ABSTRACT: River Hindon is a major source of water to the highly populated and predominantly rural population of western Uttar Pradesh, India. River originates in the lower Himalayas in Saharanpur district (UP, Uttar Pradesh) and flows 260 km through six districts, including Muzaffarnagar, Meerut, Baghpat, Gautambudh Nagar, and Ghaziabad until its confluence with the Yamuna. In non-monsoon months the river is completely dry from its origin up to Saharanpur town. The major water quality parameters that have been used to assess the quality status of the river are BOD, DO, pH, Turbidity, Total Phosphate. The samples of water and wastewater collected are tested and the data obtained from pre- and post-monsoon seasons during the month of January and April 2013 and are converted with National Sanitation Foundation Water Quality Index (NSFWQI) to achieve at a single value defining the water quality at selected locations. The result indicates that the water quality of the river is not good. The water of river Hindon is not suitable for any use.
Keywords: River Hindon, Water Quality, NSFWQI.
Nomenclature: BOD = Biological Oxygen Demand, DO = Dissolve Oxygen, CPCB = Central Pollution Control Board, WQI = Water Quality Index,NSFWQI =National Sanitation Foundation Water Quality Index,STPs = Sewage Treatment plants.
India is having a rich source of the water resources of rivers is the major source of fresh water for almost each and every part of the country. There are 12 major river basins with the total catchment area is 252.8 million hectares (M.Ha) of country, like Ganga and Brahmaputra basins which have largest catchment area among the major river basins, the other rivers are medium basin rivers, of which river Hindon is one of them which flows in the western part of Uttar Pradesh mainly Saharanpur, Muzaffarnagar, Meerut and Ghaziabad. Most of the water use of this river is for agriculture irrigation, fishing, or to produce fish seeds and fingerlings. Other than this being passing through many industrial cities, large amount of industrial wastes are discharged into it including sewage and domestic waste. The river Hindon, historically known as river Harnandi, is one of the major tributaries of river Yamuna. The recent studies on Hindon River reported that the river has become highly polluted due to uncontrolled untreated discharge of effluents. The water quality of the river has become unsuitable for farming activities like fish culture and irrigation purpose, etc. The aquatic flora and fauna are getting diminished, water has such severely polluted that it does not have any human use and has become the good medium and site for disease causing agents such as cancer, inadequate uptake of nutrients and trace-metals, cerebrovascular, kidney disease and diabetes. The water quality status has become very bad. A number of studies regarding pollution aspects of river Hindon and its tributaries have been carried out by different workers. The work started to study of pollution level in river Hindon using fish as indicator (Verma et al., 1980), industrial effluents effect (Singhal et al., 1987), impact of waste water disposal on hydrology (Seth, 1991), the effect of heavy metals in water quality (Kumar, 1993 and Lokesh, 1996), pollution potential due to pesticide (Ali and Jain, 1999) and conservation plan for stretch of Saharanpur to Muzaffarnagar (Ranjan, 2012). River kali which is the main tributary of the river Hindon, studies related to water quality, waste disposal and level of pollution in the river Kali (Jain et al., 1997).
The conservation plan of Hindon River for 140 km stretch from Purka Tanka village (Saharanpur) to Atali village (Muzaffarnagar) has already been made last year. The present paper represents the study area covers the stretch of 100 km from Atali village to Habiatpur Village (Mohan Nagar) in Ghaziabad. The sampling locations for drains and river water sample are clearly represented in figure 1. The drains which are considered for sampling in the stretch are listed in table 1.
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Figure 1: Sampling locations in the study stretch of Hindon River (Source: own fig.)
Table 1: List of drains from where samples were collected(Source: own data)
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- Quote paper
- Prabhakar Shukla (Author), 2014, Measuring the Water Quality of River Hindon between Muzaffarnagar and Ghaziabad Using a NSFWQI Calculator, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/283776