A microcontroller and GUI approach to reduce power consumption in lighting system and for security system of Departmental stores


Scientific Essay, 2015
6 Pages

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A microcontroller and GUI approach to reduce power consumption in lighting system and forsecurity system of Departmental stores

Abstract —In this research we explore the possibilities of developing the security system and reduce operational cost in departmental stores providing range of methods for maximum utilization of resources. We present a utility-based departmental store that can detect human interventions in every aisle and automatic control system that make adjustments based on conditions such as occupancy, light intensity levelensuring considerable energy saving and a security system using analogous sensors and actuators and GUI.Hence, we propose an intelligent lighting control strategy aided with PIR motion sensors and Graphical User Interface (GUI) all of which help significantly reducing energy usage and operational cost.

Keywords—Automatic lightcontrol, Occupancy rate, power calculation, Microcontroller unit,GUI ,Security system.

I. Introduction

The modern era beckons to solve the energy crisis along with the increasing energy consumption day by day which is obviously making disproportion of energy in the world. Particularly in city area of developed countries, departmental stores have become a considerable place of electrical energy consumption. The foremost objective of this research work is to develop an intelligent automatic control system which aims to minimize power consumption as well as sustainable development of smart energy saving system for our future generation.Moreover, the usage of installed intelligent light controls that enables users to adjust levels according to their preferences inspired us to work on it. The integration of PIR motion sensors to the lights in low-trafficked areas and high-trafficked areas of departmental store would serve as a replacement of standard light bulbs with no energy-efficient plans. Hence, all these motion sensors that we have applied in this project aims to add a bit of energy-savings strategy fostering efficient method to curb the energy crisis. The energy-saving light controls provide comfort, productive visual environment, enhancing quality of work in the departmental store and finally the reduction of lighting costs. Also our strategic Security system ensures the security of the departmental store.

II. The Departmental Store Controlling and Space Division

The entire system is integrated with the automatic light control system in a departmental store to power up the actuators. This system will require sensors and actuators which will be connected with intelligent chip as microcontroller units (MCU). In this project a microcontroller unit “Arduino-uno” is used to ensure better interfacing with the sensors.Here (Fig1) , amodel development and space type for the departmental stores represent a typical departmental store well enough to provide specific guidance to increase energy efficiency by controlling light. Moreover, the model departmental store contains six primary sections sales, produce, deli, bakery, dry storage and office where the different sensors are used to eliminate excess power consumption [1].

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Fig. 1Model and space type of departmental store

The largest area is allocated for Grocery and Sales. In any departmental store the occupancy density in grocery section is much higher than any other sections and for this reason any departmental store requires larger space for this section[1]. The standard space for grocery and sales section is 50 to 56 percent which says in 25000 square feet the floor area it will require is 14000 square feet or 1301 square meters[1]. The area allocated for dry food is 4250 square feet or 395 square meters, for medicine section 1250 square feet or 116 square meters, for electronics and crockery 1250 square feet, for cloths and cosmetics 3750 square feet and for office 500 square feet. The percentage area for the sections is given in the table and in the bar chart [1].

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Fig. 2 Percentage of total floor area of different sections

III. Energy Consumption In Departmental Store

As for Energy efficiency, LED lights reduce energy consumption up to 80 percent. As in only 20 percent of power loss occurs compared to regular lights [2].

Generally in departmental stores or super stores recommended light level is 750 lumen/ [3]. In this project one LED bulb of 12 watt which produces 750lumen is used for every 10 square feet area. The number of bulbs needed is the total area of the departmental store divided by the area covered by each bulb.

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LED guide formulas are needed for calculating total power that used by the bulbs. There are some formulas for calculation below:

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In a 25000 square feet departmental store,2500 diffused LED bulbs are needed.If one LED bulb consumes 12 watt,6250 LED bulbs require power per day =

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LED bulbs consume the least power and have the longest life span, lasting up to 40 or 50 years [5].This kind of bulb is both energy-efficient and environmentally friendly, as it does not contain mercury or lead like CFLs do [5].

IV. Power Saving Scope and Calculation

For the power saving scope and calculation we have determined three different features. These are occupancy density,occupancy in peak and nonpeak hours , Operation hours of lights with PIR sensor and without PIR sensor.The occupant density refers to the amount of persons that can safely fit into the space available [6]. Occupancy density of a departmental store is very essential for calculating occupancy in every section which helps further to calculate energy saving. In this project we take an existing departmental store as an example to determine yearly power consumption.

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Fig. 3 Pie chart of Occupancy in every section

Occupancy in different section also varies in different hours. The operating hour of the store is from 8 am to 10 pm .

It is observed that during peak hours the number of people visit in grocery section is 41, in dry food section 19, in cloths section 36, in cosmetic section 6, in electronics and crockery section 5 and in medicine section 5. In nonpeak hours the number drops to one third of peak hours. It is also observed that in cosmetic, electronics and crockery and in medicine section the occupancy remains relatively constant in both peak and nonpeak hour.

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Fig. 4 Bar chart of occupancy in peak and nonpeak hours

During nonpeak hours the number of people in departmental store drops to one third of the number during peak hours. In peak hours Grocery, Dry foods and Cloths sections are remain 100 percent occupied and in nonpeak hours the percentage of hours remained occupied in these three sections are 75 percent, 68 percent and 60 percent. The number of people in cosmetics Electronics and medicine sections remains relatively invariable or constant all day. A table is given below to calculate the operation hours of lights with PIR sensor and without PIR sensor based on the departmental store.

TABLE I

Operation Hours Of Lights With PIR Sensor And Without PIR Sensor

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In that departmental store fluorescent bulbs of 30W and 750lumen were used. One LED bulb creates similar brightness with power capacity from 9 - 13 watt. Most of the LED bulbs of 12 watt which produce 750 lumens are available in different stores in present days. If this bulb replaces fluorescent bulb of power capacity 30 watt and similar brightness power consumption drops to a very lower value.

TABLE II.

Power Calculation For One LED Light

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Here calculations are shown for six bulbs in six sections in that departmental store to find the energy consumption by a single bulb.

Total consumption of energy in watt-hour per day in six sections by six LED bulbs of 12 watt with PIR sensor[illustration not visible in this excerpt]

Average total consumption of energy in watt-hour per day by one LED bulb of 12 watt with PIR sensor[illustration not visible in this excerpt]

Total energy consumption by a single LED bulb with PIR sensor per year [illustration not visible in this excerpt]

Total energy consumption in watt-hour per day by six fluorescent bulbs of 30 watt without PIR sensor= 2520 Wh or 2.52 kWh.

Total energy consumption in watt-hour per day by a single fluorescent bulb of 30 watt without PIR sensor=420 Wh

Total energy consumption by a single fluorescent bulb without PIR sensor per year

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So energy saving by a single LED light with PIR sensor per year [illustration not visible in this excerpt]

The departmental store was 6000 square feet in area and 2000 fluorescent bulbs were used in lighting system. Energy consumption by 2000 bulb per day is [illustration not visible in this excerpt]

840000 Wh or 840 kWh.

In that departmental store 350 KVA or 280 kW of power is being used in every hour that’s means in 14 hours, energy consumption is 3920 kWh and energy consumption by lighting system is 840 kWh which is 21.42%.

If 2000 LED bulbs with PIR sensors replace fluorescent bulbs, the total energy consumption of that store drops to 3304.66 kWh and the lighting system consumes 224660 Wh or 224.66 kWh of energy which is 6.79% of the total energy per day.

Soif that department store uses LED lighting system with PIR sensors instead of fluorescent bulbs without PIR sensors that wouldreduce energy consumption up to 15.69% per day and 224.5 kWh of energy per year.

Now a day’s CFLs of 22 watt are available producing similar brightness of 12 watt LED bulbs. In that case lighting system would consume 112.42 kWh per year. So, energy saving per year by a single LED light with PIR sensor is ) kWh = 71.42 kWh.

Furthermore using LDR (light sensor) to control light intensity with occupancy sensor and Led lighting systemmore 5%-8% energy will be possible to save in lighting system [7-8].

V. Component design and Hardware Implementation

In fig.5 we have designed a simple departmental store for light control and security system according to percentage of floor area [1]. Here the major areas of the departmental store have been divided into 6 areas. There will be a MCU (Microcontro- ller unit) installed in each and every area. These MCU will be connected to the computers in control room through serial Communication.Here ‘Arduino Uno’ has been used as MCU.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthaltenFig. 5Control plan of the departmental store

A.Light control

For lighting control system we have used two different

sensors one is LDR (photo resistor) and another is PIR (motion detector) sensor. Here photo resistor is used to determine the light intensity and PIR sensor is used to detect human presence. According to different light intensity photo resistor changes its resistance, so voltage across it also changes in different light intensity.According to the different output voltage the MCU will turn on and turn off the switches of light to control the light intensity in a specific area . For light intensity control MCU will determine three different standard light intensity levels per square meter.In departmental stores or super stores recommended light level is 750 lumen/ [3]. So light intensity between 600lumen/ to 800lumen/ will be consider as medium light intensity. Light intensity lower than 600lumen/ will be consider as low and light intensity higher than 800lumen/ will be consider as high light intensity.

To control light intensity level in specific area light intensity should be kept in medium range.When a person will access in an area then PIR sensor will detect human existence and MCU will turn on theswitches. For example According to Fig. 6 in low light intensity the MCU will turn on switch 1and 2 for four LED bulbs. It will continue same in medium light intensity .if light intensity is high then MCU will turn off switch 2(Relay 2). If light intensity is low then MCU will turn on switch 2.

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Fig.6Schematic Diagram of light Control Circuit

According to light intensity the MCU will control the switches. In Fig. 7 control flow chart is given to show the steps of the light control system for specific area.

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Fig.7Control flowchart of light control system

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Fig.8 Lights turn on when human presence.

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Fig.9 Lights turn off when no human presence.

Fig. 10 and Fig. 11 show the individual circuit implementation of lighting control system which gives an understanding circuit of the complete system. The box shown in the Fig. 10 and Fig. 11 is sample representation of a single area in departmental store. PIR sensor is connected to the entrance of the area and LDR is connected inside the box.

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Fig.10Practical implementation of lighting control system with no presence of human body.

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Fig.11Practical implementation of lighting control system with human body presence.

B.GUI and Security system

The purpose of Using GUI (Graphical User Interface) is to monitor the light intensity and human presence for security system where all sensors and actuators will be connected to the MCU (Arduino Uno) and the MCU will be connected to the computers of the control room. The MCU will send messageof light intensity level, human presence through serial communication line to computers in control room and In GUImessage box will show the light intensity level and human presence. Besides there will be two buttons in message box which have been used as security command button. For security system when“on button” in massage box will be turned on then PIR sensors of every area will start to detect human presence. If any human presence is detected in any area then MCU will turn on the alarm and at the same time it will send message to the computer of human presence in specific area. Also when button in message box will be turned off then MCU will stop working for security system.Especially security system will be activatedwhen the store will be closed.

Fig 12shows how the total system will work with MCU and GUI.

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Fig. 12 Block Diagramof communication with GUI and MCU.

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Fig. 13 Message box for monitoring.

Additionally this security system is cheaper, less installation complexity and easier than regular security system like analog or IP-based video surveillance security system [9-10].

C. Integrated Circuit

In fig. 14shows the Schematic Diagramof integrated circuit both for light and security control system.

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Fig. 14 Schematic Diagram of integrated circuit.

This circuit will workboth for controlling lighting system and security and it will communicate with computer using serial communication system.

VI. Limitations

In this project the MCU will determine three different light intensity level but it will not determine exact light intensity rate through mathematical algorithm because LDR we used in circuits does not provide linear output signals according to change of light intensity. Future work on this project includes wireless communication system for GUI (Graphical User Interface) to widen the monitoring system.

V. Conclusion

An automatic light control system is an energy efficient system in different ways such as the use of LED light and PIR sensor which save anenormous amount of energy every year. Unlike typical lighting system which consumes large amount of energy this system is able to minimize the energy consumption as well as the yearly cost. As it is shown above choosing the LED lamp over other lighting source with PIR sensors, not only make the system further energy efficient but also makes it cost effective and be easy to maintain in the long run.In addition user friendly GUI facilitates maintenance and security system. This whole system is autonomous and very useful in terms of energy saving.

REFERENCES

[1]Matthew Leach, Elaine Hale, Adam Hirsch, and Paul Torcellini.

“Grocery Store 50% Energy Savings Technical SupportDocument”.

Technical Report NREL/TP-550-46101 September 2009.

Available: http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy09osti/46101.pdf

[2] L. C. LED.“Advantages of LED Lights”.

Available:http://www.lc-led.com/articles/ledlights.html

[3] The Engineering Toolbox. “ Illuminance- recommended light levels”.

Available: file:///E:/publication/Illuminance%20-

%20Recommended%20Light%20Levels.htm

[4] Day Lighting Collaborative (2013). “Formulas”.

Available: http://www.daylighting.org/formulas.php

[5]Earth easy solution for substantial living (2012). “Energy efficient lighting”.

Available: http://eartheasy.com/live_energyeff_lighting.htm

[6] Occupant capacity.

Available:http://www.healthandsafetyforthearts.com/oc.htm

[7] Y.-W. Bai and Y.-T. Ku: Automatic Room Light Intensity Detection and Control Using a Microprocessor and Light Sensors.IEEE transactions on Consumer Electronics, Vol. 54, No. 3, AUGUST 2008,pp.1173 – 1176

[8] DESIGN OF AN INTELLIGENT ANDEFFICIENT LIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM.International Journal of Computer Applications Technology and Research, Volume 2– Issue 2, pp.117 - 120, 2013. Available:http://www.ijcat.com/archives/volume2/issue2 /ijcatr02021006.pdf.

[9]Total cost comparison study of analog and IP-based video surveillance.

Availablehttp://www.axis.com/files/whitepaper/wp_cost_comparison_ 41264_en_1012_lo.pdf

[10] IP Networking and Its Impact on Video Surveillance

Available:http://www.netgear.com/images/IP%20Networking%20and%

20Its%20Impact%20on%20Video%20Surveillance18-51824.pdf

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Details

Title
A microcontroller and GUI approach to reduce power consumption in lighting system and for security system of Departmental stores
Authors
Year
2015
Pages
6
Catalog Number
V289184
File size
1339 KB
Language
English
Tags
departmental
Quote paper
Nabirul Islam (Author)Shamima Islam Nifa (Author), 2015, A microcontroller and GUI approach to reduce power consumption in lighting system and for security system of Departmental stores, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/289184

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