The Leadership Style of Women. Effectiveness of Organisation

Hausarbeit, 2015

10 Seiten, Note: 3.0

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1.0 Introduction

2.0 Discussion
2.1 Biological Factors for Leadership
2.2 Discussion on Leadership Differences Male and female
2.2.1 First journal
2.2.2 Second journal
2.3 Improve Leadership and Organizational Effectiveness
2.4 Conclusion
2.5 References

Abstract: There is a tendency difference in style leadership between women and men as nature, but to become a leader effectively connected with the objectives of the organization should achieved, it is not enough just because of the nature of women or characteristics inherent in itself, but many other factors that influence. Other factors that should be considered for organizational effectiveness include: elections and settlement leaders, educational leadership, administration rewards on performance leaders and subordinates, engineering management organizations to deal with change environment, and technology.

Keywords: Leadership, Women and Effectiveness

1.0 Introduction

Leadership is often defined as the process make others be inspired to work hard in carrying out important tasks (Schermerhorn, 1999). But that understanding often associated with the basics of leadership effective, ie, basing it on how a leader or manager to use power influence the behavior of others. Power is ability to influence others to do something as desired by someone who requiring (Kanter, 1979). Because that is often leadership or leadership is defined as ability to influence a group to achieve certain goals (Robbins, 1998). This leadership is more focused on leadership management within the organization. Gender issues lately is becoming public discourse hotly discussed by many circle.

This question concerns the sharing of justice and social roles between men and women, who in all humans have constructed by religion, customs, and culture. In the case of role ambiguity is often the case in life between inequality everyday life roles. There is better hold on tradition, culture of the religious and otherwise they are more prioritizing religion of the customs, and culture. Women's leadership became a public issue always talk about, and has provoked debate and debate between the pro and cons of the leader women in a country, in spite of the recognition the basic right of humanity seems increased significant in many parts of the world. This recognition also applicable to the rights of women as in line with men. That women do not need high school, yet ultimately to the kitchen also often used as a tool to justify the action not just for women. The culture affect the formation of social structure and political flawed in society, so that women who if the soil can only survive in the room domestic.

This paper intends to examine the truth about the leadership style of women argued more effective than style male leadership in creating effective organization. For this purpose, the authors utilize documentary data, mainly through a number of reviews literature and research results support the theory may be applicable to the title of this article.

2.0 Discussion

2.1 Biological Factors for Leadership

Posts Robbin (1998) through a literature review the various literature, basically still questioned whether the behavior of a leader because the hormones contained in the body and brain. However, he acknowledged that the study show evidence that the leadership has biological roots, growing.

From the literature review, the researchers have found that effective leaders has a unique biochemical mixture between hormonal and brain chemicals that help them build alliances social and handle stress. Two types of chemicals, namely serontonin and testosterone, received serious attention by researchers concerned with the issue of leadership effective. According to experts, the increase in the level of serontonin can improve the ability to perform socialization and control the invasion. Higher the higher the level of testosterone boost level compete (Robbins, 1998).

In the meantime, Robbins (1998) also argues that studies by various researchers to primates looking for two things. First, primates dominant (male and female), have higher levels of serotonin compared to children fruit. Second, when the leaders of tertusir group, then a new leader to take responsibility show increased leadership responsibilities serotonin levels. The researchers believe that the level of serotonin enhancing leadership with control impulses of aggression and antisocial, and reduce excessive reaction to the pressures that are not irrelevant and insignificant.

This study is still unclear about the direction of the relationship cause and effect of both variables. Still questioned whether the high levels of serotonin as variables that stimulate leadership or whether. That is precisely what caused the change of leadership increased serotonin.

In terms of the biological basis as described above, shows that men and women has the potential to be an effective leader because in him each have testosterone which a current can be increased. When a person exposed to an environmental condition or threatening situation and requires that he fought, compete or adapt to changes or conditions it faces in order to obtain what is be the goal, testosterone available to him will increase. Increased testosterone in women or in men can increase confidence self and one's spirit to motivate yourself as a leader in order to achieve the goal.

2.2 Discussion on Leadership Differences Male and female

2.2.1 First journal

Study of a number of literature by Robbins (1998), in connection with the issue of gender and leadership suggests two conclusions. First, equating between men and women tend to ignore differences between them. Second, that what is differences between women and men is that women have more leadership style democratic, while men feel more comfortable with a style that is both Directive (emphasis on ways that are mandatory).

In this case, gender differences are apparent in population in general tend not constitute proof because this is a personal career choice and selection organization. Just as those who choose a career in the field of law enforcement, medical or bidangbidang the other has the equation-equation. Sharpness individuals, women and men who choose managerial careers tend to have in common. The individuals with personality traits associated with leadership, such as intelligence, confidence, and sociability, may be more acceptable as leaders and encouraged to pursue careers where they can carry out its leadership. Whatever type of gender, this is your justification.

2.2.2 Second journal

There are these differences inherent between men and women in terms of leadership style. Women tend adopt a leadership style that is more democratic. They encourage participation, share power and information, and try to improve the 'usefulness' for his followers. They tend to lead through involvement or empowerment and basing on expertise, contacts, and interpersonal skills in influencing others. Instead of men, are more likely to use force that is based on control and command. They are more based on position of formal authority as a basis for him to do influence.

2.3 Improve Leadership and Organizational Effectiveness

With emphasis on the characters that are believed as female characteristics such as the nature of love to share power, communicative, cooperative, and participatory in today's organizations, the results of research by a number of parties tend to exaggerate. Issue gender and leadership style of the study in advance as if only emphasize on the nature women is seen as a decisive factor effectiveness of a man in the lead. The characteristics of the attached to the women's impossible not there similarly the male self. This means that women and men alike have the ability to be an effective leader. Therefore, findings mentioned above to certain level should not be taken for granted before evidence really significant.

Clearly, to be a leader effective for the organization, not because of masculinity or femininity, but its capacity to lead. The effectiveness of a leader to be able to achieve effectiveness organizations can be influenced by a number of factors.

These factors include: (1) the selection and placement of the leader, (2) education leadership, (3) reward the achievements of leaders and subordinates, and (4) organizational management techniques for dealing changes in the environment, and (5) technology (See Steers, 1985; Jones, 1995).

a) Selection and Placement Leader

Up to a certain degree of effectiveness leaders can be improved through qualification leader, who needed to influence and empower all members with respect to organizational tasks that must be executed. Potential basic possessed the necessary leadership for organizations need to be recognized. According Ghiselli (in Steers, 1985), the basic potential to be met effective leaders who can carry on achievement of organizational effectiveness is the leader have certain personal traits. These characteristics according to him include: high intelligence, sensitivity the variation of the situation, initiative, confidence, and personality.

Besides these things, awareness of situation is also important in the selection of leaders effective (Fiedler in Steers 1985). A leader authoritarian style and task-oriented may be more suitable for work environment has characteristics of high task structure, centralized authority, and a superior subordinate very formal and rigid. Conversely, a oriented leader empowering all members to consider all components of the important part, may be cocock to situations characterized by rigid, humanist, decentralized in it emphasizes the power and influence than coercion, and a close relationship subordinate supervisor (Morgan & Murgatroyd, 1994).

Thus, rigid or mechanistic style more suited to the environment or situation is stable while the organic style is more suitable for the situation flexible or variable. But in an organization there are activities or procedures routine and there are activities accidental in nature and can not be interpreted. However effective leader, any kind gender, are required to work in both kinds situation, because such style can carry on the achievement of organizational effectiveness.

b) Educational Leadership

Development potential organizational leaders can conducted through a wide variety of education. Education is usually done with through two ways. First, a person can be changed so that it displays the desired properties in the higher levels. For example, the leader changed his attitude became more confident, assertive, able to hold inter-personal relationships with fun. Second, the person can be shown how to change the work environment so that a more harmonious with expectations or needs of the person in management.

According to Campbell (in Steers, 1985) there are five types of educational programs to improve leadership effectiveness, include (1) the program general management, which seeks to develop widely management skills, (2) the program relationships between people, which concerned interpersonal (3) program and the problem-solving decision-making, (4) laboratory education program, the experimental approach to shed light on the managers of the their own behavior; and (5) special program, which covering a wide range of important topics relevant to the particular organization.

Although there is no consensus on a wide appropriate educational programs to improve leadership effectiveness, but is recognized by a number of authors that effective leaders need to recognize variations situation (Robbins, 1998; Jones, 1997). With recognize variations in the environment or in the situation will bring the specific behavior to adapt in line with the changing environment. Appropriate leadership style for one situation may not be suitable for the situation other. Thus, although education is important, but it is also important to develop the talents and skills of managers ability to diagnose the difference situation. With The ability of a leader can have skills best suited to the demands of the situation.

c). Leaders and rewarding achievement subordinate

However leaders have needs must be met, such as salary increases, promotions to satisfy their needs. Fulfillment is especially based on the ability of managers to bring the members on activities aimed at achieving the purpose. Thus, these managers will tend to assume an effective leader behavior as a means to obtain the desired benefits to satisfy their needs (Steers, 1985). With in other words, the fulfillment of this requirement, the organization can make managers become aware of the role leadership in carrying out its duties and sought improve the ability to achieve effectiveness organization.

Meanwhile reward subordinates achievement also important. Services provided by a organizations still require full support by subordinates or all members no matter how effective a leader. The reward system becomes important to encourage subordinates behave towards supporting action leader in the service process. An leaders will be effective as far as he gives rewards subordinates and as far as remuneration is dependent the subordinate achievement and achieve goals expected given the subordinate (Steers, 1985; Luthans, 1992).

Through the integration of personal goals and objectives organization, which means that the likelihood of conflict can be reduced, the leader can increase the likelihood of increased efforts towards the achievement of both goals the jointly. For further efficiency and effectiveness of the organization can enhanced (Steers, 1985; Robbins, 1998; Robbins, 1990; Luthans, 1992).

d). Organizational Management Techniques for face environmental changes

To improve the effectiveness of leadership can also be done by changing the organizational structure. So the leader or manager can set the job to fit his expectations. Through modification of the work around the individual members of the organization, the organization can maintain a certain degree of efficiency, while still utilizing the individual talents of the (Steers, 1985).

Meanwhile, this organization management techniques also needs to be associated with the external environment organization. Environment in which an organization run activities it can be seen as source of uncertainty for the sustainability of life organization (Jones, 1995). If the client is a public organizations or customers to the organization attractive business support, if the supplier stop input, and if groups other stakeholders including competitors, distributors and market, labor, and government threaten the existence of organizations, then the occurs is uncertain. Therefore, leaders must design its organizational structure in order adequate in dealing with its relations with stakeholders in the external environment.

Competition in an increasingly complex global era especially for organizations engaged in service delivery or manufacture, often demanding organic organizational structure. This matter necessary because organic organizational structure will encourage innovative behavior through teamwork and self-management (organize, manage and empower themselves in accordance with the expected client or customer), to improve quality and reduce the time required for then to create a new service or product for a client or customers.

Thus, changes in organizational structure, in addition can improve the effectiveness of leadership, can also enhance the organization's ability to adapt to a changing environment as. with words other through changes in organizational structure, effectiveness leadership and organization can be improved.

e). Technology

No matter how effective a leader, to achieve organizational effectiveness he cannot separate of the existence of the technology used (Jones, 1995; Steers, 1985). Technology "is a combination skills, knowledge, abilities, techniques, materials, machines, computers, tools and equipment other people used to change materials crude into goods and services worth "(translated by the author of Jones, 1995: 348). Organizations using technology to make the organization more efficient, more effective, more innovative, and better in meet the needs and desires the internal stakeholders (leaders and subordinates as well as shareholders) and external stakeholders (clients / customers as well). Each part of the organization responsible for the development and maintenance technology that contributes positive for the performance of the organization. when organizations have the technology that enables it to create value, it requires a structure that maximizing the effectiveness of the technology.

Through technology, organizational leaders can increase efforts to innovate; develop new products, services, and processes; and reduce the time required to bring products / services new markets to local, national and global. Similarly, through technology, leadership organizations can improve efficiency and reduce costs while improving the quality and reliability products or its Services.

2.4 Conclusion

Women's leadership is believed to be more effective compared to male leadership. but opinions tend to exaggerate the inherent properties in women. To become the effectiveness of a leader in achieving the goals of the organization is not solely determined by the inherent nature of womanhood in person, but because of its capacity in lead.

Besides ability, effective leader for organizational effectiveness can also be influenced by five important factors include the selection and placement leader, leadership education, reward the achievements of leaders and subordinates, management techniques organization to deal with environmental changes, and technology

2.5 References

Jones, Gareth R., 1995, Organizational Theory: Tex dan Cases, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, California.

Luthans, Fred, 1992, Organizational Behavior, McGrawHill, Inc., San Fransisco.

Morgan, Colin & Murgatroyd, Stephen, 1994, Total Quality Management in the Public Sector, Open University Press, Philadelphia.

Steers, Richard, 1985, Efektivitas Organisasi, diterjemahkan Magdalena Jamin, Erlangga, Jakarta.

Schermerhorn, John R., Jr, 1999, Management, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York.

Robbins, Stephen P., 1998, Organizational Behavior: Concepts, Controversiess, Application, 8th ed,Prentice-Hall International, Inc., New Jersey.

Robbins, Stephen P., 1990, Organization Theory; Structure, Design, dan Application, Prentice Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ.

Kanter, Rosabeth Moss, 1979, ‘Power Failure in Mnagement Circuits’, Harvard Business Review, Vol. 47 (July-August 1979): 65-75.

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The Leadership Style of Women. Effectiveness of Organisation
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Other factors that should be considered for organizational effectiveness include: elections and settlement leaders, educational leadership, administration rewards on performance leaders and subordinates, engineering management organizations to deal with change environment, and technology.
leadership, style, women, effectiveness, organisation
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Nur Hasliza Jamaludin (Autor:in)Nor Azlin Naim (Autor:in), 2015, The Leadership Style of Women. Effectiveness of Organisation, München, GRIN Verlag,


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