Quality Improvement of Municipal Solid Wastes Management in Alexandria Governorate


Master's Thesis, 2014
99 Pages, Grade: Excellent

Excerpt

Table of Contents

1. CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION
1.1. MOTIVATION
1.2. RESEARCH IMPORTANCE
1.2.1. Academic Importance
1.2.2. Practical Importance
1.3. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
1.4. STRUCTURE OF THE STUDY

2. CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1. SOLID WASTES DEFINITION
2.2. CLASSIFICATION OF SOLID WASTES
2.2.1. Municipal Solid Waste
2.2.2. Green and Agricultural Organic Waste
2.2.3. Construction and Demolition Waste
2.2.4. Industrial Waste
2.2.5. Medical Waste
2.2.6. Radioactive Waste
2.2.7. Water Way Dredging Residue
2.2.8. Sewage Sludge
2.2.9. Hazardous Waste
2.2.10. E- Waste
2.3. MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMNT (MSWM)
2.3.1. Waste Characteristics
2.3.2. History of SWM (People Culture)
2.3.3. MSWM Legal Framework

3. CHAPTER 3 OVERVIEW OF SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT PROBLEM IN EGYPT…
3.1. CURRENT SITUATION
3.2. THE PRESENT SWM PRACTICES IN URBAN AND RURAL AREAS
3.2.1. Urban Area Method
3.2.2. Rural Area Methods
3.3. DATA ABOUT WASTES
3.3.1. Quantitative Data
3.3.2. Qualitative Data
3.4. MONETARY ASSESSMENT OF THE SWM PROBLEM
3.5. EGYPT’S WORLDWIDE MSWM POSITION
3.5.1. MSWM History in Developed Countries
3.5.2. Egypt and the World
3.6. THE EGYPTIAN EFFORTS REGARDING SOLID WASTES MANAGEMENT
3.7. PROBLEM CONFIGURATION
3.7.1. Problem Definition
3.7.2. Problem Summary
3.7.3. Problem General Assessment

4. CHAPTER 4 ALEXANDRIA CASE STUDY
4.1. ALEXANDRIA Governorate
4.2. BACKGROUND OF WASTE MANAGEMENT
4.3. THE CURRENT SITUATION OF WASTE MANAGEMENT
4.4. THE CASE STUDY
4.4.1. Basic Quality Improvement Process (BQIP) Chart
4.4.2. Need for MSWM Improvement in Alexandria
4.4.3. Brain Storming of the MSWM Problem in Alexandria
4.4.4. Problem Definition of the MSWM Problem in Alexandria
4.4.5. Cause and Effect Analysis of the MSWM Problem in Alexandria
4.4.6. Pareto Analysis of the MSWM Problem in Alexandria
4.4.7. Gain Management Support for the MSWM Problem in Alexandria
4.4.8. Identify People to Tackle the Project and
4.4.9. Allocate Responsibilities for the MSWM Problem in Alexandria
4.4.10. Process and Problem Analysis for the MSWM Problem in Alexandria
4.4.11. Gather Data for the MSWM Problem in Alexandria
4.4.12. Suggest Solution for the MSWM Problem in Alexandria
4.4.13. Confirm Optimality of the Solution Suggested for Alexandria
4.4.14. Create the System which will hold the Gains of the MSWM Problem in Alexandria
4.4.15. Monitor and control the New Situation of the MSWM in Alexandria
4.4.16. Continuous Improvement

5. CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1. CONCLUSION
5.2. RESULT FOUND FROM CURRENT SITUATION
5.3. THE SOLUTION IN BRIEF
5.4. THE BENEFITS
5.4.1. In the legal and institutional framework
5.4.2. In the Collection and Transfer
5.4.3. In the Processing and Disposal
5.5. RECOMMENDATIONS
5.6. FUTURE WORK

6. REFERENCES

List of Figures

Figure 1, the Side Effects of Poor SWM

Figure 2, the Wastes Amounts According to the EEAA Survey in Egypt

Figure 3, the Distribution Percentages of Hazardous Wastes Generation among the different Egyptian Governorates

Figure 4, the Amounts of HW Generated in Alexandria Governorate by Type

Figure 5, Solid Waste Characteristics as a mediator that has an effect on Solid waste Management processes and at the same time affected by surrounding factors

Figure 6, Hierarchy of the SWM Formal Sector Structure

Figure 7 , Photos that Display the Deteriorated Situation of MSWM in Egypt

Figure 8, Amounts of Wastes Generated among the Egyptian Regions

Figure 9, Amounts of Composition of the Solid waste

Figure 10, Different Technical Performances done on MSW and their relevant Amounts in Percentage

Figure 11, the Estimated Annual Costs of Environmental Degradation in the Arab Countries

Figure 12, Average Generation Rates among a Few Selected Countries

Figure 13, the Difference in Composition of Wastes and their Relevant Amounts in Percentage in both Egypt and USA

Figure 14, Spider Chart for Gap determination between the Technical Performances Done on the Collected MSW in Both Egypt and USA

Figure 15, The Waste Hierarchy in Developed Countries

Figure 16, The Waste Hierarchy in Developing Countries

Figure 17, Summary for the SWM Actual Collection Process

Figure 18, Illustration of all the Technical Performances done on the Overall Generated waste

Figure 19, SWOT analysis for the current SWM situation in Egypt

Figure 20, the MSWM Ideal Chain

Figure 21, The MSWM Problem in Egypt Causes and Impacts

Figure 22, Alexandria –Egypt Coastal Picture

Figure 23, Taken Photos showing the Professionalism of Sorting Process done by the Informal Sector Collectors who Scavenge the Community Bins before the arrival of the Formal Sector

Figure 24, SWOT analysis for the current situation at Alexandria Governorate

Figure 25, The BQIP chart Steps

Figure 26, The Analysis of the Three SWM cycle parts in Parallel Using the BQIP Steps

Figure 27, The Brain Stormed Ideas about SWM problem in Alexandria now according to the SWM Cycle

Figure 28, Cause and Effect Analysis for the Legal and Institutional Problems

Figure 29, Cause and Effect Analysis for the Collection and Transportation Problems

Figure 30, Cause and Effect Analysis for the Processing and Disposal Problem

Figure 31, Pareto Analysis for the Causes of the SWM problem Depending on the Highest Expenditures Required

Figure 32, Root Cause Analysis for the Curbside Collection Model

Figure 33, Continue the Root Cause Analysis for Curbside Collection Model

Figure 34, The Sequence of processes of the suggested Strategy

Figure 35, The Similarity in Composition of Wastes and their Relevant Amounts in Percentage in both Egypt and Brazil

List of Tables

Table 1 Types of Hazardous Wastes those are either Accepted or Rejected at the Naserya Centre in Alexandria

Table 2 HW Types and Quantities

Table 3 The Organization of Roles inside the Informal Waste Sector and the Materials of Concern

Table 4 History of SWM in Egypt since 1910 until now

Table 5 Amounts of Different Composition of MSW in percentage

Table 6 Technical Performances Done on Wastes in percent

Table 7 History of SWM in Developed Countries since 1905

Table 8 Formal Collection Rates of Wastes According to World Bank Estimates

Table 9 Summary of the Laws Issued Regarding MSWM

Table 10 Waste collection vehicles types and quantities

Table 11 Waste Characteristics

Table 12 General Data about Alexandria Governorate

Table 13 Technical Performances Done on the Waste

Table 14 Facilities Available for Solid Waste Treatment in Operation

Table 15 Refuse Collection Charges according to Law 10/2005

Table 16 Income Class level Symbol and Accustomed Salaries Range

Table 17 Explains the Service Providers distribution

Table 18 Displays the Revenues accustomed from the Commercial Utility innovative activities

1. CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

1.1. MOTIVATION

The generation of solid waste is inevitable. It was not important in former times but it has become an issue as soon as people started to settle in communities. Ever since, SWM has been of great concern to municipal authorities worldwide. In the middle ages, badly managed waste was responsible for millions of deaths in Europe. In the 18th century, inappropriate waste management was the cause of the outbreak of diseases like the plague and cholera, which claimed more than 380,000 lives in Hamburg. Approximately 590 to 880 million tons of methane are released into the atmosphere every year, 90 % of the gases generated are due to the decomposition of biomass as a result of indiscriminate waste management, among other causes. Consequently, the ozone layer and the ecosystem are continually being destroyed. In short, today indiscriminate waste management is one of the biggest threats to ecosystems in the world. Cities, often overwhelmed by the continuous influx of new arrivals, have frequently been unable to keep up with the provision of basic services. Between one third and two-thirds of the SW generated goes uncollected, piling up on streets and in drains, contributing to flooding and the spread of disease. In addition, urban and metropolitan domestic and industrial effluents are often released into waterways with little or no treatment. [1] In order to achieve sustainable development, policy makers in Developing Countries have to cope with the above-mentioned issues. Indiscriminate solid waste management leads not only to the destruction of the ecosystem, but also to lower economic productivity, and thus to poverty. Consequently, proper Solid Waste Management (SWM) is crucial to the urban infrastructure in Developing Countries as it ensures environmental protection and safeguards human health.

Rapid urbanization in Developing Countries is threatening the environment and urban productivity. For that reason, adequate SWM is urgently required; otherwise economic development will become counterproductive. SWM represents one of the most outstanding challenges facing municipal authorities in Developing Countries as policy makers face great difficulties in addressing waste issues due to the lack of sound managerial instruments, planning tools, and last but not least, financial means. [1] These difficulties in turn create major solid waste problems, including lack of equipment and/or obsolete equipment, inadequate public funds, the open burning of waste, and so forth. In addition, there are other serious managerial problems such as inflexibility, low cost-recovery, poor organization, inadequate monitoring of systems, tight public budgets and non-enforcement of legislation.

It is difficult for municipalities to implement changes towards efficiency. The need for investment far outstrips the financial resources available from public budgets. Municipalities are not able to cope with the ever-growing generated waste. Accordingly, the challenge for Developing Countries in this decade is to ensure the sound management of the environmental implications of this growth.

Decision-makers in Rio De Janeiro when sustainable development was discussed for the first time on a very broad level during the Earth Summit (known as Rio Earth Summit) in 1992; agreed that sustainable SWM is the key to sustainable cities and consequently [1] to sustainable development. Whereas industrialized countries adopt principles like the hierarchy principle and the polluter pays principle, most Developing Countries are far behind. In brief, rapid urbanization, inadequate financial means and indiscriminate waste management in Developing Countries result in a vicious circle which must be interrupted.

Municipal solid waste has been inadequately managed for many years in Egypt. Egypt generated an estimated 20 million tons of municipal solid waste in 2009, and the amount of solid waste produced annually is growing at an estimated 3.4% per year. Waste collection systems have left large areas of towns and cities without service or under-serviced, and the majority of collected waste is dumped in facilities that lack any effective management. Composting, although widespread, has generally not been effectively implemented. Recycling activities have only been undertaken in some cities under unsafe and unhygienic conditions subjecting workers who participate in these processes to many risks. [2] The majority of dumping sites are unsafe and there are no preventive measures at these sites to prevent the self-ignition of waste. 50 - 60% of the waste composition is organic matter.

Challenges associated with the SWM sector are mainly related to systemic, institutional, and individual constraints within the government’s overall system. The administrative structure in charge of waste management is complex, fragmented, and dispersed in numerous government agencies. It is known that the responsibility for Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) in the central government of Egypt is dispersed among number of ministries. The Ministry of Local Development through Governorates and respective municipalities is responsible for the implementation of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) activities either through direct implementation or through tendering to other entities. Except for Cairo and Giza Governorate, in general, Governorates lack a specialized unit that is entirely responsible for waste management. [3] The Ministry of State for Environmental Affairs and its technical arm the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency host a General Directorate for solid waste management. The mandate of this directorate is the formulation of policy directives and the provision of guidelines for proper management of municipal waste. The Ministry of Finance is responsible for approving budget allocations for operational costs.

The legal framework regulating MSWM in Egypt is multisided and falls under the jurisdiction of different ministries. There is no legislation dedicated to SWM. Legislation is instead in the form of provisions within other laws. The most significant are Law 38 of 1967 and its subsequent amendments in Law 10 of the year 2005 and Law 4 of the year 1994 with its Executive Regulations. [4] Other laws pertaining to SWM includes Law 48 of the year 1982 regarding Nile River Protection (all these laws will be discussed in chapter 2).

In 2000, Egypt adopted a National Strategy for IMSWM (Integrated Municipal Solid Waste Management) which included the development and implementation of an integrated waste management system. [2] Within this National Strategy, a new cost-recovery initiative was introduced to provide sustained revenue for the financing of the privatization process. Privatization of SWM had occurred in a number of governorates in Egypt. However, the process faced many administrative problems in these governorates. Even after the private sector started working, the governorates which contracted an International Private Partner (IPP) have faced cultural problems that lead finally to the failure of the IPP (This will be discussed in chapter 2).

1.2. RESEARCH IMPORTANCE

1.2.1. Academic Importance

The academic importance of the search stems from its being evaluating the current Egyptian environmental situation regarding SWM generally and the case of Alexandria in particular.

The importance of the proposed search is build upon the following:

i. This search recognizes the already done efforts in Egypt to handle the solid waste.
ii. This search is a combination between studies that concerns Environmental Engineering field alone and others concerned with Quality field through the usage of different Quality Improvement Techniques and Tools throughout the methodology of the analysis of the problem in Egypt generally, Alexandria Governorate especially and in the development of the appropriate solution.
iii. Most of the studies conducted in the SWM have mainly focused on the undone efforts while in this search there is an appreciation to all the done efforts and deriving the solution depends on using these efforts not neglecting them and starting from scratch.
iv. The problem analysis in this search uses the Basic Quality Improvement Chart Steps thus providing a comprehensive methodological model of analysis displaying the various types of quality tools each in its suitable place despite the noticed that the current approaches to waste management do not usually follow a specific methodological thinking approach [4], they just highlight the main problems of MSWM.

1.2.2. Practical Importance

SWM is gaining importance all over the developed and developing nations as the adverse effects of poor MSWM are increasing rapidly and also the resources it is associated with are demanding more and more attention. [5] The adverse effects of poor MSWM can be noticed as nuisance, pollution potential, unhygienic conditions, disease spread .etc. though the following figure 1 represents a block diagram that summarizes all the side effects of poor SWM systems on all the surroundings and its most significant result which is economic deficiency.

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Figure 1, the Side Effects of Poor SWM

Though the practical importance of this search is therefore based on the following:

i. The Egyptian government is already obliged to number of environmental legislations, strategies and protocols to maintain and enhance its environmental quality [6] of course considering MSWM; Though Egypt’s environment is still suffering from this particular reason MSW.

ii. There are lots of positive efforts are already done in Alexandria Governorate regarding the MSW as it is Egypt’s second largest city and as a Mediterranean coastal city gains more concerns due to domestic and international Tourism. [7] Unfortunately all these positive efforts resulted in a short life success duration that lasted for almost only 10 years. This successful duration was rewarded by many trophies during the successful period of Veolia Environmental Services, then in the last 2 years for Veolia, duration of inadequate service replaced that successful one and finally after Veolia a complete failure stage has taken place and till now failure is obviously recorded on the streets of Alexandria. [8] This current situation forces some questions that this search will try to answer and analyze their causes:

a. What were the reasons of Veolia’s success in the first 8 years?
b. What caused the failure at the end for Veolia?
c. Can’t a fully Egyptian model managed by Egyptians provide a more durable successful system with much more improved results and benefits?

iii. Most of the searches done in this field have concentrated on only a phase of the waste collection chain while this search discusses all the phases of the waste collection chain.

This search suggests an appropriate, applicable, economic and environmentally safe solution [9] for MSWM in Alexandria Governorate.

1.3. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The goal is to manage municipal solid wastes in Egypt in a manner that meets as far as possible the public health requirements, environmental concerns and the expectations of the citizens but yet can be afforded and also can turn waste into a national resource through proper final treatment.

The specific objectives of this search:

i. To discuss all the phases of the waste collection chain in Egypt.
ii. To prioritize SWM problems those are taking place among different cities in Egypt.
iii. To identify root causes of SWM problems in Egypt especially in Alexandria.
iv. To develop SWM appropriate practical solution based on the most cost-effective and environmentally appropriate technology choices especially applicable to Alexandria Governorate.
v. To deal with and treat solid waste as a national resource to the local economy not as an expenditure of money.

1.4. STRUCTURE OF THE STUDY

Chapters 1 introduces the search and identify its importance and objectives.

Chapter 2 demonstrates what the municipal solid waste is and the different means of managing it along the Egyptian history how did it evolved and how it has developed.

Chapter 3 evaluates and assesses the whole current Egyptian situation regarding the SWM via SWOT analysis to emphasize the picture.

Chapter 4 presents the situation of Alexandria the 2nd capital of Egypt towards SWM as the case study of the search.

Chapter 5 summarizes the conclusions of the search and suggests points for future research.

2. CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1. SOLID WASTES DEFINITION

Solid wastes are all the refused materials. [10] In other words Wastes can be considered, as those materials no longer required by an individual, institution or industry.

Waste has different types that are listed below:

2.2. CLASSIFICATION OF WASTES

This classification is according to the source of each type as listed below:

2.2.1. Municipal Solid Waste

Municipal wastes as defined by the National Strategy for Municipal Solid Waste Management (NSFMSWM) are:

Those that are composed of wastes generated by households and wastes of similar character from shops, market and offices, open areas, and treatment plant sites as listed below:

i. Households [residential solid waste] – multi-family and single-family dwellings,
ii. Commercial enterprises [commercial solid waste] – shops, stores, retail outlets, office buildings, service organizations, tourist services, hotels,
iii. Industrial enterprises [industrial solid waste] – small industrial activities such as assembly shops, fabrication operations, etc.; and offices, shipping, and non-process activities of larger industrial activities,
iv. Administrative and Governmental bodies,
v. Educational enterprises
vi. Seaports/Airports – dunnage, shipping materials, office activities, food services,
vii. Street markets [11],
viii. Camping/Sporting activities – campgrounds, athletic fields and gymnasiums,
ix. Street, Square and Park cleanings
x. Green wastes from upkeep of public parks and grounds, and
xi. Dust and Sand blowing into urban areas from the surrounding hills and desert areas.

2.2.2. Green and Agricultural Organic Waste

The waste that is generated by gardening and forestry activities in public parks, gardens and other green areas; [11] Fruits and vegetables that are wasted, either because of defects, or because of surplus production.

2.2.3. Construction and Demolition Waste

The materials generated in the normal course of construction and demolition processes. Generally, these materials are not water soluble and nonhazardous in nature and they can be classified into:

i. Excavation, which produces materials that are composed mostly of rock and soil, usually not contaminated.
ii. Construction, producing wastes consisting of concrete spoils, bricks debris, scrap metal, demolition timber, glass, plaster, and plaster board. Construction wastes may also contain hazardous constituents from equipment maintenance (e.g. oil filters) or materials needed for construction (e.g. paints, solvents, glues, contaminated cloth, etc.).
iii. Demolition, which generates either internal finishing that are removed before demolition, or demolition debris consisting of concrete, gypsum and reinforcement steel. Demolition wastes may also contain asbestos or wastes contaminated with other hazardous materials, depending on the building materials used and former utilization of the building. [11]
iv. Road refurbishment, generating wastes consisting of asphalt, bituminous materials, sand and gravel from road layers.

2.2.4. Industrial Waste

Industrial waste is the waste generated from business activities. Industrial process wastes include a very wide range of materials and the actual composition of industrial wastes in a country will depend on the nature of the industrial base. Wastes may occur as relatively pure substances or as complex mixtures of varying composition and in varying physicochemical states. Examples of the materials which may be found under this heading are:

i. General factory rubbish,
ii. Organic wastes from food processing,
iii. Acids/Alkalis,
iv. Metallic sludges and
v. Tarry and oily residues.

The most important feature of industrial wastes is that a significant proportion is regarded as hazardous or potentially toxic, thus requiring special handling, treatment and disposal. [6] The industrial waste management is not covered by the local government in the developed countries, while in the developing countries, with generally in an inappropriate system for the management of waste; industrial waste is often treated together with the municipal wastes.

2.2.5. Medical Waste

Wastes made wholly or partly of animal or human tissue, blood or other fluids, excretion, drugs or other pharmaceutical products, swabs or dressing or syringes or needles or other sharp instruments, and any other infectious waste or chemical or radioactive waste arising from medical, nursing, dental, veterinary, pharmaceutical or other practices, investigation, research, teaching, or sample collection and storage. [6]

Accordingly, medical wastes would encompass the following types [11], each requiring special ways for handling and disposal:

i. Infectious wastes,
ii. Sharpens and syringes and
iii. Expired medicines and pharmaceuticals.

2.2.5.1. The legal framework

The legal framework is comprised of several laws that are directly or indirectly regulating healthcare waste management. Those are:

i. Law 4/1994 for the Protection of the Environment and its Executive Regulation number 338 of 1995,
ii. Law 38 of 1967 on General Public Cleaning and its Executive Regulation No. 134 of 1968,
iii. Law 48 of 1982 for the Protection of the River Nile and Waterways from Pollution,
iv. Law 12 of 2003 Unified Labor law for the protection of workers from expected harmful exposure.
v. Furthermore, the Ministry of Health and Population Decrees number 82, 343 and 413/1996 and 192/2001, are parts of the legal framework. [12]

2.2.5.2. The institutional framework

The institutional framework for medical waste management that defines roles and responsibilities of different authorities are summarized as follows:

i. The Cabinet of Ministers, Ministry of Public Health (MHP) and Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA) are responsible for development and adoption of public policies.
ii. MHP, EEAA and the Civil Defense Authority supervise the implementation of policies and monitoring of performance.
iii. MHP and EEAA are responsible for issuing lists and codes of hazardous substances and waste.
iv. MHP, EEAA, Ministry of Housing and Governorates are responsible for development of guidelines and standards of performance and preparation of various contracts and licenses. [12]
v. The Cabinet of Ministers, the Finance and Planning Ministries, and MHP are responsible for allocation of credits of finance.
vi. MHP, EEAA with the participation of scientific and technical experts, and the Ministry of Communication and Information Technology are responsible for capacity building programs and awareness campaigns.
vii. The Governorates and local municipalities are responsible for the management of the medical waste system, either directly or by contracting private companies, contractors, or Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs).
viii. The responsibilities of health care facilities are: reducing the rate of waste generation; and creating an integrated hazardous medical waste management system including source separation, collection, transportation, storage, treatment and final disposal.

2.2.6. Radioactive Waste

Refer to sources of “ionizing radiation”, which could come in different forms:

i. Open Sources: Radioisotopes that are not permanently sealed in containers, so they may come in direct contact with objects or environmental matrices. They include, for example, isotopes used for medical diagnosis (e.g. isotopes of iodine),
ii. Sealed Sources: Radioisotopes that are permanently fixed within completely sealed capsules or within tightly sealed solid enclosures that can be opened only by special equipment. [11]
iii. Radiation Generators: Equipment capable of generating ionizing radiation, e.g. x-ray, neutrons, or electrons, when operated.

2.2.7. Water Way Dredging Residue

The main bulk of this waste came from the maintenance and widening of canals. [11]

2.2.8. Sewage Sludge

This waste type results from sewage treatment facilities. [11]

Types of wastes and their estimated values in Egypt according to the EEAA are displayed in figure 2 as shown below without mentioning the Hazardous waste value as it is a portion from every type of waste.

Figure 2, the Wastes Amounts According to the EEAA Survey in Egypt

2.2.9. Hazardous Waste

Hazardous wastes can stem from any of the above sources as residues or ash of different activities and operations containing properties of hazardous substances. Therefore it should not be taken as a part of the classification of wastes by source, rather as a cross-cutting character for all these wastes. There is no agreed definition of the term "hazardous waste". Some countries define "hazardous wastes" only in terms of danger to human health, whilst others include damage to, the environment. The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal makes no attempt to provide a definite definition to hazardous wastes [14], it just states that: wastes to be categorized hazardous are “Wastes that are defined as, or are considered to be, hazardous wastes by domestic legislations”.

Hazardous characteristics of wastes according to BASEL Convention are:

i. Capable, by any means, after disposal, of yielding another material, e.g., leachate, which possesses any of the characteristics listed above.
ii. Corrosives,
iii. Ecotoxic,
iv. Explosive,
v. Flammable liquids,
vi. Flammable solids,
vii. Infectious substances,
viii. Liberation of toxic gases in contact with air or water,
ix. Organic Peroxides,
x. Oxidizing,
xi. Poisonous (Acute),
xii. Toxic (Delayed or chronic),
xiii. Wastes liable to spontaneous combustion,
xiv. Wastes which, in contact with water emit flammable gases.

While many countries refer to similar hazardous characteristics in their environmental legislation, there may be considerable differences in the testing procedures used to determine whether a waste exhibits actually one or more of the characteristics.

It is almost impossible to obtain reliable information on hazardous waste raisings in any country because of poor data collection methods, infrequency of surveys, reluctance of industry to supply data, and because of ambiguities in the definitions of what constitutes a hazardous waste, and even continuously changing definitions of “hazardous waste” within the same country. [15] Treatment and disposal of hazardous waste is often difficult and very costly. This has made ocean dumping and export to countries with less strict regulations an attractive option.

2.2.9.1. The State efforts regarding HS and HWM in Egypt

i. Undertaking a comprehensive survey of the lead sources in the industrial region in Shobra El Kheima. Participating - jointly with the Egyptian General Organization for Standards and Quality Control - in the issuing of the first Egyptian standard specification regarding incinerators of hazardous waste from health and veterinary facilities.
ii. Implementation of the program planned to provide governorates with incinerators for hazardous medical waste and surveying the requirements of each governorate in this respect.
iii. With the participation of the International Working Group formed under the Basel Convention, the technical roadmap of the environmentally safe management of POPs as waste had been issued.
iv. Some projects in the area of integrated hazardous waste management had been implemented in Alexandria. [16]
v. Finalizing the conclusion of the Frame-work Agreement between the Basel Convention Secretariat and the Government of Egypt with regard to the established Regional Centre for Training and Technology Transfer to Arab Countries.

2.2.9.2. Hazardous Waste Generation Rates

Due to the current situation with hazardous waste management, the Ministry of Environment has determined that there is an imminent need for constructing hazardous waste treatment and disposal facilities nationwide in Egypt. In the two major industrial city areas, Cairo, and Alexandria, the quantity of industrial waste generated is approximately 60,000 tons/year. Of this quantity, Alexandria generates approximately 28,000 tons /year of hazardous wastes. There are approximately eight industrial areas in Egypt generating different types and quantities of hazardous wastes. It is estimated that up to a total of 200,000 tons/year of hazardous waste are generated from the eight areas. [17] As demonstrated in the following figure 3 the distribution percentage of Hazardous Wastes generation among the different Egyptian Governorates

Figure 3, the Distribution Percentages of Hazardous Wastes Generation among the different Egyptian Governorates

The EEAA has been involved in a project; which has been completed in September 2006 a facility for the treatment and disposal of industrial hazardous waste has been established in Alexandria. The responsibility of operations is now in the hands of the HWM Unit of Alexandria Governorate. The personnel of the HWM Unit of Alexandria Governorate are now well trained and experienced to operate the site.

2.2.9.3. The Nasreya Centre

The facility is the first of its kind in Egypt, and represents the nucleus for the integration, improvement and further expansion of different hazardous waste management practices and services in Alexandria. [18] It has been developed within the overall legal framework of the Egyptian Law for the Environment, and is expected to improve prospects for enforcement of the regulatory requirements specified in this law. It has been developed with the overall aim of promoting the establishment of an integrated industrial hazardous waste management system in Alexandria, serving as a demonstration to be replicated elsewhere in Egypt.

Phase I, Start Up Phase

The Centre only accepts inorganic industrial wastes. In this respect, a waste acceptance policy has been developed.

Phase II, Running Phase

Policy review, with an expansion of the waste types accepted.

The following facilities and activities are available:

i. Hazardous waste landfill for inorganic waste.
ii. Evaporation ponds for rain water, leachate from the landfill and neutralized waste water from physical-chemical treatment plant.
iii. Physical-Chemical treatment plant for liquid and sludge hazardous inorganic waste.
iv. Solidification-stabilization unit for inorganic waste.
v. Office, extended laboratory, garage, vehicles for transportation of hazardous waste.
vi. Storage facility for inorganic waste Transfer station for organic waste.
vii. Trained personnel capable of receiving and processing hazardous waste.

The waste types that are either accepted at the facility or rejected are demonstrated in table 1 below:

Table 1 Types of Hazardous Wastes those are either Accepted or Rejected at the Naserya Centre in Alexandria

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Figure 4, the Amounts of HW Generated in Alexandria Governorate by Type

All industrial wastes are not necessarily hazardous, although industries account for the majority of hazardous wastes generated. Collection, transport, treatment and disposal of hazardous waste are more expensive than for non-hazardous waste. It is important therefore to accurately identify and characterize hazardous wastes at the industry sources. Every effort must be made to reuse or recycle discarded materials prior to land disposal. The first step is to evaluate the process flow diagram in the industry to identify waste streams that need to be disposed. [18] Each of the waste streams must be tested to determine whether the waste is hazardous.

2.2.9.4. Legal Framework

Environmental protection has been always one of serious concerns of the Egyptian legislation. This concern is reflected in a number of laws on environmental issues. The key legal documents on management of hazardous substances and wastes in Egypt are:

i. Law No. 4 / 1994 on environment protection and its Executive Regulation issued by the Prime Minister’s Decree No. 338 / 1995, amended by the Prime Minister’s Decree No. 1741 / 2005.
ii. Law No. 38 / 1967 concerning public cleanness, promulgated in 29th of August 1967 and its executive regulation, issued by the Housing and Utilities Minister’s Decree No. 134 / 1968 issued in 13th of February 1968.
iii. Law No. 93 / 1962 concerning the disposal of liquid wastes promulgated in 17th of May 1962 and its executive regulation issued through the Minister of Housing Decree No. 44 / 2000.
iv. Law No. 48 / 1982 concerning the protection of the River Nile and the water ways, issued on the 21st of June 1982 and its Executive Regulation issued by the Minister of Irrigation’s Decree No. 8 / 1983 on the 17th of January 1983. [16]

2.2.10. E- Waste

Electronic wastes or e-waste [19] for short is the term used to embrace various types of electric and electronic equipment that have ceased to be of any value to their owners.

2.3. MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMNT (MSWM)

MSWM according to the Egyptian National Strategy for Solid Waste Management is the term used to describe all activities related to the collection, sorting, processing, and disposing of solid wastes. [11] There is a wider definition for MSWM issued by the European Union in which it considers the aspects that concern the impacts of poor MSWM and that a proper management chain must include [10] so, proper MSWM can be defined as the generation, separation, collection, transportation and disposal of waste, taking into account parameters such as public health, economics and environmental safety.

SWM is highly affected by:

i. Waste Characteristics,
ii. People culture and their level of awareness,
iii. The legal Framework that regulates the management process.

Proper waste collection and sanitary waste disposal have become very important issues for city management and represent a substantial work for municipalities. At the same time waste generation rates and composition are changing with changes in population as well as composition patterns. Leading to the fact that creating a proper waste management system or improving the existing one needs extensive efforts. [6]

2.3.1. Waste Characteristics

The waste characteristics are very necessary when setting up the SWM processes. For example the Quantity of waste affect the distribution of dust bins that act as temporary storage points, collection frequency and equipment, transportation techniques and routes, the consequent treatment technologies and finally the environmentally safe final disposal. These characteristics are also affected by other surrounding factors. [21] As for the same characteristic of Quantity is affected by the type of area the waste is thrown in, the weather in this area and people culture. This relationship of factors effecting and affecting are all illustrated in the following figure 5.This figure demonstrates the characteristics of solid wastes that affect the decisions regarding their management and the surrounding factors that have effects on these characteristics. Although these characteristics are divided into two main classifications; General characteristics that are used to describe waste in a wide point of view and specific characteristics that are needed to settle determined decisions for proper management methods since that these characteristics are of great concern when decisions are to be made about the collection vehicle type and the storage system which are also interrelated. Although such decisions are of great effect on the budget required to create a sustainable solid waste management system. Therefore consultants and project teams concerned on waste management are required to spend considerable part of their time investigating and undertaking full waste surveys, concentrating mainly on measuring the proportions of various categories of material in the waste.

[...]

Excerpt out of 99 pages

Details

Title
Quality Improvement of Municipal Solid Wastes Management in Alexandria Governorate
College
University of Alexandria  (Faculty of Engineering-Production Department)
Course
Quality Improvement Tools and Techniques being used in the Analysis of an Environmental Problem
Grade
Excellent
Author
Year
2014
Pages
99
Catalog Number
V285558
ISBN (eBook)
9783656855668
ISBN (Book)
9783656855675
File size
3355 KB
Language
English
Notes
The main point of view that thesis is focusing on is to turn the solid wastes in Egypt from an expenditure to the municipality budget to a national resource. The amounts of wastes in general in Egypt is huge and if all the world now are using wastes for the country's benefit so why Egypt can not do the same. But when digging deep in the problem it was realized that a cultural problem exists besides the regular complications like financial shortage and weak law enforcement. Thus, the problem to be solved needs an integrated solution that merges cultural enhancement means with managerial means.
Tags
quality, improvement, municipal, solid, wastes, management, alexandria, governorate
Quote paper
Heba Fahmy (Author), 2014, Quality Improvement of Municipal Solid Wastes Management in Alexandria Governorate, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/285558

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