who have been to Ecuador are strongly attracted to the natural offerings of the country, which again highlights the great potential of the country's eco tourism industry.

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Illustration 5: Quality Ranking of Natural Offerings - (Henne 2014)

The main problem found in the questionnaire has been that Ecuador suffers from a perception problem among less informed tourists. This can be seen firstly, as the tourists who have been to Ecuador already, regard themselves as much bettered informed about travel issues than those who have not been there yet.

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Illustration 6: Traveler's Knowledge - (Henne 2014)

Secondly, ca. 60% of the respondents who have not been to Ecuador, stated that the option of visiting this country has occurred to them, but they nevertheless decided not to visit Ecuador (yet). When combining both results, it can be concluded that Ecuador is currently not the first choice for the average tourists, but rather seen as a destination for experienced travelers. For this finding, the questionnaire offers two plausible reasons.

Firstly is the perceived security situation much worse among people who have not yet been to Ecuador.[27]

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Illustration 7: SafetyPerception - (Henne 2014)

The second problem is that the marketing penetration is very low. Only 20% of the non-visitors saw promotion material of Ecuador's tourisms industry before the survey. This low value can be explained as 86% of non-visitors never searched actively for travel information about Ecuador. The quality of the material, however, has been perceived as very positive. 87% stated that they have been more interested in visiting Ecuador after seeing the promotion video.

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Illustration 8: Quality of Marketing Material - (Henne 2014)

Based on this information it can be concluded, that Ecuador has shortages in the presentation of its eco tourism industry on an international stage, especially to less experienced travelers. However, as soon as travelers are in Ecuador the level of satisfaction is much higher, than the expectations of Thus the main conclusion drawn from the survey concerining the preconditions for sustainable tourism in Ecuador is the following; if the current shortages are resolved - mostly by informing the less informed tourist better about the actual situation in Ecuador - there can be new income possibilities for the local population and thus a potential for development of the entire country. However, due to the high competitiveness of the market, a structured approach, which is guided by the government and includes all stakeholders, is required.

Benchmark against Costa Rica

After concluding that eco tourism provides an adequate vehicle for development and that it is a more promising industry than other sustainable alternatives, the question arose why this industry does not play a more dominant role in the Ecuadorian economy yet. This question has been tackled by conducting a follow-up interview. Therefore Costa Rica, which currently can be considered to be the market leader in eco tourism and which bases its national industry heavily on tourism[28] has been used as benchmark. Today, Costa Rica ranks much higher than Ecuador in traditional development indexes as well as in new indexes like the HPI[29]. If Ecuador can develop an (eco) tourism industry of a similar magnitude like Costa Rica, major improvements can be expected.

The outcome of the expert interview has been a confirmation that Ecuador has a high potential for eco tourism. However, while Ecuador has more biological variety, Costa Rica outstrips Ecuador in terms of tourism infrastructure. Thus Ecuador could catch up to Costa Rica in terms of annual

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Illustration 10: Competitive Matrix - (de Josse 2009)

visitors, but due to the lower service level Ecuador has much lower revenues per visitor.[30]

One major reason for this income gap lies in general in the framework conditions but also in the lack of political planning. According to Prof. Almeida the government still focuses on the petroleum and mining industry and neglects the potential of tourism. Without the basic infrastructure the tourism sector cannot offer a high quality service, and consequently cannot demand similar prices like the advanced Costa Rican tourism industry. If the Ecuadorian government would focus more on the education of the workers in the tourism industry[31] and introduce laws requiring internationally recognized quality certificates, the tourism industry could justify higher prices and thus close the income gap to the leading eco tourism destinations (Aleida 2014). Such a higher income per visitor would benefit the economic situation of citizens, but - as the number of tourist remains stable - it would not affect the ecological impact. Consequently an improvement in the HPI can be expected.

6. Analysis and Discussion

Analyzing the previously presented data, it can be said that eco tourism has the potential to become part of a sensible development strategy in Ecuador, as it provides significant income opportunities and is more sustainable than many other industries. However, it is unlikely that it can replace the current financial inflows from petroleum on its own (Aleida 2014).

Tourism as leading industry

Therefore a development plan could make use of the “flying geese model“[32]. Tourism could be established as a leading industry, however, this would require special governmental attention and investments. With the advancement of this industry those investments would create spill overs to other industries. As tourism is a relative broad industry the spill overs would spread to a variety of other industries. For example agricultural sector, the service industry, the retail sector and the transportation business would benefit from more customers.

Therefore investments in tourism seem to be justified, as they promise a high rate of return.

However, in order to create a strong leading industry, Ecuador has to improve its service level. As could be seen in the benchmarking with Costa Rica[33], Ecuador earns less per tourist than Costa Rica and this is due to the lower service quality. It is necessary that investments are planned and streamlined by the government in order to ensure the highest possible return. Thus the government plays a key role in the development of the tourism industry as it has to provide a suitable framework and set intelligent incentives for the average person to set up businesses offering high-level services in the field of eco tourism. A higher service level translates to a higher income level and thus reduces the necessary amount of visitors to break even.

Next to the internal efforts, the government also has to improve the external marketing efforts. Both the survey as well as the expert interview suggested that the current marketing efforts are insufficient. Foreign tourists do not know enough about Ecuador's offerings, and even though the local nature amazes the majority of the visitors, the access to tourist services has to be improved.

Access to Tours and Information

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This view has been confirmed by Professor Almeida, when she stated that the marketing efforts of Ecuador promise the visitor natural beauty, but it conceals the difficulties to reach those places (Aleida 2014). The aforementioned investments would have to overcome these shortages. While first steps of improvements can be seen already, the overall governmental efforts are still too ineffective to establish tourism as leading industry. However, indications like the the new and young Minister of Tourism, S. Naranjo, who received a strong education abroad[34], allow hope that there will be new and positive incentives in the future (Ministerio de Turismo 2014).

Implementation of a two step strategy

The findings of the survey suggest that a political strategy for tourism could be implemented in two steps. The first pillar could be based on foreign tourism, as the survey showed the high interest and as the majority of foreign tourists have higher financial means than the average Ecuadorian citizen[35]. With the described investments in physical infrastructure and human resources the income level would increase, spill overs to other industries would be created and the situation for the Ecuadorian population would improve. As a second step a pillar of domestic tourism could be created. The survey indicated that Ecuadorians are in general interested in eco tourism within their own country. Thus as soon as the average Ecuadorian has sufficient financial means, the introduction of this two-pillar strategy could help to stabilize the development process. In this way Ecuador's new leading industry would be less vulnerable to external shocks. However, such an endeavour can only succeed if there is a strong governmental leadership, which guides and supports the local start up businesses.

The theoretical bottom-up approach of Sen makes sense for eco tourism as the normal eco tourism enterprise by definition should be of a small size, in order to keep the ecological impact low. This implies however, that the personal belief of each business owner in the sensibility (and profitability) of eco tourism is of crucial necessity, as an approach based on compulsion would hardly be controllable by the government. As Sen suggests, the Ecuadorian governmental guidance would be more effective if it stimulates the public discussion, provides information and engages in direct dialog with all stakeholders.

As the size of the ideal eco tourism business is rather small, a development strategy will have to support a large number of start up businesses in order to achieve a meaningful improvement. This again is in line with the with the bottom-up approach of Sen and the idea of “BuenVivir”, as the beneficiary of this process should be the average person and not some already well-off business owners.

Measurable effects of strategy

These improvements would also be measurable in traditional as well as modern development indexes. The HPI of Ecuador would increase as the removal of “unfreedoms” suggests that people have better living conditions and thus the well-being score would increase. By taking a rather passive and facilitating approach the government could ensure that the “correct unfreedoms” are addressed by the locals themselves and so that the solutions really benefit the average population. This would be in line with Sen's ideas of a bottom-up development with a coordinating political framework, which only focuses on streamlining the bottom-up efforts.

In a detailed analysis the risks of a strategy have to be included as well.

In the case of eco tourism in Ecuador, the main risk is that paltry business practices undermine the preservation effort and thus the sustainability is decreased. However, if a strong and effective political framework ensures the profound guidelines to conserve the natural offerings, there are no major risks involved in eco tourism. Ecuador could even facilitate much higher numbers of tourists, as it has huge national parks, which are currently only utilized to a minor part (Aleida 2014).

Current impediments and chances

The reason why the aforementioned advantages are not utilized more efficiently is mainly the missing political support for the industry. While tourism is officially listed as one of the key industries for Ecuador's future development - and within it eco tourism as one of the key industries within tourism[36] - the actual support for the industry is less than this official statement suggests (Aleida 2014). Consequently, in 2013 the contribution of the industry has only been 1.9% to the national GDP[37]. The tendency is slowly increasing, but the forecast for 2024 is just above 2% contribution (Turner (I) 2014).

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Illustration 12: Direct Contribution of Tourism Industry to GDP - (Turner (I) 2014)

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Illustration 13: Tourism internal importance - (de Josse 2009, 53)

Out of the key industries, the petroleum and mining industry are receiving larger levels of governmental support and thus show a more efficient performance level (Aleida 2014). The reason for the higher attention could be that the profit margins are higher and the necessary investments in these industries are faster recovered. As petroleum remains the key export product, it receives the highest intention.

illustration not visible in this excerpt

However, among the sustainable industries in Ecuador, (eco) tourism has the best chances and preconditions for development. In comparison, Costa Rica's tourism sector - which is a main source of the well-being of the Costa Rican population - contributed 4.6% to the GDP in 2013[38] (Turner (II) 2014). With a better governmental support, similar contributions could be reached easily in Ecuador as well.

Constant 2013 CRCbn It of whole economy GDP

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Illustration 15: Direct Contribution of Tourism Industry to GDP - (Turner (II) 2014, 3)

In certain cases, a combination of sustainable industries is also possible. Thus ecological farming and eco tourism focusing on visiting of and lecturing about e.g. sustainable coffee plantations would be a model in which sustainable agriculture and sustainable tourism could support each other.

7. Conclusion

The research paper at hand started by attempting to answer under which conditions an eco tourism industry in Ecuador could help the country in its development process. After analysing the preconditions and characteristics of the country, which have been highly suitable, the main finding has been that eco tourism would be a suitable leading industry, but the lacking political support hampers the development of this sector. Therefore it has to be concluded that development efforts on the micro level work more efficient if there is a guiding framework on the macro level.

The biggest learning for me personally has been exactly this increased understanding of the effects of the interplay between the micro and macro level within a society. (Eco) tourism in Ecuador provided a superb case study, as it showed how much influence the macro level planning can have

on the potential of locally (bottom-up) performed development efforts. Thus, for me it was interesting to see how countries like Ecuador and Costa Rica, who have similar preconditions, can arrive at such different market position, mostly due to the level of political willingness to support an industry. This willingness can be understood as political planning for the specific industry, but also as the efforts to create a safe environment, invest in education of locals and to create a stable business environment. There are only very few factors which cannot be influenced by the macro level effectiveness. In the case of tourism the distance and thus travel time between countries would present such a rare example.

This recognition both provides hope for the future of developing countries, as success is possible, but also points out the exigency of high quality governance. Only with well planned development strategies on a government level can local people engage in business activities which will provide them with the necessary means to remove their current “unfreedoms” and thus create a better future for themselves and their families.

8. Bibliography

Almeida Katalina, Interview (October 1, 2014), 2014

Asamblea Nacional República del Ecuador, Constitución de la República del Ecuador, Asamblea Nacional del Ecuador, 2008

Banastat, ECUADOR: Extreme drop of prices for bananas impact exporters, 2014, http://www.banastat.com/ecuador-extreme-drop-of-prices-for-bananas-impact-exporters/, accessed: October 3, 2014

Banco Mundial, Nuevo informe del Banco Mundial revela aumento del 50 por ciento de la clase media en América Latina y el Caribe en la última década, 2012, http://www.bancomundial.org/es/news/press-release/2012/11/13/new-world-bauk-report-finds-fifty- percent-increase-middle-class-latin-america-over-last-decade, accessed: October 4 2014

Beyer Matthias, Tourism Planning inDevelopment Cooperation: A Handbook Challenges - Consulting Approaches - Practical Examples - Tools, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit, 2014

Briney Amanda, An Overview of Ecotourism - Low Impact Travel, 2014, http://geography.about.com/od/locateplacesworldwide/a/ecotourism.htm, accessed: August 28, 2014 Chen Yong, Mak Barry, McKercher Bob, What Drives People to Travel: Integratingthe Tourist Motivation Paradigms, Journal of China Tourism Research, Routledge, 2011

CIA, The World Factbook, 2014, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world- factbook/geos/ec.html, accessed: September 24, 2014

Collier Paul, The Bottom Billion, Oxford University Press, 2008 de Josse Verónica Sión, Plan Integral de Marketing Turístico de Ecuador (PIMTE) 2014, Ministerio de Turismo del Ecuador, 2009

Ecuavisa, Exito con sabor a chocolate en Esmeraldas, 2013, http://www.ecuavisa.com/articulo/noticias/nacional/35270-exito-con-sabor-chocolate-en- esmeraldas, accessed: October 1, 2014 eia (U.S. Energy Information Administration), Countries - Ecuador, 2014, http://www.eia.gov/countries/cab.cfm?fips=ec, accessed: September 15, 2014

FAO (Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations), Banana Market Review and Banana Statistics 2012-2013, United Nations, 2014

Fernández S. Blanca, Pardo Liliana, Salamanca Katherine, El buen vivir en Ecuador: ¿marketing polittico oproyecto en disputa?, Revista de Ciencias Sociales, 2014

Henne Christian, Eco Tourism in Ecuador - Survey, 2014

Iniciativa ITT Yasuní, Crea un Nuevo Mundo, 2012, http://yasuni-itt.gob.ec/quees.aspx, accessed: August 8, 2014

Inlago Fernando, Interview (August 14, 2014), 2014

IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature), Tourism, ecotourism and protected areas, 2014, https://portals.iucn.org/library/efiles/html/Tourism/section5.html, accessed: September 2 2014

LaRepublica, Asesinan a Walker Vera, alcalde electo de Muisne, 2014, http://www.larepublica.ec/blog/politica/2014/05/11/asesinan-walker-vera-alcalde-electo-muisne- pais/, accessed: September 26, 2014

Lindsay E. Heather, Ecotourism: the Promise and Perils ofEnvironmentally-Oriented Travel, ProQuest, 2003

Margot S. Bass, Matt Finer, Clinton N. Jenkins, Holger Kreft, Diego F. Cisneros-Heredia, Shawn F.McCracken, Nigel C. A. Pitman, Peter H. English, Kelly Swing, Gorky Villa, Anthony Di Fiore, Christian C. Voigt, Thomas H. Kunz, Global Conservation Significance of Ecuador’s Yasuní National Park, 2010

Ministerio de Turismo, Ministra, 2014, http://www.turismo.gob.ec/ministra/, accessed: September 28, 2014 nef (new economic forum), About the HPI - Happy Planet Index, 2012, http://www.happyplanetindex.org/about/, accessed: September 8, 2014 numbeo, Cost of Living in Ecuador, Prices in Ecuador, 2014, http://www.numbeo.com/cost- of-living/country_result.jsp?country=Ecuador, accessed: September 29, 2014

Planamanecer, El cacao ecuatoriano cautiva al mercado internacional, 2009, http://www.planamanecer.com/portada/ actualidad%201 %20noticias/content/modo/view/id/397/itemid/7/, accessed: October 1, 2014

ProEcuador, Trade Guide of the Republic of Ecuador,, Instituto de Promoción de exportaciones e inversiones, 2012

Sen Amartya, The Ends and Means of Sustainability, Journal of Human Development andCapabilitie, 2013

Sen Amartya, Development as Freedom, 1999

St. Louis Regis , South America on a Shoestring Guide, Lonely Planet, 2013

Turner Rochelle, Travel & Tourism Economic Impact 2014 Costa Rica, WTTC (World Travel and Tourism Council), 2014

Turner Rochelle, Travel & Tourism Economic Impact 2014 Ecuador, WTTC (WorId Travel and Tourism Council), 2014

Uddhammar Emil, Development, Conservation and Tourism: Conflict or Symbiosis?, Review of International Political Economy, Taylor & Francis, Ltd., 2006

UNWTO (United Nations World Tourism Organization), Tourism and Poverty Alleviation, 2014, http://step.unwto.org/content/tourism-and-poverty-alleviation-1, accessed: August 15, 2014 Vega Henry, The Banana Sector in Ecuador. Trade. Supply Chain. U.S. Cooperation, USDA Foreign Agricultural Service, 2011

9. Appendix

Graphic sources

The following table indicates how the data found in the survey has been used to create the illustrations number 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 11.

Title of Graphic

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Eco-Tourism in Ecuador (tourists who never have been to Ecuador before)

100%

1. Eco tourism is a relatively new type of tourism and can be seen as a sub group of sustainable tourism. The objective of Ecotourism is to show the tourist an authentic picture of the local culture and the natural offerings of the destination. The stay of the tourist is managed in a manner so that there is the lowest possible impact on the environment. This also means that the traveler agrees to commit more to the local lifestyle than he/she would have to do in a luxury hotel.

Thus eco tourism sets its priority on the authentic experience of the local culture and gives the tourist the opportunity to learn about the local settings by making his/her own direct experiences with it.

Question: Could you imagine to include such activities in your vacation?

Yes, I could imagine to include eco tourism in my vacation.

No, I could not imagine to include eco tourism in my vacation.

2. How informed are you about travel opportunities and destinations?

travel expert well informed common knowledge only few information no information

Please state your nationality and country of residence

3. Did Ecuador ever occur to you as potential travel/vacation destination?

Yes

No

4. If you were to travel to Ecuador, which type of tourism would you imagine for your visit?

Beach

City Sightseeing Hiking Diving Skiing

Adventures Sports Party/night life Animal Observation Language School Nature tourism

5. Ecuador is a country of a high biodiversity. With its four different regions it offers a big variety of natural settings to visitors. Ecuador is divided in:

1. “La costa”, which is the coast region with warm climate and beaches.
2. “La sierra”, which is the mountain region with (active) volcanos and altitudes up to 6300m above sea level and the Andean culture
3. “El oriente” which is the tropical rainforest with one of the highest biodiversities in the world
4. “Las galapagos” which is a group of islands roughly 1000km from the the Ecuadorian mainland. It is famous for its diversity of animals which cannot be found anywhere else in these forms

Before reading this text, which of the 4 regions would you have connected to the tourism possibilities of Ecuador?

La costa - coast La Sierra - mountains El Orlente - rainforest Galapagos islands none

6. How do you imagine the security situation in Ecuador?

Safe

acceptable but higher attention is required dangerous

7. Please copy the link in a new browser tap and watch the following video (1 min): http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P9HkIT6f0IQ

Which offered activity has attracted your attention the most? Please select up to 3 options.

beach rain forest animal observation culture sightseeing

8. Which effect did this video have concerning your interests in Ecuador as travel destination?

This video increased my interest

This video did not have any effect on my interests

This video lowered my interests

9. Did you ever see this video or similar promotion material before?

Yes

No

10. Did you ever actively search for information about Ecuador? And if so, was it easy for you to fine useful information?

Yes, I have been looking for information about Ecuador and it was easy to find useful information

Yes, I have been looking for information about Ecuador but I could hardly find useful information

No, I never have been looking for information about traveling in Ecuador

If you remember, please state where you found useful information. This has been the last question. Thank you very much for your time...

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illustration not visible in this excerpt

1st Question

Eco tourism is a relatively new type of tourism and can be seen as a sub group of sustainable tourism. The objective ofEcotourism is to show the tourist an authentic picture of the local culture and the natural offerings of the destination. The stay of the tourist is managed in a manner so that there is the lowest possible impact on the environment. This also means that the traveler agrees to commit more to the local lifestyle than he/she would have to do in a luxury hotel.Thus eco tourism sets its priority on the authentic experience of the local culture and gives the tourist the opportunity to learn about the local settings by making his/her own direct experiences with it.Question: Could you imagine to include such activities in your vacation?

illustration not visible in this excerpt

2nd Question

How informed are you about travel opportunities and destinations? Replied: 99; Skipped: 1

illustration not visible in this excerpt

29.09.2014 04:28 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen German, Germany

27.09.2014 06:29 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen german/ Germany

27.09.2014 03:45 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen German, Spain

26.09.2014 17:12 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen german, Germany

26.09.2014 14:41 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen Kenyan, Germany

26.09.2014 10:19 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen Brazilian, Brazil

25.09.2014 18:28 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen Dutch, Copenhagen, Denmark

25.09.2014 06:27 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen Finnish, Finland

25.09.2014 05:21 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen Brazil, denmark

25.09.2014 01:10 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen German, mainly Germany

24.09.2014 19:03 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen Hungaian, Germany

24.09.2014 16:27 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen I'm brazilian and live in Brazil

24.09.2014 16:08 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen German

24.09.2014 14:25 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen German, Germany

24.09.2014 14:24 Beantwortungen von Beiragten anzeigen Dutch, living in the Netherlands

24.09.2014 14:21 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen Germany

24.09.2014 13:52 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen Brazilian, living inUS

24.09.2014 13:32 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen German, Germany

24.09.2014 13:31 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen German - Bavaria, Germany

24.09.2014 13:07 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen Brasilian, Brasil

24.09.2014 11:49 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen Brazilian, Brazil

24.09.2014 11:19 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen Finnish, Spain

24.09.2014 09:57 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen Sao Paulo, Brazil - Brasilian

24.09.2014 09:45 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen Brazilian, Brazil

24.09.2014 09:15 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen Spanish/ Denmark

24.09.2014 08:50 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen German/ Germany

24.09.2014 08:38 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen Brazil

24.09.2014 08:25 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen Danish, Denmark

24.09.2014 08:11 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen German - Germany

24.09.2014 08:06 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen Brazilian - Brazil

24.09.2014 07:41 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen German, Germany

24.09.2014 07:28 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen German nationality (naturalised), residing in the UK

24.09.2014 07:24 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen French, Germany

24.09.2014 07:05 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen Brazil

24.09.2014 06:52 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen Finnish, Finland

24.09.2014 06:43 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen Brazil

24.09.2014 06:28 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen Brazil Brazil

24.09.2014 06:17 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen Germany (both)

24.09.2014 06:05 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen Brazil

24.09.2014 05:24 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen german; germany

24.09.2014 04:45 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen german, germany

24.09.2014 04:10 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen Austria

24.09.2014 03:59 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen german Germany

24.09.2014 03:56 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen Germany

24.09.2014 03:41 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen German/Austria

24.09.2014 03:39 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen Brazilian, brazil

24.09.2014 03:36 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen German/Nigerian, Germany

24.09.2014 03:29 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen German/Germany

24.09.2014 03:02 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen Portuguese ; Denmark

24.09.2014 02:25 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen German - Germany

24.09.2014 02:24 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen British, UK

24.09.2014 02:05 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen India

24.09.2014 02:05 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen German, Germany

24.09.2014 01:59 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen Italian nationality. Resident in Poland.

24.09.2014 01:54 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen German, germany

24.09.2014 01:50 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen German, Austria

24.09.2014 01:32 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen Lithuanian. Denmark.

24.09.2014 01:22 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen German; Denmark

24.09.2014 01:20 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen Germany

24.09.2014 00:48 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen British, China

24.09.2014 00:18 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen German, Germany

23.09.2014 23:48 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen Germany

23.09.2014 23:11 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen German. Germany.

23.09.2014 22:38 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen Brazilian, Brazil

23.09.2014 22:25 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen Brazilian;' Brazil

23.09.2014 22:20 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen Brazilian - Portugal

23.09.2014 22:13 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen Brazilian, Brazil

23.09.2014 21:57 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen Brazilian, Brazil

23.09.2014 21:50 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen Belgian, Belgium

23.09.2014 21:35 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen Dutch, Indonesia

23.09.2014 21:20 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen Dutch, China

23.09.2014 20:43 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen

3rd Question

Did Ecuador ever occur to you as potential travel/vacation destination? Replied: 99; Skipped: 1

0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%

illustration not visible in this excerpt

4th Question

If you were to travel to Ecuador, which type of tourism would you imagine for your visit? Replied: 100; Skipped: 0

illustration not visible in this excerpt

5th Question

Ecuador is a country of a high biodiversity. With its four different regions it offers a big variety of natural settings to visitors. Ecuador is divided in: 1. “La costa”, which is the coast region with warm climate and beaches.2. “La sierra”, which is the mountain region with (active) volcanos and altitudes up to 6300m above sea level and the Andean culture3. “El oriente” which is the tropical rainforest with one of the highest biodiversities in the world4. “Las galapagos” which is a group of islands roughly 1000km from the the Ecuadorian mainland. It is famous for its diversity of animals which cannot be found anywhere else in these formsBefore reading this text, which of the 4 regions would you have connected to the tourism possibilities of Ecuador?

6th Question

How do you imagine the security situation in Ecuador? Replied: 100; Skipped: 0

illustration not visible in this excerpt

7th Question

Please copy the link in a new browser tap and watch the following video (1 min):http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P9HkIT6f0IQWhich offered activity has attracted your

attention the most? Please select up to 3 options Replied: 99; Skipped: 1

illustration not visible in this excerpt

8th Question

Which effect did this video have concerning your interests in Ecuador as travel destination? Replied: 99; Skipped: 1

illustration not visible in this excerpt

9th Question

Did you ever see this video or similar promotion material before? Replied: 99; Skipped: 1

illustration not visible in this excerpt

10th Question

Did you ever actively search for information about Ecuador? And if so, was it easy for you to fine useful information?

illustration not visible in this excerpt

G-adventure

24.09.2014 14:25 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen

I hardly remember the sourceI googled a lot and read about axperiences of people and friends whoVe been there already

24.09.2014 13:52 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen

Travel book (lonely planet), internet

24.09.2014 13:31 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen

In the internet

23.09.2014 22:38 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen

Generally I look for basic information on websites like Wikipedia. Then, if I need something more specific such as tips, places to go or how to save money, I look for info in forums or on Tripadvisor.

23.09.2014 21:57 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen

On sites like Idealist, while searching for internships there were links to informative pages on Ecuador and the Galapagos Islands. In Latin American history class.

23.09.2014 21:35 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen

Eco-Tourism in Ecuador (tourists who have been to Ecuador before)

100%

1. Eco tourism is a relatively new type of tourism and can be seen as a sub group of sustainable tourism. The objective of Ecotourism is to show the tourist an authentic picture of the local culture and the natural offerings of the destination. The stay of the tourist is managed in a manner so that there is the lowest possible impact on the environment. This also means that the traveler agrees to commit more to the local lifestyle than he/she would have to do in a luxury hotel.

Thus eco tourism sets its priority on the authentic experience of the local culture and gives the tourist the opportunity to learn about the local settings by making his/her own direct experiences with it.

Question: Could you imagine to include such activities in your vacation?

Yes, I could imagine to include eco tourism in my vacation.

No, I could not imagine to include eco tourism in my vacation.

2. How informed are you about travel opportunities and destinations?

travel expert well informed common knowledge only few information no information

Please state your nationatlity and country of residence

3. Have you ever been to the Galapagos Islands?

Yes

No

If not, please state shortly why not

4. Have you ever been to the Amazon rain forest?

Yes

No

If not, please state shortly why not

5. How did you experience the security situation in Ecuador?

safe

acceptable but higher attention is required dangerous

6. How would you rank the quality of Ecuador's natural offerings? E.g. animal variety, biodiversity, landscape, etc

unique

above average

average

below average

not relevant for tourism

7. How would you recommend Ecuador as travel destination to other persons?

must-see destination highly recommended nice to see if on the route not really recommendable should be avoided

8. While having been in Ecuador, how did you perceive the access to tourist information and tours? E.g. tourist office, availability of maps, knowledge of hotel/hostel reception, etc.

easy access to information and tours

the access to information and tours has been complicated, but information and tours have been available demanded information and tours were not possible to access

9. How would you rank the price level of tourism (tours, accommodation and transportation) in Ecuador compared to other countries in South America?

very expensive expensive average cheap very cheap

10. Would you have been interested in a closer interaction with Ecuadorians, in order to learn more about their culture and lifestyle?

Yes

No

This has been the last question. Thank you for your time and if you have final comments feel free to state them here

Done

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Question 1

Eco tourism is a relatively new type of tourism and can be seen as a sub group of sustainable tourism. The objective ofEcotourism is to show the tourist an authentic picture of the local culture and the natural offerings of the destination. The stay of the tourist is managed in a manner so that there is the lowest possible impact on the environment. This also means that the traveler agrees to commit more to the local lifestyle than he/she would have to do in a luxury hotel.Thus eco tourism sets its priority on the authentic experience of the local culture and gives the tourist the opportunity to learn about the local settings by making his/her own direct experiences with it.Question: Could you imagine to include such activities in your vacation?

Replied: 19; Skipped: 0

Yes, I could imagine to...

No, I could not imagine ...

illustration not visible in this excerpt

2nd Question

How informed are you about travel opportunities and destinations? Replied: 19; Skipped: 0

illustration not visible in this excerpt

27.09.2014 02:21 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen nationality: Ecuador, residence: Italy

26.09.2014 12:59 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen North american, PA

26.09.2014 07:44 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen Canadian, Denmark

26.09.2014 05:53 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen German, Germany

25.09.2014 19:57 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen American, USA

25.09.2014 06:35 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen Colombian colombia

24.09.2014 17:02 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen Ecuadorian/German

24.09.2014 14:51 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen German, Denmark

24.09.2014 14:34 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen venezuelan, germany

24.09.2014 14:21 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen German, Uganda

24.09.2014 11:30 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen Brazil

24.09.2014 08:50 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen Brazil

24.09.2014 07:22 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen Mexican, and I live in Germany

24.09.2014 07:09 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen Germany

24.09.2014 05:15 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen Canadian, Icelandic and Guyanese. Residing in Iceland

23.09.2014 22:07 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen

3rd Question

Have you ever been to the Galapagos Islands? Replied: 19; Skipped: 0

illustration not visible in this excerpt

0 % 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%

illustration not visible in this excerpt

4th Question

Have you ever been to the Amazon rain forest?

Replied: 19; Skipped: 0

illustration not visible in this excerpt

5th Question

How do you imagine the security situation in Ecuador?

illustration not visible in this excerpt

6th Question

How would you rank the quality ofEcuador's natural offerings? E.g. animal variety, biodiversity, landscape, etc

Replied: 19; Skipped: 0

illustration not visible in this excerpt

7th Question

How would you recommend Ecuador as travel destination to other persons? Replied: 19; Skipped: 0

must-see

destination highly

recommended nice to see if on the route not really recommendable should be avoided

illustration not visible in this excerpt

8th Question

While having been in Ecuador, how did you perceive the access to tourist information and tours? E.g. tourist office, availability of maps, knowledge ofhotel/hostel reception, etc.

Replied: 18; Skipped: 1

easy access to information... Щ

the access to information ...

demanded information...

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9th Question

How would you rank the price level of tourism (tours, accommodation and transportation) in Ecuador compared to other countries in South America?

Replied: 17; Skipped: 2

illustration not visible in this excerpt

10th Question

Would you have been interested in a closer interaction with Ecuadorians, in order to learn more about their culture and lifestyle?

Replied: 18; Skipped: 1

Yes

No I

0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%

illustration not visible in this excerpt

I haven't been in Ecuador as a tourist in a very long time thus my understanding on prices and availabilities may not be accurate

26.09.2014 12:59 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen

I was able to have close interaction with Ecuadorians during my entire stay there! :) it was a wonderful experience.. both times I've been there!

26.09.2014 07:44 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen

Although I had very close interaction with Ecuadorians, I think that close interaction to learn about culture and lifestyle are a very important part of travel regardless of where you go

25.09.2014 07:03 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen Love Ecuador. Can't wait to get back in February!!

25.09.2014 06:35 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen

In question 9 I answered average, which in my opinion applies generally for tourism in Ecuador, with the exception of the Galapagos Islands, that I would rank as VERY expensive

24.09.2014 07:09 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen Good luck, Chris!

24.09.2014 05:15 Beantwortungen von Befragten anzeigen

Eco Turismo en Ecuador (Ecuadorianos)

1. Eco turismo es un nuevo tipo de turismo que se puede comtemplar como una parte del turismo sustentable. La meta del eco turismo es presentar a los turistas una imagen auténtica de la cultura local y de la naturaleza del país. La estadía del turista es manejada de una manera que garantice el menor impacto posible hacie el entorno ambiental. Esto significa también que el tuirsta se compromete a adaptarse a la vida local, a diferencia de como hubiese sido de haberse quedado en un hotel de lujo. Eco turismo tiene como prioridad brindar una experiencia auténtica al turista y la oportunidad de aprender más acerca de la situación local a travéz de experiencias personales.

Pregunta: Podrías imaginarte incluir actividades de este tipo en tus vacaciones?

No

2. Qué tan bien informado estás acerca de oportunidades y destinos de viajes?

experto

mucha información conocimiento general poca información ninguna información

3. Has estado en las Islas Galapagos?

No

Si no, por qué? (No me interesa, es demasiado caro, otro motivo:...)

4. Has estado en el Oriente y en la región del Amazonas?

Si

No

Si no, por qué? (No me interesa, es demasiado caro, otro motivo:...)

5. Qué te pareció la seguridad en Ecuador?

seguro

aceptable pero se necesita tener cuidado

6. Como evaluarías la calidad y variedad de la naturaleza en el Ecuador? Por ejemplo animales, biodiversidad, paisaje, etc.

unico

mejor que el promedio promedio

abajo del promedio

no es relevate para el turismo

7. Aconsejarías Ecuador como destino de viaje?

“se tiene que ver seguro” muy recomendable está bien si esta en la ruta no muy recomendable mejor evitarlo

8. Como evaluarías el nivel de los precios en Ecuador en comparación con otros paieses de Amercia del Sur?

muy caro caro

promedio barato muy barato

9. Has ido al menos una vez de vacación (una estancia de al menos una semana sólo para actividades recreativas) al Ecuador?

Si

No

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1st Question/l0 Pregunta

Eco turismo es un nuevo tipo de turismo que se puede comtemplar como una parte del turismo sustentable. La meta del eco turismo es presentar a los turistas una imagen auténtica de la cultura local y de la naturaleza del país. La estadía del turista es manejada de una manera que garantice el menor impacto posible hacie el entorno ambiental. Esto significa también que el tuirsta se compromete a adaptarse a la vida local, a diferencia de como hubiese sido de haberse quedado en un hotel de lujo. Eco turismo tiene como prioridad brindar una experiencia auténtica al turista y la oportunidad de aprender más acerca de la situación local a travéz de experiencias personales.Pregunta: Podrías imaginarte incluir actividades de este tipo en tus vacaciones?

Replied: 25; Skipped: О

No

illustration not visible in this excerpt

2nd Question / 20 Pregunta

Qué tan bien informado estás acerca de oportunidades y destinos de viajes?

Replied: 25; Skipped: О

illustration not visible in this excerpt

3rd Question /3° Pregunta

Has estado en las Islas Galapagos? Replied: 24; Skipped: 1

illustration not visible in this excerpt

4th Question/4°Pregunta

Has estado en el Oriente y en la región del Amazonas? Replied: 24; Skipped: 1

Si

No i

illustration not visible in this excerpt

5th Question/5°Pregunta

Qué te pareció la seguridad en Ecuador? Replied: 25; Skipped: О

seguro aceptable pero se necesita...

peligroso

0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%

illustration not visible in this excerpt

6th Question/6°Pregunta

Como evaluarías la calidad y variedad de la naturaleza en el Ecuador? Por ejemplo animales, biodiversidad, paisaje, etc.

Replied: 25; Skipped: О

unico

mejor que el Щ promedio Щ

promedio

abajo del promedio

no es relevate para el turismo

0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%

illustration not visible in this excerpt

7th Question/ 7°Pregunta

Aconsejarías Ecuador como destino de viaje? Replied: 25; Skipped: О

illustration not visible in this excerpt

8th Question/8°Pregunta

Como evaluarías el nivel de los precios en Ecuador en comparación con otros paieses de Amercia del Sur?

Replied: 25; Skipped: О

illustration not visible in this excerpt

9th Question/9oPregunta

Has ido al menos una vez de vacación (una estancia de al menos una semana sólo para actividades recreativas) al Ecuador?

Replied: 25; Skipped: О

Si

No

illustration not visible in this excerpt

[...]


[1] ITT is the abbreviation for the three major oil fields in the Yasuni National Park (Ishpingo-Tambococha-Tiputini)

[2] If domestic tourism is included, the revenue increases to 2 trillion USD

[3] This corresponds to 3.4% of the global employment

[4] Term coined by the United Nations describing 48 of the poorest countries in the world (regardless their location)

[5] Translation: “GoodLiving”

[6] Translation: “healthy environment” and “rights of nature”

[7] Plan integral de Marketing Turístico de Ecuador (Ecuador's governmental marketing strategy)

[8] Book published in 1999; Article in 2013 by the Journal of Human Development and Capabilities

[9] facebook, linkedin and couchsurfing

[10] Sra. is short for Signora, which is Spanish for Mrs

[11] In his book “The Bottom Billion“ Collier splits the world population in three groups. the rich first billion, the developing middle 4 billion and the underdeveloped bottom billion (Collier 2008, 4-5)

[12] An increased level of tourism will affect other industries as agriculture, transportation, waste disposal, etc.

[13] A common example for the insufficient explanatory power of such an indicator is the increased earning of women, while they do not have the authority within their households to decide who the funds are utilized.

[14] Buen vivir is the Spanish translation for “living well”

[15] British based think thank

[16] The entire concept of eco tourism includes other objectives as well, e.g. preservation of nature, understanding of foreign cultures, energy efficiency etc.

[17] 80 governments in 180 years of existence as state

[18] The 2008 constitution has been confirmed by public referendum in the same year

[19] Health care: 5bn USD spent since 2006; education: 8.5bn USD spent since 2006; infrastructure: 5500km of new or

repaired roads; poverty reduction: 9% decrease between 2006 and 2011

[20] Since 2010 the government gross oil revenue share is 87% (instead of 13% before that law). In 2011 this increased the governments income by 870 million USD

[21] There have been three years with insignificant declining export numbers (1991, 1997, 2000)

[22] This makes Ecuador the biggest exporter of Bananas in the world

[23] Elastic demand is an economic concept which indicates that the demand of a production changes significantly with a price change, thus an increase in the banana price results in a significant break in of the demand.

[24] This includes manufactured products like e.g. chocolate

[25] The Ecuadorian rainforest hast one of the highest biodiversity on the planet (Bass et al. 2010)

[26] Please find a table with the exact question and the title used in the graphics in the annex (“Graphic Sources“)

[27] Ecuadorians are between both perceptions with 14% safe, 82% acceptabe, 4% dangerous

[28] In 2008 it crossed the first time the 2 million visitor limit and earned over 2.1bn USD with this industry

[29] Costa Rica ranks 1st in the HPI compared to Ecuador on position 23. In terms of GDP per capital Costa Rica ranks on place 102 compared to Ecuador on 116 (CIA 2014)

[30] In the newest „Plan Integral de Marketing Turístico de Ecuador“ from 2009, the data is used from 2007. Current numbers would move the visitors numbers of Costa Rica and Ecuador to a level around 1.2 - 1.5 million, the income gap remains however the same

[31] This includes the language skills of employees, the understanding of cultural differences, international service etiquettes and soft skills in general

[32] Asian development model which sees Japan as leading power, pulling especially the South East Asian countries along to higher development levels. In the case of Ecuador it would have to be applied on national industries

[33] Compare Illustration 8

[34] Sra. Naranja received her master in Public Administration in International Development from Harvard

[35] A foreign tourists spends per day 48-52 USD in Ecuador (de Josse 2009); the average daily disposable salary of an Ecuadorian is currently 12 USD (numbeo 2014)

[36] On second place “Eco turism and nature tourism” are presented as one of the key (span: clave) branches within tourism

[37] If spill over effects are included the indirect contribution to the GDP is 5.3% (Turner (I) 2014, 3)

[38] Indirect contribution to the GDP have been 12.1% in 2013

69 of 69 pages

Details

Title
The Impact of Ecuador's Political Framework on the Progress of its Eco Tourism Industry
College
Aalborg University
Course
Development and International Relations
Author
Year
2014
Pages
69
Catalog Number
V282630
ISBN (Book)
9783656825906
File size
991 KB
Language
English
Tags
impact, ecuador, political, framework, progress, tourism, industry
Quote paper
Christian Henne (Author), 2014, The Impact of Ecuador's Political Framework on the Progress of its Eco Tourism Industry, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/282630

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