A New Approach to Efficiently Automize & Manage Brushless DC Motor Using Pulse Width Modulation & Radio Frequency


Scientific Essay, 2015
6 Pages, Grade: N/A

Excerpt

Abstract

The aimed objective of this Research project is to control the speed and direction of brushless DC (Direct Current) motor, through RF (Radio Frequency) module. Microcontroller is the central part of this project which is controlling all the process i.e. checking for over current, under/over voltage and starting the auxiliary motor (for load sharing) in case of overloading etc. If the motor is having under or over voltage problems then it will automatically be stopped, to protect it from any damages. The process of speed control will be done by PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) technique. & lastly an advantage feature kept is the direction control of this motor.

Keywords

RF Transceiver, PWM, Brushless DC Motor, Load Sharing

Introduction

Developments of high performance motor drives are very essential for industrial applications. So it must have good dynamic speed command tracking and load regulating response [1]. Also it should be User friendly and reliable.

Our objective was to design such a system which not only controls the speed of brushless DC motors [2][3][4] but also monitor and protect the motor from any technical faults. Moreover this system having the advantage to control the motors wirelessly by using RF module.

The purpose of a motor speed controller is to take a signal representing the desired speed, & so to drive the motor at that specific speed. This controller may or possibly may not actually measure the speed of the motor depending upon the controller used [5]. If Feedback Speed Controller is used then, it would measure the speed of the motor by matching the output with the input, it’s also called a Closed Loop Speed Controller, and else if it doesn’t then it’s called an Open Loop Speed Controller. So on a technical note, a Feedback speed control is better, but comparatively more complex, and therefore, may not be required for a simple system design [6]. Here we are using open loop speed controller, which is independent of speed. Speeds can only be controlled using manually by using keypad of RF module. Keypads control the speed and direction for brushless dc motor.

The main core of this research project is to design a speed control system of DC brushless Motor using a PIC microcontroller. The suggested model will be able to control the speed & direction at desired levels, regardless of the changes in the loads [7] and also checking for any problem occur during running of motor, our second important objective is to perform the process of load sharing. In case the motor is overloaded then the second motor will start to work in the parallel of first motor.

The scope of this research project consists of using, assembly to program the microcontroller, building hardware prototypes, using RF technology and interfacing the hardware with microcontroller and different electronics components like LCD etc. [8][9][10][11][12].

Physical Modelling & Hardware Implementation Process

Block Diagram

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Figure.1 Block Diagram

Before implementing the hardware, block diagram should be made to identify the path on which work will be continued. As shown in the above figure that microcontroller is the central part of the project which is used to receive the information about the speed and direction through RF receiver. Microcontroller controls the direction of motors through relays, where speed will be controlled through the PWM process. For load sharing process a comparator is connected with controller, which continuously measure the drop across the motor, in case the drop goes high it will turn on the second motor through relay, this motor will work parallel to the first motor, this make the load sharing between the two motors, which protect the motor from any damages. The under and over voltage protection is also available by using under and over voltage protection kit. This kit turns off the motor when it observe the abnormal behaviors.

Circuit Diagram

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Figure.2 Circuit Diagram

A circuit diagram shows the connection between all the components and interfaces with controller. RF module is connected with Microcontroller through decoder; controller is connected with decoder through pin 10, which collect the user demand information. The user demands includes speed up, speed down, clock wise direction or anticlockwise direction and stop the motor. Microcontroller controllers the speed by using PWM technique, TL494 using is used for the control circuit of the PWM switching regulator. The pin description is already described in detail, where the interfacing of component with each other is provided in the circuit diagram. PWM is connected with the power mosfet transistors which are directly connected with the DC brushless motor1. Where for the direction two relays are used which work instead of half h-bridge, it shuffle its direction.

To protect the motor from any damages load sharing technique has been used, in case of motor loaded, system stats other motor automatically in parallel of the first motor. Comparator is used to measure the over load i.e. LM339 is used to measure the current drop across the motor, in case current exceed particular level then the other motor will be turn on connected with relay. The relay is connected with the controller through transistor; transistor is used here for amplification (because controller did not have the enough power to drive the relay).

For over voltage and under voltage a kit is used which measure the over voltage and under voltage, in case if the limit exceed then 280, system will be turn off, or it will turn off the system when voltage decrease then 180v.

Hardware Implementation

Now it is easy to implement the hardware from the circuit diagram. The hardware consist of number of parts here each part will be explain one by one and in the end overview will be given.

Circuit given below consists of RF transmitter, with keypad. Different buttons are used for different functions i.e.

A=for speed up the motor

B=speed down the motor

C=stop the motor

D=for changing direction of motor

These codes will be sended through RF transmitter after encoding.

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Figure.3 RF Transmitter

The Figure.4 shown below consists of microcontroller, decoder, comparator, regulator, RF receiver etc. each component having the unique function. . ON this side (receiver side) these codes will be decoded and send to the microcontroller which control the direction, speed, and continuously checking for over load. Controllers controls all the relays, for parallel working of second motor, for direction control and turning off the motor due to non-uniform behavior (over voltage and under voltage). The comparator is used to find the current drop across the motor and according to that second motor will be started.

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Figure.4

The Figure.5 given below consist of PWM switch regulator, MOSFET transistors, heat sink etc. Whereas the PWM is used to control the speed of motor where MOSFET transistors is the power transistors which is the requirement for DC brushless motor.

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Figure.5

The Figure.6 given below shows the complete hardware of RF based DC brushless motor control and protection, in the above circuit the connection between all the components and interfaces with controller is shown. RF module is connected with Microcontroller through decoder, controller is connected with decoder. Which collect the user demand information.

[...]

Excerpt out of 6 pages

Details

Title
A New Approach to Efficiently Automize & Manage Brushless DC Motor Using Pulse Width Modulation & Radio Frequency
Course
Electrical Power Engineering
Grade
N/A
Author
Year
2015
Pages
6
Catalog Number
V289150
ISBN (eBook)
9783656894223
File size
998 KB
Language
English
Tags
approach, efficiently, automize, manage, brushless, motor, using, pulse, width, modulation, radio, frequency
Quote paper
Muhammad Junaid (Author), 2015, A New Approach to Efficiently Automize & Manage Brushless DC Motor Using Pulse Width Modulation & Radio Frequency, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/289150

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