Evaluation of Professional Development Initiatives for Science Tutors in Diploma Teacher Colleges in Tanzania


Master's Thesis, 2013
120 Pages, Grade: A

Free online reading

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Acknowledgements

Dedication

List of Abbreviations and Acronyms

Abstract

Table of Contents

List of Tables

List of Figures

CHAPTER ONE: THE PROBLEM AND ITS CONTEXT
1.0 Introduction
1.1 Background Information to the Problem
1.1.1 Teacher education and science tutors in Tanzania
1.1.2 Teacher education and science tutors in other parts of the world
1.1.3 The impact of in-service training to science tutors on student performance
1.2 Statement of the Problem
1.3 Purpose of the Study
1.4 Specific Objectives of the Study
1.5 Research Questions:
1.6 Significance of the Study
1.7 Delimitation of the Study
1.8 Limitations of the Study
1.9 Conceptual Framework
1.10 Operational Definition of Terms
1.11 Organization of the Study

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0 Introduction
2.1 Conceptualizing the Term “Professional Development”
2.2 Principles of High Quality Professional Learning
2.3 Formats for Job-Embedded Professional Development
2.4 Professional Development to Science Teachers in Relation to Student Performance
2.5 The Influence of Technology in Professional Development for Science Tutors
2.6 Ability of Science Teachers at Exploring Local Environment in Science Teaching
2.7 Professional Development Organizational Models
2.8 Evaluation of the Professional Development Initiatives
2.9 Synthesis of Literature Review
2.10 Knowledge Gap

CHAPTER THREE:RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.0 Introduction:
3.1 Research Approach and Design:
3.1.1 Research approach
3.1.2 Research design
3.1.2.1 Summary depicting study design
3.2 The Study Area
3.3 Population:
3.4 Sample and Sampling Technique
3.4.1 Sample size
3.4.2 Sampling technique
3.4.2.1 Selection of the sampled college
3.4.2.2 Selection of participants (tutors):
3.4.2.3 Selection of participants (former science student-teachers)
3.5 Instruments for Data Collection:
3.5.1 Questionnaire
3.5.2 Interview
3.5.3 Documentary review
3.6 Validity and Reliability of Instruments
3.7 Ethical Considerations
3.8 Data Analysis Procedure

CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
4.0 Introduction
4.1 Respondents Summary Information
4.2 Data Presentation and Discussion
4.2.1 Resources used in the implementation of professional development initiatives
4.2.1.1 Availability of resources for implementing professional development initiatives
4.2.1.2 Ability of science tutors to design teaching/learning materials and use them during professional development and in their working field
4.2.2 The appropriateness of approaches used in professional development to science tutors
4.2.2.1 Approaches used during professional development for science tutors
4.2.2.2 Professional development forms which enable science tutors to excel well professionally
4.2.2.3 Activity based science learning approaches
4.2.3 Attainment of professional development objectives
4.2.3.1 Developing capacity for science tutors to enhance science teaching skills
4.2.3.2 Developing positive attitudes towards science subjects teaching
4.2.3.3 Former science student -teachers learning outcome
4.2.4 Application of knowledge gained by science tutors during PD in their work
4.2.4.1 The impact of contextual factors in the ability of science tutors to apply knowledge gained during PDI
4.2.4.1.1 Leadership and financial support
4.2.4.1.2 Policy

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY,CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.0 Introduction
5.1 Summary of the Study
5.1.1 Reserch methods
5.1.2 Summary of the findings
5.2 Conclusion
5.3 Recommendations
5.3.1 Recommendation for further studies
5.3.2 Recommendations for action

REFERENCES

APPENDICES

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I thank the almighty God, for giving me strength and health throughout the time I worked on this dissertation. The successful accomplishment of this dissertation was due to valuable contributions from several people. The first person I would like to thank is my direct supervisor Dr. F.N. Tilya for his directives, suggestions and useful comments that contributed to the accomplishment of this dissertation. Frankly speaking, I am indebted to other numerous people who assisted me in one way or another, though not explicitly mentioned in this brief acknowledgement, I would kindly ask all of them to accept my sincere appreciations for the support they provided me in the accomplishment of this study. May God bless them.

I gratefully acknowledge, my profound and heartfelt appreciation to my family members; namely my lovely wife Devotha King`ung`alo and my lovely daughters Issabela, Alcina and Cynthia for their tolerance during my absence to attend this programme. I greatly love you all.

Lastly my appreciations go to my beloved parents, Kornel Filipatali and Isabella Kiyeyeu, for their financial and spiritual support which enabled me to concentrate on my studies and finally accomplish the task. May the Almighty God bless you all. I also wish to express my thanks to my sisters and brothers David, Amalia, Sara, Yotham, Felix, Sira, Nuhu and Lucy.

I alone, however remain solely responsible and accountable for inconveniencies and weakness that may be found herein.

DEDICATION

I want to dedicate this work to my wife and parents. You have supported me in everything I wanted to do. Over the past 33 years, my parents have sacrificed their time, energy, and money to support me. None of it has gone unnoticed. I love both of you and I thank you for giving me the opportunity to complete this dream.

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS

ETP Education and Training Policy

ICT Information and Communication Technology

IN-SET In-service Training

JEPD Job Embedded Professional Development

MoEVT Ministry of Education and Vocational Training

MoEC Ministry of Education and culture

OUT Open University of Tanzania

PD Professional Development

PDI Professional Development Initiatives

QUAL Qualitative

QUAN Quantitative

RAS Regional Administrative Secretary

SESS Science Education in Secondary Schools

SIE Stockholm Institute of Education

SPSS Statistical Package for Social Sciences

STIP Science Teacher Improvement Project

TEAMS Teacher Education Assistance in Mathematics and science

TEP Tutors Education Program

TTC Teachers Training College

UNESCO United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization

UDSM University of Dar-es -Salaam

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to evaluate professional development initiatives for science tutors in diploma teacher colleges in Tanzania. Three objectives guided the study. The first objective was to examine the resources available and used in the implementation of professional development initiatives, the second was to explore the appropriateness of approaches used in professional development to science tutors and the third one was to determine the way science tutors are able to apply knowledge gained during professional development in their real working situation. The study largely employed qualitative approach as well as some elements of quantitative research approach. The study employed embedded mixed method design whereby 52 science tutors were selected through simple random technique and 15 former science student-teachers and four teacher colleges were selected through purposive sampling procedures. The sample had 67 participants.

Data gathered in this study were analyzed quantitatively using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16. Descriptive statistics was used in data analysis. Qualitative data were analyzed using content analysis. The findings revealed that science tutors claimed that seminars and workshops were the main approaches that were used during professional development activities .The result also reaveld that institutions(teacher colleges) did not ensure the availability of facilities and materials for effective professional development.It was reaveled that science tutors were not able to explore well their local enviroment in science teaching and there was a positive relationship between student pefomance and professional development to science tutors. From the findings it was concluded that: PDIs appear to have effects on different aspects in science teaching although the effect on subject content is relatively low due to shortage of science teaching and learning facilities.

The study recommends among other things that; there should be a follow-up mechanism by both the ministry of education and vocational training and teacher colleges in particular for all in-service trainings offered to science tutors so as to track on the success and difficulties encountered in the course of PD trainings emplimentation.Further ,it is recommended that the ministry of education and vocational training should make sure that science tutors professional development must be thought of as a long term process which begins with initial preparation and only ends when the tutor retires from the profession.This new approach to education and development of science tutors requires a transformation of processes and policies that support tutors,their education,their work and their growth in the profession.

LIST OF TABLES

Table 3. 1 : Sample composition of science tutors from each of the four teacher college

Table 3. 2 : Sample composition of former science teacher-students

Table 4. 1 : Profile of the respondents (Science tutors)

Table 4. 2 :Organization assurance on the availability of resources

Table 4. 3: The use of improvised science teaching materials

Table 4. 4 :Dominant mode of PD in Teacher colleges

Table 4. 5 : Implementation of activity- based in a science classroom

Table 4. 6 : Tutors sense of efficiency

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1. 1:The model of teacher change as result of PD by Guskey

Figure 3. 1 : Study design notation

Figure 4. 1 : Picture of Klerruu teachers` college computer laboratory claimed to have about half of PCs not working

Figure 4. 2:Approaches used during professional development

Figure 4. 3 : Tutors sense of connection in science teacher education post PD

Figure 4. 4 : Ability to work autonomously and effectively

CHAPTER ONE THE PROBLEM AND ITS CONTEXT

1.0 Introduction

This chapter introduces the study on evaluation of professional development initiatives for science tutors in diploma teacher colleges in Tanzania. It comprises the background of the problem, statement of the problem, research objectives, research questions, and the significance of the study, its limitations and delimitations, conceptual framework as well as definition of key terms.

1.1 Background Information to the Problem

1.1.1 Teacher education and science tutors in Tanzania

As we are in 21st century, Tanzania has come to understand that raising the achievement level of all students, from kindergarten to higher education is of paramount concern (Winter, 2005). Teacher education is among the very important component at ensuring that education system in Tanzania operates properly (MoEC, 1995). In most of the countries particularly developing countries including Tanzania, science teachers’ ability to fulfil their daily responsibilities of teaching sciences is pathetic. As a result this leads into poor students performance year after year. This is observed through secondary schools national examinations results where, results in science subjects are bad as compared to art subjects (O-saki, 2007). This is also realized through inability of many secondary schools science teachers to deliver scientific concepts and the general science content to their students.

Bottinger (1992) noted that, in order for science tutors/teachers to acquire science knowledge properly they need to attend university education for six years. Taking two academic science subjects followed by two years in a specific teacher training colleges which will largely concentrate on inculcating pedagogical skills .This system has enabled countries like German to achieve excellently in preparing good science teachers. Time length for completion of bachelor degree may vary from university to university, however, the degree typically should take 4-5 years full time to complete. A bachelor degree is between 120-124 units with an average of 30 units per year followed by continuous professional development (Wallis, 2008).

Universities need to prepare science tutors in not less than four years so as to enable them acquire constructive teaching skills (Bottinger, 1992). Science tutors are to be carefully selected individuals who are not only talented and knowledgeable in their areas of expertise, but also highly motivated and capable of conducting experiments .This will enable them to create the best possible learning environment for their tutees (Chonjo, O-saki, Possi, & Mrutu, 1996).

Educational institutions in particular diploma teacher colleges throughout Tanzania are busy at ensuring that, they design professional development initiatives in science education around basic principles and guidelines as stipulated in secondary schools science syllabi (MoEVT, 2012). These initiatives include regular courses on how to use computers in teaching sciences, Tutors Education Program (TEP), Training tutors on how to convene science practicals among others .Generally, any professional development initiative should focus on changing teachers’ attitudes and beliefs. Presuming that, they will result in a change of instructional practice and pedagogy leading to the improvement of student learning (Guskey,2000). O-saki, Hosea and Ottevanger (2004) assert that, teachers should be continuously trained so as to ascertain different needs of each learner at the first consultation and tailor the tutoring plan to help the tutee on their way to achieving them. High content standards, expectations for all students, and authentic measures to determine whether students are achieving in their science subjects can also be done by individual tutor efforts.

Tanzania has established collaborative donor funded projects to receive support for improving science education. Among these projects established are the Science Education in Secondary Schools (SESS) Project and Science Teacher Improvement Project (STIP) (Kitta, 2004).In particular for science teacher education IN-SET project named Teacher Education Assistance in Mathematics and Science (TEAMS) was launched. A TEAM, which is situated at UDSM, provides in-service education for mathematics and science teachers/tutors. This project started in1996 and was meant to initiate improvement in both pre- and in-service science teacher education, as well as build the capacity to plan for more comprehensive changes. O-saki (2002) comments that, in general, the main activities of the project include the following:

- the development of new courses in science and mathematics education for pre-service students;
- organization of in-service activities for teachers;
- staff development for junior staff

With regards to organizing in-service education, the TEAMS project is facing a lot of challenges. Focusing on the country's size and financial constraints, it is difficult to organize in-service education programmes that reach all science and mathematics teachers scattered in different schools and colleges throughout the country (Kitta, 2004). One-shot in-service programmes may be possible, but it is difficult to organize follow-up sessions. In addition to this, current professional development literature indicates that one-short in-service education programme is not effective at all (Fullan, 2001).

It is also reported that if science tutors get involved in different training initiatives they can further develop their skills in science communication, theories of learning, development of personal study plans, feedback and assessment (Utz & Aubert, 2008). When science tutors are properly informed on afore mentioned features, they will be in position to create a stimulating learning environment for their tutees, in which the learning process becomes both effective and enjoyable (Charles & Romiszowski, 1997).O-saki,et al.(2004) revealed that science activities in most of African countries particularly in Sub-Saharan African countries have either paralyzed or died a natural death in both schools and colleges. Teachers` abilities to monitor teaching and learning in the classroom is often influenced ,by adequate training in professional development courses as well as availability of basic teaching and learning materials in schools and colleges (O-saki ,2001).

Although many educational institutions in Tanzania have some type of professional development for their teachers, the problem is that very few of these activities are effective in changing teaching practices (O-saki, 2007). This is because most of professional development initiatives are fragmented, atomized, short-term and rarely focused on curriculum for students (Cohen & Kill, 1998; Hirsch, Koppich, & Knapp, 1998).

Many societies of education stakeholders in Tanzania are engaging in serious and promising educational reforms. One of the key elements which is mentioned several times in this reform is professional development to science teachers which can be properly implemented under the involvement of different education stakeholders (Hongoke, 1997). Guskey and Huberman (1995) assert that science teacher educators are not only the variables that need to be changed in order to improve science education in any country, but they are also the most significant change agent in these reforms. This double role of science teacher educators in education reforms being both subjects and objects of change makes the field of science teacher professional development a growing and challenging area, and one that has received a foremost attention during the past few years .This necessitate on the role of applying job embedded and distance professional development in different education institutions.

In Tanzania science tutors are prepared only for three years taking learning packages of both science and education together (University of Dar es Salaam, Annual report 2001/2002). Once this time length and compared to what Bottinger (1992) commented, it is not enough, because he suggests that a well prepared science teacher has to attend science university education taking two academic subjects for six years followed by two years in a specific teacher training college.

In order to help science tutors who attended universities for three years, it is advised that science tutors in Tanzania should attend regular workshops and other training initiatives with a number of crafted science activities using readily available materials which they would share during the programme implementation, and further develop skills for presenting in the class (Smith &Ragan, 1999). Tilya (2003) asserts that activity -based teaching approach does not only make student learn useful facts and memorize them, but also to apply them in a highly stable unifying principles of science and experimentation which is often used by scientists in solving real life problems.

Education and Training Policy MoEC (1995) state, that teacher education is very important in any education system. Tutors need to have good qualifications for the purpose. However, for a long time Tanzania has been employing a lot of efforts to curb the problem of under prepared science tutors. The present study aims to evaluate the extent to which these efforts have become constructive. The education and training policy of Tanzania directs that teacher educators must be prepared properly followed by effective professional trainings so that they can acquire special qualifications for the purpose.

In 1997 a needs assessment was conducted in some government teacher colleges in Tanzania to implement the policy directives. The teacher education department did needs assessment in collaboration with the Stockholm Institute of Education (SIE).The assessment analyzed how tutors worked in the teacher colleges then, compared with how teachers worked in schools. The assessors found out among other things that teaching in both teacher colleges, primary and secondary schools encourage rote learning. Moreover, the situation was acknowledged to be tremendously worse in science subjects.

In September 1998 the ministry of education and culture of Tanzania in collaboration with the Open University of Tanzania (OUT) launched a program named Tutors Education Program (TEP). The centre for the program was established in Morogoro teachers` college (MoEVT & OUT, 2007). The implementation of TEP in teacher colleges is done collectively by both the Ministry of education and vocational Training and the Open University of Tanzania. Where, program facilitators come from both the Ministry of Education and the Open University of Tanzania. However, certification of graduates for the course is done by the Open University of Tanzania (OUT).

Most of the science teachers are primed on how to teach under ideal situation, but when they come into a real working field the implementation of their professional responsibilities become difficult (MoEVT, 2007). In Tanzania teacher education syllabi have been changing several times without preparing tutors to cope with these changes (UNESCO, 2003). Curriculum changes should go together with job embedded professional development sessions at all science teacher colleges (Killion & Roy, 2009).

In teacher colleges of Tanzania there have been some initiatives which aimed at enhancing knowledge, skills and ability of science tutors .These include Short time initiatives like the use computers in teaching, learning and assessing science subjects, Science workshops aiming to discuss with tutors different science subject areas with confusion in the course of their curriculum implementation, TEP, Joining science tutor organizations, organizing science fairs, cascading among others (MoEVT, 2007). Generally, most of the professional development initiatives experience difficulties due to shortage of facilities, infrastructures, funding agencies among others. As a result the pre-planned objectives like, changing tutors attitude and skills, improve ability in convening practicals among others, may not be met as intended depending on the severity of the deficit in question (O-saki, 2004).

The Tanzania education and training policy MoEC (1995) directs that teacher educators must have sound qualifications for the purpose of preparing competent teachers in particular science teachers. This condition compels to a great scope on the role of providing several continuous in-service training which are job- embedded to science tutors so that they can be in position to prepare science teachers who are zealous and competent enough in teaching profession. This study is therefore, a framework employed in evaluating professional development initiatives for science tutors in the course of addressing the prominent students’ failure in science subjects in Tanzania.

1.1.2 Teacher education and science tutors in other parts of the world

In many nations, science and technology education are becoming increasingly identified as the backbone for economic stability and growth .Teacher professional development (TPD) is changing so rapidly and so frequently all around the world. However, studies on evaluation of professional development to teachers/tutors has been largely conducted and presented in United States of America, Canada, Australia and many other European countries (Winter, 2005). However, for many years there has been insignificant emphasis on TPD in most of African countries, Asia, the Middle East and Latin America (UNESCO, 2003).

Winter (2005) further asserts that, American colleges and universities do such a poor job of training the nation's science and other biases future teachers. Most of the school administrators about 9 of every 10 principals consider that, the majority of the graduates are under-prepared for what awaits them in the real classroom setting. Nearly half the elementary and secondary-school principals surveyed reported that the curricular in education institutions, whether graduate or undergraduate, lacked academic rigor and were outdated, at times using material decades older than the children whom teachers are now instructing. Beyond that, more than 80 percent of principals said that teacher education institutions are too detached from what goes on at local elementary and secondary schools, a factor that makes a gap between educational theory and practice.

Somerset (1992) noted that, in many countries science teachers are prepared for not less than four years followed by continuous on job training in each year of their professional life. Reflecting this reality in our country where, currently science teachers are trained in our universities for only three years this time length is not enough for preparing science teachers/tutors. To enable them acquire sound knowledge and skills that will facilitate fulfilment of their responsibilities as compared to what happens in other places of the world.

Tutors professional development training usually includes individual development (in-service education) which can be properly embedded with their daily professional responsibilities as Job embedded professional development (Blank& de la Alas, 2009). Professional development for science tutors has gained greater urgency in today's age, as traditional education and strategies has not been able to fulfil the modern-day professional requirements, and students are constantly at risk of their educational failure in many countries particularly in science subjects. Science tutors need to be endlessly upgraded professionally so as to meet the needs of an increasingly diverse student populace; adopting more appropriate goals for schooling, and implementing new structures to promote shared responsibilities, collaboration, and incessant learning for both students and teachers (Guskey, 1995).

Millennium Project (2005) comments that, science component has to be put forward in any of the national plans, and for teacher education student-teacher, needs to cover a broader view of science than can be gained from the in-depth study of only a certain science subject. They need to learn more than just the facts and concepts of science. Again they need to learn that, there are connections between disciplines, and some scientific ideas are more important than others. Also they need to realize that, science is the main way of understanding the reality of different things and issues.

Science student -teachers as well need to be exposed to pedagogical and content knowledge relevant to the disciplines they will teach. Many teacher educators, teaching in teacher training colleges, do not have enabling educational background necessary for teaching the existing teacher training curriculum effectively (Colburn &Clough, 1997). They need to be upgraded in terms of both their science content and pedagogical knowledge through regular professional development initiatives. More fruitfully this can be done through job-embedded professional development initiatives (Hirsh, 2009).

Notably, professional development initiatives for tutors helps them to fulfil some basic roles like expanding the knowledge base as mentors, learning through practice, developing new attitudes and beliefs, providing opportunities for self-renewal, and collaborating with the growth of others (Guskey, 2000). These initiatives for science tutors not only assist those who are in-service, but also can be used by people desiring to join the educational profession. These initiatives can largely aid science tutors at knowing ,about not only the perspective and attitudes about their roles and responsibilities, but also about the student-teachers they teach and the kind of milieu in which they are going to work (real working field) (Morgan, 2005).

Effective professional development is a necessary factor in all educational improvement efforts (Guskey, 2000). For any proposal to reform, restructure or transform science education, the emphasis should be on the role of science tutors as a conduit in efforts to bring about this change in science education. Ware (1992) comments that, many Universities in both developed and developing countries like Tanzania, undergraduate science instructions are characterized by overloaded science concepts. Where, science teachers learn a lot of science concepts which they can even not apply them in their teaching. This type of science instruction leads into the production of tutors who can solve algorithms, but not apply their knowledge in problem solving at their working milieu. Sparks and Hirsh (2000) assert that, a growing body of research indicates that improving teacher knowledge and teaching skills are essential for rising of student performance. Increased emphasis on performance of science tutors, will accentuate the awareness about the quality and effectiveness of professional development, and facilitate systemic change of science education.

Unless science educators in teacher colleges take a thoughtful and strategic systemic approach to reform efforts the result will be poor (O-saki; Hosea & Ottevanger, 2004). Science education reform must put emphasis on authentic problem solving and comprehensive planning process, because science disciplines are increasingly flexible as they continue to develop and change even after the science tutor has graduated. Also, any professional development initiatives for science tutors in any nation should shift its emphasis from working on science tutors to working with science tutors towards improvement of teaching and learning of science student-teachers (Cooks& Fine, 1996).

1.1.3 The impact of in-service training to science tutors on student performance.

In Tanzania, the need for science education reform to meet the demands of the 21st century workplaces is inevitable. Lack of capacity in the science education system to prepare competent workforce, therefore poses a threat to the attainment of the vision 2025 goal to Tanzanians. Teacher colleges must help pre-service science teachers to become skilful manipulators, synthesizers, and creators of knowledge. Since we have entered an era of global communication and collaboration, Tanzania must produce science teacher professionals who can work in teams to solve complex social problems and reduce mass failure of our students in science subjects (Utz & Aubert, 2008). This is only possible if science teacher educators will be continuously updated through effective professional development initiatives so that, they can cope with rapid changes in science and diverse student populace.

O-saki (2007) comments that, performance in sciences and mathematics has been particularly affected by the incompleteness and inadequacy of the current teacher education and training system. Qualifications, in terms of subject matter knowledge and pedagogical skill, is most lacking in science and mathematics teachers. Chonjo and O-saki (2002) comment that, methods used in teaching sciences in most of secondary schools of Tanzania contributes to a large extent in a mass failure of students in science subjects. This is, because most of science teachers lack constructive pedagogical and content skills that can be used while teaching sciences.

To combat the situation most of professional development initiatives designed for science tutors in Tanzania aim to make sure that, science tutors are given skills and knowledge that will help them to abandon teaching sciences through chalk -talk method or traditional teaching methods(O-saki,2007). This will improve constructive learning, improve students’ desire in learning science subjects at all levels of education and improve their achievement and utilize available local resources in teaching sciences.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Teacher education is very important at ensuring that education system operates in a way that we can produce competent experts to work on different fields. For a long time teachers` colleges have been run by people who lack enough in-service trainings for the purpose ( MoEC, 1995).This compels for the need of effective professional development initiatives for science tutors in teacher colleges. In-service teachers need to construct their complex new roles and ways of thinking about their teaching practices within the context of a supportive learning community (O-saki, 2004). Performance in the field of most of the science tutors in teacher colleges is not good where; teaching and learning process always is presented by an authoritarian tutor to students who then learn through rote memorization (O-saki, 1995).

To make science learning meaningful teaching should be explained as the one that engages students with performing tasks, investigations, discoveries, inquiry and problem solving (Tilya, 2003). For science teachers to teach in new ways it requires a regular re-education process that may transform their knowledge and skills pertaining to the subject matter, pedagogy, their conceptions of how knowledge is constructed and their views about learning (O-saki, 2004). If this is not done then, the public at large will continue conveying complains to teacher colleges which are responsible in the preparation of teachers. One of the factors that contribute to such situation is shortage of skills, and competence to most of the science tutors in teacher colleges and other education institutions (MoEC, 1995). It is known that science is flexible so, tutors/teachers also are to be flexible so as to cope with regular scientific changes (Winter, 2005&Ware, 1992).

Educational institutions and the government of Tanzania at large have been trying to launch a lot of initiatives in science education. Despite all those initiatives, massive failure of students in science and mathematics has remained hectic year after year (O-saki,2007).This compels the need for revisiting the nature and quality of professional development programs offered to science tutors in teacher colleges responsible in the preparation of diploma science teachers who at the end are going to teach in both primary and secondary schools .This is only possible through evaluation process of those initiatives under implementation.

Bottinger (1992) asserts that, preparation of science teacher needs considerable enough time, because they need to learn properly on how to teach different science concepts step wise without interference of time constrain followed by continuous effective professional development.

Although most of the educational institutions in Tanzania, have been trying to offer professional development to their teachers, the impact of these initiatives seem not to bring about tangible and recognizable changes to those who attend them. This study therefore, evaluated professional development initiatives for science tutors in diploma teachers` colleges of Tanzania. This is because although seminars and workshops have been in schools and colleges for years; yet teachers and tutors have not changed their practices (O-saki, 1997).

1.3 Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study was to evaluate professional development initiatives offered to science tutors in diploma teacher colleges of Tanzania. In order to facilitate detectable transformation in the ways used in the teaching of sciences to pre-service teachers.

1.4 Specific Objectives of the Study

Specifically the study aimed to:

1. Examine the resources available and used in the implementation of professional development initiatives.
2. Explore the appropriateness of approaches used in professional development to science tutors.
3. Determine the way science tutors are able to apply knowledge gained during professional development in their real working situation.

1.5 Research Questions:

i. What are the resources available for implementing professional development initiatives?
ii. What are the approaches used during professional development for science tutors?
iii. Are the objectives of professional development initiatives normally attained?
iv. To what level can science tutors apply the knowledge gained in their professional life?

1.6 Significance of the Study

The information generated from this study is expected to be used as the basis for providing a room for researchers to conduct further studies on how to make science tutors update their knowledge and skills with the changing world of science and technology .The study findings are also expected to add new knowledge to the field of science teacher education as well as existing literature on science teacher education. Again results of this study are expected to influence policy and decision makers on how to rectify the situation so as to make science teacher education a foundation for success in science education in Tanzania.

1.7 Delimitation of the Study

This study evaluated professional development initiatives for science tutors in diploma science teachers` colleges in Tanzania. It mainly focused on initiatives implemented and those still under implementation and procedures used. The study delimited itself to four science diploma teacher colleges namely Klerruu, Songea, Tukuyu and Morogoro Teacher colleges. These teacher colleges were selected because they are among the teacher colleges which prepare large number of science teachers so the researcher met large number of science tutors there as they were the key respondents for this study.

Also their geographical location enabled the researcher to access them easily. This study mainly focused on science tutors, because for many years consecutively we have been experiencing mass failure of secondary school students in science subjects, while the situation is somehow better in the performance of students in art subjects. This was an indication that, there was a problem with science teachers starting from the way they are prepared in teacher colleges. Moreover, the study did not focus on the population of tutors teaching art subjects, because in our country the problem of student failure is escalated much in science subjects than art subjects.

1.8 Limitations of the Study

The study encountered a number of limiting factors. The first limitation was that, Most of the science tutors did not show maximum participation during data collection as some of them were busy with some other responsibilities. This made the process of data collection to become difficult as it took long time, and consequently at the end some of respondents did not return filled in questionnaires. Secondly, the researcher was self sponsored in the course of study; because most of the teacher colleges in Tanzania are remotely located this made the process of financing data collection to become difficult.

1.9 Conceptual Framework

Guskey (2000) suggested a model for evaluating professional development that includes five levels of gathering information on evaluation of professional development initiatives. In this study the model was adapted, because is a current and modern evaluation model in education that provides a wide chance of considering many factors at once than, other evaluation models (Guesky, 2000). Guskey comments that, this model is a modification of other old models to suit different evaluation contexts. He states that, professional development evaluation should focus on measuring, its impact in terms of change in knowledge, skills, attitudes and beliefs of teacher participants. In order for staff development to have an impact on students, Guskey suggests that, it must first have an impact to teachers who are engaged in the professional development experience. This concept is supported by other researchers in the field. According to the American National Staff Development Council (2001), Staff development is the means by which educators acquire or enhance the knowledge, skills, attitudes, and beliefs necessary to create high levels of learning for all students.

Guskey (2000) puts forward that, many professional development efforts fail because they lack focused planning, are unrelated to the daily lives of the teacher, and thereby, do not affect instructional practice. Therefore, well-designed, thoughtfully planned and adequately supported professional development is a necessary ingredient in all educational improvement efforts. Guskey also comments that, professional development programs do not take into account what motivates teachers nor do they attempt to delineate the process of teacher change. Professional development programs that focus on changing teachers’ attitudes and beliefs presume that they will result in a change of instructional practice and pedagogy leading to the improvement of student learning. Guskey asserted that, for a professional development to be effective it has to be evaluated by focusing on the following levels:

i). Participants’ Reactions

At this level, an evaluator asks questions to the participants of the program that can help to get initial satisfaction with experience.

For example;

- Did participants like the program?
- Did the materials used make sense?
- Did the physical conditions of the activity support learning?

What is assessed is the initial satisfaction with experience. The obtained information can be used to improve the program delivery and design. However, in this study this level was not focused, because it needed participants who were actively involving in PDI by the time the researcher was collecting data.

ii).Participants’ learning

In this stage an evaluator is intending to assess if the participants in the program have acquired new knowledge or skills intended by the professional development program. The evaluator can ask question like:

- Did the participants acquire the intended knowledge or skills?
- What are the approaches used in professional development initiatives?
- What are the materials used in the professional development initiatives?

The obtained information can help to improve program content and organization form.

iii).Organization support and change

At this stage evaluation intends to determine the impact of program on the organization. The evaluation process assesses the organization and advocacy, support, accommodation, facilitation and recognition.

Questions that can be addressed here are like:

- What was the impact of the program on the organization?
- Was implementation advocated or facilitated and supported?
- Were sufficient resources made available?
- Were success recognized and shared?

Information can be obtained through the use district and college records, questionnaires, focus group structured interview with administrators. The obtained information can be used to document and improve organization support as well to improve the future change efforts.

iv). Participants’ use of new knowledge or skills

At this level the evaluation tend to measure or assess the degree and quality of information that is how the participant from the program were able to use new knowledge and skills obtained.

Things to consider here are like:

- Did participants effectively apply the new knowledge and skills?
- The methods for data collection can be questionnaires structured interviews with participant and their supervisors, participants reflection (oral or written).
- How the obtained information can be used to document and improve the implementation of program content in the real working environment?

v).Students learning outcomes

At this level the evaluation process tends to measure or assess students learning outcomes as a consequence of teacher professional development.

Things to consider here are like:

- What was the impact of professional development on students?
- Did it affect student performance or achievement?
- Are students more confidence as learners and able to use knowledge in authentic situation?

The information can be collected through student’s records, college records, questionnaires, structured interview with students, tutors and administrators. The obtained information can be used to focus and improve all aspects of program design, implementation and follow-up. Also the information can help to improve the overall impact of professional development (Guskey, 2000).

In this study the model was modified to such extent that level one was not focused. This is because in level one the researcher did not meet science tutors in their real professional development scene. Rather, the researcher met the respondents who attended the PD initiatives some times before. So, it was not easy to experience their actual reaction. The model also was modified by reducing some issues that Guskey proposed them to be considered, and including contextual factors which were not mentioned by Guesky in his model as indicated on figure 1.1 below:

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Figure 1.1:The model of teacher change as result of PD by Guskey

Source:Adapted and modified from Guesky, (2000).

1.10 Operational Definition of Terms

According to this study the following terms implied:

- Professional development:Professional development refers to the development of a person in his/her professional roles. More specifically teacher development is the professional growth a teacher achieves as a result of gaining increased experience and examining his or her teaching systematically (Glatthorn, 1995).

- Professional development initiatives: The Professional Development Initiatives (PDI) is defined as an opportunity to explore and develop the knowledge, understanding and skills needed to support ones career progression and achieve the pre-planned objectives (Oxford Brookes University Business School, 2011).

- In-service teacher/tutor:Is a teacher/tutor who have a teaching license and already he/she is working at a particular school/college (Guesky, 2000).

- Job embedded professional development (JEPD):Refers to teacher learning that is grounded in day-to-day teaching practice and is designed to enhance teachers’ content-specific instructional practices with the intent of improving student learning (Darling-Hammond & McLaughlin, 1995).

- Tutor:This is a person teaching in teachers` colleges offering certificates or diploma (Hirsh, 2009).

- Continuous Professional Development:This is a process of keeping individuals update with rapidly changing knowledge, or is structured processes to maintain, develop and enhance skills, knowledge and competence both professionally and personally in order to improve performance at work (Sparks & Hirsh (2000).

- Effective Professional Development: is a commitment to professionalism this shows how an individual has taken personal responsibility for ensuring that he/she has skills and knowledge necessary to meet the challenges of an ever changing world. The process should benefit the individual, colleagues, students, external sponsors and clients, and the institution as a whole (Manage your Career, 2006).

- Cascading:is a model of disseminating knowledge where, tutors who attended a particular training are used to train their fellow tutors who did not get a chance to attend that training (Hord, 1997).

1.11 Organization of the Study

The whole study is organized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the introduction part of the study that is the background context of the study problem and the general chapter arrangement. The second chapter comprises of literature related to the study. Here the researcher organizes and integrates the findings related to problem variables or phenomenon into a discussion that shows both what is known and what is not known about the problem area. The methodologies and procedures on how the study was conducted have been presented in chapter three. Chapter four presents analyses and discusses the findings of the study. Summary of the study, conclusions of the findings and recommendations for improvements are presented in chapter five.

CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0 Introduction

Many studies have been conducted in different parts of the world showing how professional development is of great deal to teachers/tutors. Most of these studies have shown that, teachers are normally exposed to very demanding situations as they implement their professional responsibilities. This chapter ,therefore aims to show different literatures related to this present study showing the role and evaluation of professional development to science teachers/tutors as discussed in chapter one.

It is known that due to rapid changes in science and technology and the nature of the situation where teachers are working, even if the pre-service training for teachers/tutors will be good, it cannot prepare science teachers/tutors to meet all the challenges they will face throughout their professional life. Education systems, therefore should seek to provide science teachers/tutors with opportunities for in-service professional development in order to maintain high teaching standards and retain a high-quality teacher workforce (Andrew, 2010).

2.1 Conceptualizing the Term “Professional Development”

Professional staff development refers to the process whereby professional performance among professionals in a certain staff is improved in the course of their professional life in response to emerging ideas, knowledge and changing external conditions (MoEC, 2000).It is known that learning happens to us from the day we are born to the day when we die.

Professional development is a continuous life-long learning process to improve an individual’s academic and professional qualification in a specialized field of study. Nobody can claim that the level of education he/she have acquired is enough, and that there is no need to excel more. Education and learning are known to be complementary terms and are endless processes. Teacher’s knowledge and skills need to be updated and improved over time. Lieberman (2000) argues that, teaching is a profession that requires possession of a body of specialized knowledge and skills related to the performance and their functions. The specialized knowledge and skills that a teacher/tutor gets through professional development programs and other initiatives increases their effectiveness in teaching and learning at both colleges and schools, hence improving the quality of education provided to people.

Most of the science professional development initiatives are ill-designed and teachers/tutors attending them do not get proper skills for implementing curricula used currently (Susan, 2004). This may be due to lack of human and physical resources, lack of intensive needs assessment, budgetary constraints, irrelevant materials, shortage of time for the professional development initiatives implementation, poor leadership skills among others. Lieberman and Wood (2001) argue that, when professional development initiatives are properly designed by reflecting on the needs of teachers/tutors the following benefits are likely to be obtained:

- Increase the effectiveness of educational institutions
- Enhance the standard of education to teachers/tutors
- Enable tutors/teachers to implement their professional verve effectively
- Enable tutors and teachers to cope with challenges and complexity of education and modern technology.

2.2 Principles of High Quality Professional Learning

There are several principles that govern the quality of professional development to teachers in particular science teachers as they were put forward by Guskey (2000). These include:

- Professional learning should be focused on student outcomes (not just individual teacher needs). Professional learning should also aim at maximizing student learning so that, all students achieve their learning potentials.
- Professional learning should be focused on and embedded in teacher practice (not disconnected from the school). Teacher professional learning should be institutional based and built into the day to day work of teaching.
- Professional learning should be informed by the best available research on effective learning and teaching (not just limited to what is currently known).
- Professional learning should be collaborative, involving reflection and feedback (not just individual inquiry).
- Professional learning should be ongoing, supported and fully integrated into the culture and operation of the system that is colleges ,schools, network, regions and the centres (not episodic and fragmented). Significant and long-term changes in teaching practice do not occur in a matter of weeks, but more often over months or years.
- Professional learning should be an individual and collaborative responsibility at all levels of the system (not just the school/college level) and it is not optional. Professional learning should occur at all levels of the system.

Jedege, Taplin and Chan,(2000) assert that, any professional development plan for teachers/tutors should focus on different kinds of skills ,knowledge, dispositions and different values in order to make effective and proficient teachers. Guskey and Huberman (1995) comment that, professional development trainings should aim to convey and inculcate knowledge to teachers on the following areas;

a).General pedagogical knowledge: This includes knowledge of learning environment and instructional strategies; classroom management and knowledge of learners and learning.
b).Subject-matter knowledge: This includes knowledge of content and substantive structures.
c).Pedagogical content–knowledge: This emphasizes on conceptual map of how to teach a subject; knowledge of instructional strategies and presentations; Knowledge of students` understanding; Potential misunderstandings and knowledge of curriculum and curriculum materials.
d).Knowledge of student context and dispositions to find out more about students backgrounds.
e).Knowledge of strategies teacher can use to create and sustain a learning environment and ability to use different teaching facilities effectively.
f).Knowledge and skills on how to implement technology in the curriculum.

Guskey (2000) posits that, many professional development efforts fails because they lack focused planning, are unrelated to the daily professional responsibilities of science teacher/tutor. As a result they do not enable them to implement their professional responsibilities effectively, therefore a well designed and adequately supported professional development is a necessary ingredient in all educational improvement efforts .Professional development that delineates on changing science tutors knowledge, skills attitudes and beliefs presumes that, it will result in a change of instructional practice and pedagogy leading to the improvement of student learning.

Moreover, effective professional development for science tutors is so critical, and it is a centre of science education reform. This being the case its impact needs to be studied as it is the case in many places of the world (Dilworth & Imig, 1995).Also they comment that, professional development is an aspect of school/college reform that needs to receive a vast attention, but amazingly little is known about this area. Hence, there are enormous demand for demonstrating and justifying the results of professional development efforts for science tutors in teacher colleges. At large Legislature, policy makers, funding agencies and the general public at large all in one way or another may want to know if the professional development initiatives really make a difference (Guskey, 1998).

Sparks and Hirsh (2000) assert that, high quality and effective professional development program should be endowed with the following characteristics; Experiential, Grounded in inquiry and research, Collaborative, Connected to and derived from teachers`/tutors` work, Sustained and intensive, Provided on-site, Connected to other aspects of institutional improvement, Reflective, Data driven, Focused on meeting tutors` need, Evaluated based on its impact on teacher effectiveness and student learning and aligned with initiatives to develop further expertise in; Subject content, use of technology, teaching strategies and other essential elements in teaching to high standards.

Dilworth and Imig (1995) comment that, science professional development is an important aspect for reforming education institutions as a system and has to receive a vast attention. Evaluations of professional development programmes/plans in education institutions are essential to the improvement of science tutors` knowledge, skill, instructional pedagogy and student achievement.

Yair (2003) comments that IN-SET (In-service Training) activities should focus on developing teachers` content knowledge and on how students learn a particular content .They should grant the opportunities for active teaching. There are three structural characteristics significantly affect teacher learning; form of activities such as (workshops), grade or subject and duration of the activity (Tilya, 2003).In Tanzania most of the in-service trainings are conducted through seminars and workshops this being the case then, there is a need of looking at other approaches and compare them in terms of effectiveness, duration they take and costs.

2.3 Formats for Job-Embedded Professional Development

Blank and de la Alas, (2009) argue that, science teachers can select an aspect of their teaching and systematically investigate it, such as their wait time during questioning. They record data and consider theories from the research literature, drawing conclusions about how teaching is influencing learning and vice versa, and informing future instructional decisions. This is named as action research; the primary intent of action research is to improve the teachers’ immediate classroom teaching; secondarily, if applicable, the intent is to generalize it across other contexts in the school or beyond.

Lefebvre (2004) asserts that, case discussions allow science teachers to have a more critical analysis of teaching, because they are not in the act itself. Formats vary from written to video to multimedia, with varying controls over content to match the purpose of the case study for example, an exemplar of teaching decisions or to reveal student thinking or missed opportunity. For example among strength of video case discussions, in particular, is the opportunity to analyze student thinking at a deep level (Sherin & Han, 2004; van Es & Sherin, 2008). Case discussions, when they take place among a school’s staff and are situated in actual practice, are a route for Job Embedded Professional Development (JEPD).

Coaching differs from mentoring in its focus on the technical aspects of instruction, rather than the larger personal and non-academic features of teaching (Rowley, 2005). An instructional coach provides ongoing consistent follow-up by ways of demonstrations, observations, and conversations with teachers as they implement new strategies and knowledge. Typically, instructional coaches need to have expertise applicable in the subject area and related teaching strategies. Some coaches continue to teach part-time; some come from the school; and others travel throughout the district, working with teachers (National Staff Development Council, 2010).

Norman, Golian, and Hooker (2005) contend that, Critical science group friends is among the formats of Job Embedded Professional Development where, teachers meet and analyze each others’ work, including artefacts such as student work, a lesson plan, or assessment. They may also discuss challenges they are facing when presenting the subject matter or meeting a particular student’s needs.

Data Teams/Assessment Developments is another format of Job Embedded Professional Development .It is said that Teachers can meet together and analyze results from standardized tests or teacher-created assessments. Also, together they can formulate the evidence from the data that tells them about student learning, and discuss teaching approaches to improve student achievement. Teachers also may work on refining assessments to gather so as to acquire more useful student data.

Blythe, Allen, and Powell (1999) contend that,examining student work enable teachers to develop a common understanding of good work, identify student misconceptions, and evaluate their teaching methods. Through the tuning protocol, science teachers/tutors share student work (or their assignments and rubrics), describing the context in which the work is used; other teachers ask questions and then provide feedback on how the work may be fine-tuned to improve student learning.

Mangan and Mitchell (2006) comment that, Lesson Study where, tutors alternate in preparing a lesson to demonstrate a specific teaching and learning goal among themselves is one of the famous formats of Job Embedded Professional Development. This approach sometime is known as “research lessons”. This is characterized by tutors observing and documenting what they see through video, a word processor, or paper and pencil. After the lesson, teachers can meet and discuss the strengths of the lesson and make suggestions for improvement. Sometimes, the lesson is revised and presented again.

Professional learning communities provides a room for science tutors and Teachers to collaborate in analyzing their practice, and discuss new strategies and tactics, testing them in the classroom and reporting the results to each other. Hord (1997) lists five attributes of effective professional learning communities in particular science communities these are; supportive and shared leadership, collective creativity, shared values and vision, supportive conditions, and shared personal practice. Professional learning communities rectify teacher isolation, create shared teacher responsibility for all students, and expose teachers to instructional strategies or knowledge they did not have access to previously (Guskey, 2000). Such communities can be an impressive venue for Job Embedded Professional Development as well as other forms of reform-based professional development.

In small groups, teachers can generate topics for study related to school improvement goals or student data, and then read and react to educational research or other literature on teaching and student learning this is called study group format. Here science teachers /tutors engage in structured dialogue or discussion that explores issues deeply and considers the implications for school or classroom practices (Gearhart & Osmundson, 2009). While science teachers are congregated together, the disclosure of full expectations including roles and responsibilities for each tutor/teacher is necessary for successful JEPD (Fogarty & Pete, 2009).

The development of norms for collaboration, and the use of conversation protocols can benefit all participants in a learning community. Teachers are each others’ main resource for professional learning in Job Embedded Professional Development, making successful collaboration is a key to constructive professional growth of an individual teacher/tutor. Moreover, professional development can involve strategies like staff meetings, seminars, peer collaboration, mentoring, coaching extensive reading of subject matter, upgrading courses among others (Guskey, 1995).

If you look at the context of Tanzania most of the science teachers are not able to utilize their local environment effectively in teaching sciences. This is because the types of training they attend always are disconnected to their real working environment. O-saki (1991) comments that, for effective classroom teaching it is necessary for teachers to capture student’s attention by referring science application in their daily lives, use of current events, locally available materials and environment.

2.4 Professional Development to Science Teachers in Relation to Student Performance

Banilower (2002) urges that, student achievement and growth are associated with extensive teacher participation in professional development, but in some rare cases student performance gaps seemed to widen relatively to participation. Although it is reported that, student achievement depends on what is assessed .This could be ,because it may be more difficult for disadvantaged students to make the transition to a student-centred style of learning that their teachers can only make incremental adjustments in instruction or ineffectiveness of Professional Development Initiatives. He adds that, the size of achievement gaps decreased with increased teacher time spent on professional development, this signifies that science teachers can work through in this context with adequate sound supplementary training.

Cohen and Hill (2000) assert that, the content of what teachers/tutors learn is very important for their professional development and excellence. They argue that, professional development focuses on specific curricula resulting to more reform-oriented practice than more general professional development; reform-oriented teacher instruction is positively related to student achievement. This is to say that, designers of any professional development initiatives have to make sure that their plans are set up concomitantly with what is depicted in primary and secondary schools science syllabi.

Guskey (1995) affirms the value of focused professional development and identifies other aspects of quality. This when present, intensify the effects on teacher instruction, and hence it will enhance student performance. These include the following:

- Professional development of a reform type (for example, teacher networks or teacher study groups) rather than workshop or conference participation (delivery methods). Much of the power of reform-type professional development is in its relatively longer duration, and it has plausible long term outcomes than, traditional professional development of delivery methods.
- Consistency with teachers’ goals, other activities, materials and policies.

More emphasis on this is that, professional development programs should be conducted in a constructivist’s approach, where teachers work collaboratively sharing their prior knowledge and experiences by linking them with new currently learned content (Guskey, 2000).

Banilower (2002) asserts that, student achievement can be noticed within a short timeframe as a result of professional development, but substantive changes in teacher instruction takes considerable time. This could have implications for policy makers, as it might take several years to demonstrate a particular professional development effect on instruction. This is ,because professional development goes through different stages as suggested by Huberman (1989) who enlists the stages as ; Career entry (1 to 3 years in profession); Stabilization (4 to 6 years in profession); Divergent period (7 to 18 years in profession); Second divergent period (19 to 30 years in profession) and Disengagement (41 to 51 years in profession). As far as professional development stages are concerned it can be said ,that professional development is a lifelong process, where an individual cannot say he/she is professionally perfect rather, an individual has to keep himself/herself abreast throughout his/her professional life.

2.5 The Influence of Technology in Professional Development for Science Tutors

Mezirow (1978) contends that, introduction of new technology in teaching and learning process clearly has the ability to confuse, intimidate, and frustrate both learners and teachers. Learning to cope with these necessary new knowledge bases and skills is a complex process to both groups. However, science tutors and teachers have additional need in learning of the new technology as they are urged to immediately, and proficiently bring the new learning to significant educational application in their classroom settings (Darling-Hammond 1998).

A critical question for teacher professional development is how to assist and guide educators and teachers in training them through these necessary, but complex steps of their professional growth. The adult learning theory of transformational learning provides a rich framework from which to view staff development in educational technology and provide insight into learning processes in a given area. However, it is further argued that, in order to make teaching and learning of science more sophisticated, there is no way out than embodying the process with the emanating new technology through professional development (Leslie; Rodger & Janet 2004) .

It is asserted that, for long time there had been no specific formal course programme for training college tutors in Tanzania. However, in 1970s there were specialization in secondary education, teacher education or adult education, but there was no degree programme for preparing college tutors all these mentioned above were optional. Until 2001 where, the University of Dar es Salaam designed bachelor of education degree programme to suit the need of tutors in various teacher colleges .Moreover, professional development initiatives have been undertaken time to time with different aim; among these is the restructuring of University programme to three years as from 2004 to date aiming at increasing the number of teachers.

However, this reform appears to be not constructive particularly to science teachers/tutors, because when they accomplish their degrees in three years, this time seems to be not sufficient for them to implement their professional responsibilities effectively as science tutors. This compels the necessity for introducing regular professional development initiatives to enable tutors work effectively in teacher colleges (UDSM, Annual report 2001/2002).

2.6 Ability of Science Teachers at Exploring Local Environment in Science Teaching

Most of the science teachers are not able to explore properly their local environment in the teaching of both science practicals and theory. Instead their major complain is on the shortage of funds to facilitate teaching of sciences. Nitko (2001) comments, that effectiveness of any training should depend to a large extent on how far that training is transferred to the real (authentic) situation. Although, no teacher training programme or initiatives can guarantee such a transfer, this is because studies show that most of the teachers teach the way they were taught at schools by their former teachers and not as they were told to teach at the colleges (Winter, 2005).

Leslie, Rodger and Janet (2004) conducted a study and mentioned the characteristics of an effective science teacher as one who is competent, confident and masters subject matter, able to use various and appropriate interactive instructional methods able to utilize the available recourses effectively. O-saki, Ottevevanga Uisso and Von De Akker (2002) found that, poor teacher performance, poor students’ academic achievement and infective teaching in schools/colleges are brought about by teachers having low competence in teaching due to substantial deficiencies in pedagogical and content skills.

Andrew (2010) asserts that, teachers get best experience through in-service courses and talking with other teachers. With professional development teachers can learn that others were as vulnerable as they were, and that help and sympathy could be obtained by sharing fears, difficulties and errors. When this is achieved, then the process of change becomes less frightening to science teachers. Moreover, it is reported that, undereducated teaching force inevitably reflects the quality of education in any nation. Contrary to what is practiced today in Tanzania, professional development for science tutors and teachers should emphasize on learner-centred and activity -based teaching method (Hoffein, 1991).Tilya (2003) asserts that, the role of activity- based teaching in science is explained as the one that engages students with performing tasks, investigations, discoveries, inquiry and problem solving.

Reeves (2010) asserts that, staff development initiatives often remain fragmented and unfocused .Most of the systems has dozens of offerings that are not only inconsistent with most of educational stated goals and policies, but also inconsistent with each other. This leads into contradictory advice to teachers and administration at large on a range of subjects such as differentiated instructions, assessment and effective leadership.

Andre, Housego and Thomas (1990) list five characteristics of successful and effective professional development initiatives. In the first place the initiative or program designers must determine the needs, interests, strengths of teachers and other staff so as to be able to set relevant goals, best methods of delivery and evaluation of programme experiences. Secondly the programme designers should prepare well-planned and formal initiatives that focus at improving the performance and skills of teachers. Thirdly, the initiatives/programme designers should as much as possible involve teachers, principals and local participants, along with administrative officials, in planning and implementation. Fourthly, the programme should consist of applicable curriculum content and methods which will provide to teachers relevant knowledge, skills from subject matter and pedagogy. Lastly, there must be continuous development to guide, monitor and support necessary skills, knowledge and new ideas of the programme participants.

2.7 Professional Development Organizational Models

A professional development Organizational Models is a setting in which teachers at various stages in their carrier get in-service training with the aim of improving their academic and professional excellence. The organizational model can be carried out in the school/college setting, around cluster schools/college, resource centres, Institutional setting and by distance approach (Craig, 1998).The organizational models in Professional development vary in their effectiveness and efficiency.

Therefore, the choice of which model to be used will depend very much on the type of programme/initiative the number of clients and availability of resources. For the case of professional development for science teachers/tutors it is advisable that, programme designers are required to be very careful in selecting programme model so as to enhance its effectiveness during programme implementation. Distance Education model is among the famous model which is emphasized to be used in professional development because they are cost effective and flexible.

Wangeleja (2004) argues that, distance education is a proper alternative to avoid the problems of funds, physical facilities, facilitators and time shortage. There is no pure distance education model in practice, but other approaches are usually incorporated during the implementation of any professional development programme for teachers/tutors in order to enhance programme effectiveness and efficiency.

Killion (2000) Comments that, professional development can be classified into two ways: formal and informal .Formal professional development involves activities such as seminars and workshops. Although workshops and seminars are common forms of professional development activities which are widely criticized as infective in providing science teaching skills, because of insufficient time for in-depth activities and content concentration necessary for increasing teachers’ knowledge and fostering a meaningful changes in their classroom practices (Jesness, 2000). Villegas-Reimers (2003) points out that, the major criticism against this form of professional development is that, they amount to one short experience completely unrelated to the needs of teachers also fail to provide a mechanism of follow- up.

On the other hand as pointed out above on Job embedded professional development ,informal professional development activities allows an individual to associate training with his/her daily professional responsibilities. The activities under this category includes: action research, mentoring and coaching, holding conversation with colleagues, teachers study groups, reflections and visiting other colleges/schools. Garet (2001) comments that, informal professional development differs from formal PD in different ways. Informal activities often take place during regular class hours as spotted above this type of professional development is likely to make connections with classroom teaching, than formal and it may be easier to sustain.

2.8 Evaluation of the Professional Development Initiatives

Babyegeye (2000) defines evaluation of a programme as the process of determining whether the programme pre- planned outcomes are realized. This aims at tracking on the trend on how the programme operates and how the pre-set objectives are attained. Njabili(1999) states that, the main function of educational evaluation is to supply information that can be used to finally decide on the efficiency and cost effectiveness of various components and/or entire programme. Tecle (2006) suggests that, together with other factors, follow-up support brings about teacher awareness, improvement of learning, classroom practice and learning outcomes of students. Reflecting on the definition of evaluation elaborated above it appears that evaluation of any education programme or initiative is very important as through it , there is a room to recognize if the pre-planned objectives are being realized and also if resources available are being utilized effectively.

2.9 Synthesis of Literature Review

Literature review has dwelt on theoretical issues in science teaching and learning including empirical studies and innovations. They raised several issues that include the following:

- First it is revealed that, there is no direct simple relationship between IN-SET impact on teachers` practice and students` learning achievement. The positive effects of IN-SET depend on how teaching and learning influencing factors are organized as well as integrated by teachers in teaching and learning process. The surveyed literature also indicated that differences in students` attitudes ,interest and hence ,learning achievement in science subjects can be maximized by teachers` knowledge including pedagogical skills on different needs of students.
- Second it was pointed out that, some programs put into effect to bring changes to teachers did not result into significant changes in science teaching. Normally, they failed, because of partial implementation, poor planning, lack of follow- up mechanism, lack of resources and other paradigms that were used all could not assure their sustainability.
- Third, it is revealed that, Professional development is a life long process this means that teachers/tutors are needed to subject themselves into learning through out their professional life. This is because as time advances many things exhibit changes. One of the areas which get remarkable turbulences is science education.
- Finally, the literature review has depicted that, there are many educational project innovations on professional development conducted several times in education system of various countries.

2.10 Knowledge Gap

Literature review depicted above shows that, most of the science teachers/tutors particularly in Tanzania fail to perform well during implementation of their professional responsibilities, because they lack splendid foundation in both content and teaching skills. Although teachers may be good at content, they can lack skills and good approaches to be used at imparting knowledge, skills and attitude to their students-teachers in learning sciences. Most of the studies conducted under this arena relied much on how professional development can help secondary and primary school science teachers ,but not teacher educators particularly science teacher educators in implementing their responsibilities. This study in particular aimed to evaluate professional development programmes/initiatives offered to science tutors in diploma teacher colleges in Tanzania and how they can benefit from them in improving their teaching.

CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.0 Introduction:

This chapter comprises of the research approach and design, study area, sample size, sampling techniques, data collection methods, validation of instruments and data analysis plan of the study on evaluation of professional development initiative for science tutors in diploma teachers` colleges in Tanzania. Each of these parts were dealt with effectively so that at the end all of them harmoniously ended up giving well prepared data for interpreting results.

3.1 Research Approach and Design:

3.1.1 Research approach

This study employed both quantitative and qualitative approaches (Mixed method) in the collection of relevant information. Quantitative data aimed to provide further information to supplement the qualitative data. Borg and Gall (1989) comment, that in many cases, the combination of the two approaches is superior to the use of only one approach. The use of both of these approaches helped the researcher to complement the weakness of each, therefore provided an extended room for triangulation of both instruments for data collection and approaches. Qualitative data were given more priority than quantitative data, because the researcher wanted to get in- depth information about the problem and support them more with quantitative data (Creswell, 2012)). This helped the researcher to complement the strength and weakness of each other. Normally, quantitative approach enables the researcher to gather objective information from respondents for making generalization (Best & Khan, 2006). Qualitative approach enabled the researcher to collect in-depth information on evaluation of professional development initiatives. Mixed method is more pragmatic as it focuses on how research questions can be answered properly, than relying on a certain philosophical assumptions (Paradigm) as it is the case to quantitative and qualitative approaches (Creswell, 2012; Ary, 2010).

3.1.2 Research design

Research design is an arrangement of conditions for data collection and analysis in a manner that shows the relevance of the research purpose (Kothari, 2004). This study employed mixed method approach as highlighted above, under embedded mixed method design. Creswell (2012) argues that, the purpose of the embedded design is to collect both quantitative and qualitative data simultaneously .In embedded design one data form play a supportive role to the other form of data during presentation. In this case qualitative data were supplemented by quantitative data. The reason for collecting the second form of data was to augment or support the primary form of data. The supportive data may be either qualitative or quantitative (Creswell, 2012).

In this study quantitative data were embedded to qualitative data to make the study on hand clear. Quantitative data was collected through survey. This was more effective at recording outcomes of the study than identifying through qualitative data on how individuals were experiencing the process (Ary,et al.,2010). Study design notation is summarized on figure 3.1 below:

3.1.2.1 Summary depicting study design

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Figure 3.1: Study design notation

Source:Adapted and modified from Morse, (1991).

Notation Used:

- +indicates the simultaneous collection of both quantitative and qualitative data.

- Indicates the direction of data supplementation.

- QUAL (quan)indicates the two approaches are embedded to each other.

- Upper case letters indicates that the approach is given more priority or weight than the other approach embedded to it.

- Lower case letters indicates that the approach is given the second priority or weight than the other approach embedded with.

The modification of the design was done at the role of arrows where, instead of using arrows as an indication of the sequence of data collection, in this case arrows were used to show the approach which supplements information to the other.

3.2 The Study Area

This study was conducted in four science diploma teachers` colleges located in four different regions. Teacher colleges were selected among the eleven teachers` colleges which prepare science teachers through purposive sampling procedures. Teacher colleges included in the sample were, Klerruu, Morogoro, Tukuyu and Songea teacher colleges located in Iringa, Morogoro, Mbeya and Ruvuma regions respectively.

3.3 Population:

A population is a group of individuals possessing one characteristic that distinguishes them from other groups (Kothari, 2004). However, researchers do not always study an entire population, either because they cannot identify the individuals or because they cannot obtain lists of names, but this is possible if the population is very small and easily accessible (Creswell, 2012). The term population is used to refer to the entire group of individuals to whom the findings of a study will apply (Ary, Jacobs, Razavieh & Sorensen, 2010). In this study, population included all science tutors teaching sciences in government diploma teacher colleges of Tanzania. Government teacher colleges have a population of about 350 science tutors (MoEVT, 2012). These include; Klerruu, Songea, Morogoro, Tukuyu, Monduli, Butimba, Dakawa, Mpwapwa, Tabora, Korogwe, and Kasulu teachers` colleges.

3.4 Sample and Sampling Technique

3.4.1 Sample size

A sample is a group of respondents drawn from the population in such a way that the information obtained from the sample can be generalized to the population (Best & Khan, 2006; Cohen, Manion & Morris, 2000).Best and Khan (1993) argue that, there is no fixed number of subjects that determine the size of an adequate sample. However, Gay (1981) recommends the minimum of 10% of the population to be a reasonable sample size to ensure significance level of 0.05 or 95%. The sample size for this study comprised a total of 52(14.8%) science tutors, and 15 former science student- teachers working in secondary schools around Iringa Municipality. This conferred a total sample of 67 participants. The composition of the sample size is summarized on tables 3.1 and 3.2 below:

Table 3. 1 :Sample composition of science tutors from each of the four teacher college

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Source:Field Data (2013).

Table 3. 2 :Sample composition of former science teacher-students

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Source:Field Data (2013).

Key:M-males, F-Females, T-Total

3.4.2 Sampling technique

This is a procedure used to select people, places or things to study in the target area (Kombo & Tromp, 2007). This is a process of selecting a sub-group from a large population with elements necessary for the study. This study employed simple random and purposive sampling techniques. Simple random sampling is a process of selecting a sample in such a way that, all individuals or units in a defined target population have an equal chance of being selected for the sample. This study employed a simple random sampling, because is the most popular and rigorous form of probability sampling from a population (Aryet al., 2010). In this case, the researcher selected participants (science tutors) for the sample in such a way that all individuals had an equal probability of being selected from the population. Any bias in the population was equally distributed among the people chosen (Creswell, 2012).

Purposive sample is a sample drawn to meet a certain purpose. This is a feature of qualitative research in which the researcher hand pick the cases to be included in the sample on the basis of their judgment, typicality or possession of a particular characteristics being sought for (Cohen & Hill, 2007) .In this study former science student-teachers and diploma teacher colleges were sampled purposely, while science tutors were selected through random sampling procedures.

3.4.2.1 Selection of the sampled college

Among the eleven government teachers` colleges in Tanzania which prepares diploma science teachers four teachers `colleges were purposively selected .These four science teacher colleges were pointed out purposively with preference to those with large number of science tutors, convenience of their location which abridged their accessibility by the researcher and familiarity with them. These reasons minimized costs and time constrain to the researcher.

3.4.2.2 Selection of participants (tutors):

Science tutors were obtained by using simple random sampling procedures. The procedure that was used for the present study was to assign a number to each tutor in the target population and, then table of random numbers available in statistics book titled Elementary statistics by Burleson (1980), was used to select the individuals. The researcher used the list of available tutors in each college which was obtained from the principal’s office, crosschecked the list and sorted out science tutors. By using statistics book the researcher used a table of random numbers to select science tutors from the list sorted. Tutors were listed and each name was numbered adhering the numbering format (four digits) in the book named above, then the researcher picked the numbers from tables randomly. Picked numbers were related to those presenting tutors then through this way participant tutors were obtained.

3.4.2.3 Selection of participants (former science student-teachers)

Former science student-teachers were purposively selected from different secondary schools in Iringa Municipality and were interviewed to provide in-depth information on evaluation of professional development for science tutors. The researcher went in secondary schools where, former science student-teachers from different diploma teacher colleges in Tanzania were working, and picked some of them to involve in the interview. Iringa was chosen, because the researcher is familiar with the region and had many diploma science teachers compared to the other four regions visited (MoEVT, 2012).

3.5 Instruments for Data Collection:

According to Omari (2010), research methods and tools for data collection are central in quality assurance and control in the research enterprise and no one instrument is good for all designs and paradigms. Kothari (1990) argues that, the choice of methods and instruments for data collection depends on the type of investigation, objectives, scope of the inquiry, financial resources, available time and the desirable degree of accuracy. The research objectives and questions dictate the choice of data collection instruments. In this study; questionnaires, documentary review guide and interview guide were used as data collection instruments.

3.5.1 Questionnaire

Structured questionnaires with closed and open ended items were administered to 52 science tutors (See appendix A).The technique developed quantitative data. Joyce and Showers (1988) observed that, questionnaire is useful for documenting past training histories and perspective leadership styles. Researchers have noted significant advantages in using questionnaire techniques. They are of relatively low costs and respondents have adequate time to give well thought out answers (Kothari, 2004). The respondent tutors were requested to respond to both closed and open ended questions. The questions aimed at realising if professional development initiatives were effective to science tutors in diploma teacher colleges.

Furthermore, science tutors were asked to rate the extent of effects they attribute to the PDIs they participated. Question items covered areas like, how science tutors can apply knowledge and skills gained in professional development at their working situation, and how the objectives of professional development have been attained. Information on demographic data and gender were some of the questions that were included in the questionnaire. Moreover, the instrument was used, because of its effectiveness at focusing on the respondents concerns due to its objectivity in collecting adequate information from large number of subjects who are literate within a relatively short period of time (Creswell, 2012).

3.5.2 Interview

Interview data are useful for documenting science tutors and former science student-teachers existing familiarity determining feelings and perception and structure of leadership (Joyce& Showers, 1988).This study, therefore used interview to collect information from science tutors and former science student-teachers opinion, perceptions, ideas and insights concerning the current status of PDIs activities. In particular semi-structured interviews or what Mason (2002) called qualitative interview was used (See appendix C&D) .This type of interview has the following characteristics:

- Interactive exchange of dialogue which allows one to one interaction
- Fluid and flexible structure, therefore allows researcher and interviewee to develop unexpected themes.
- It ensures that, relevant context knowledge is brought into focus so that situated knowledge can be provided (Mason, 2002).
- Interviews normally help the researcher to collect in depth information from its natural setting as conversation proceeds between interviewer and interviewee.

3.5.3 Documentary review

This is a secondary data collection method that involves collecting data from published documents. Good (1966) argues that, documentary review can substitute other methods if it is believed that they are not reliable to the best knowledge of the researcher. In this study documentary review was used, because it is less time consuming given that a lot of data can be collected at once and it is less costly (see Appendix D). Documents which were reviewed in this study included, training manuals, books and training schedules.

Training manuals and books were used to examine how the content concurred with the pre-determined objectives and how the content enabled science tutors to manipulate their skills effectively. Training schedules were used to examine the objectives set for introducing PDIs for science tutors and how the objectives concurred with general science education offered in schools.

3.6 Validity and Reliability of Instruments

Validity refers to the degree to which a method, a test or research tool actually measures what it is supposed to measure (Kothari, 2004). Reliability refers to the degree to which a measuring procedure gives consistent results (Creswell, 2012). To minimize faulty answers and maximize correct information, questionnaire was carefully structured. Cohen and Manion (1980) argue that, the ideal questionnaire possesses the same properties as a good law. This means that it should be clear, unambiguous and uniformly marked. Furthermore, a questionnaire has to help in engaging respondents interests, encouraging their cooperation and eliciting answers as close as possible to the truth (Best & Kahn, 1986).

To ensure reliability in this study, the researcher gauged the questions in the instruments to the study objectives to ensure that, all important aspects are taken into consideration. Then, pilot study was conducted to 10 science tutors from Dakawa teachers’ college. After conducting a pilot study, then items were refined and modified according to the opinions of pilot respondents and their understanding on questionnaire items, purpose and research questions with reference to the conceptual framework. To ensure validity in this study, the researcher used more than one data collection methods (Triangulation).These included questionnaires, interviews and documentary review. This helped the researcher to supplement the information elicited from each instrument.

3.7 Ethical Considerations

The University of Dar es Salaam provided the research clearance to carry out this study which enabled the researcher to get a permit from Regional administrative secretaries (RASs) of Iringa Mbeya Morogoro and Ruvuma regions (See appendicesE&F). For the most part issues of ethics focus on establishing safeguards that will protect the rights of the participants were considered. The traditional and often dominant issues that emerge when considering research ethics involved: protection from harm, informed consent and confidentiality. Protection from harm; to avoid possible harm to the participants, anonymity was ensured by not identifying their real names. For the case of informed consent, the researcher informed participants that participation in the study was entirely voluntary. Participants were requested to participate and only those who agreed involved in the study. Also, they were informed that their chance of participation could not result in negative consequences. In this case, confidentiality of the information that they gave was upheld. Thus, the researcher ensured that, whatever a participant says or reports was not shared with anyone in any way and it was for the purpose of the study on hand only.

3.8 Data Analysis Procedure

Bagdan and Biklen (2007) assert that, data analysis is a systematic process that involves working with data, organizing them into manageable units and synthesizing them into patterns, discovering what is important and what to tell others. The study on hand involved both qualitative and quantitative approaches to analyze the findings on evaluation of professional development initiatives for science tutors in improving the process of preparing science teachers. The data analysis techniques included descriptive statistics and content analysis.

Descriptive statistics analysis was used to determine what proportion of science tutors associated to a particular effects to their in-service experiences .From this analysis it was possible to state what were the most common effects and least common effects of PDIs as seen by science tutors .It was also possible to state what were the perceived characteristics of PDI that helps science tutors in their natural classroom setting. Moreover, this enabled the researcher to obtain descriptive statistics showing frequencies, percentages, tables, graphs among others. To achieve all these SPSS (version 16) computer software and Microsoft Excel 2007 were used. SPSS was employed, because it is a computer software package used for conducting statistical analyses, manipulating data and generating tables and graphs as mentioned above.

Interview and documentary review data were subjected to content analysis. Content analysis is analysing the content of verbal materials which can either be printed or spoken (Kothari, 2004).Where, science tutors responses were quoted and reported along with statistical data so as to get their feelings and opinions about the study on hand. For this case, qualitative data were described, summarized and interpreted relying on the data obtained. The major purpose of this was to explore in-depth information on evaluation of professional development initiatives for science tutors. Generally, data analysis for the quantitative and qualitative data was done separately. Then, integration was done during report writing.

CHAPTER FOUR PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

4.0 Introduction

This chapter analyses, presents and discusses the findings on the effectiveness of professional development initiatives for science tutors in Tanzania. The findings of this study are presented on the basis of stated research objectives. The analysis was done from collected information through questionnaires, Interviews and documentary review. The sample composed of 67 respondents involving 52 science tutors from sampled teacher colleges namely Klerruu, Morogoro, Songea and Tukuyu, and 15 former science student- teachers from secondary schools around Iringa Municipal.

4.1 Respondents Summary Information

Data for this study were obtained from fifty science tutors working in four different diploma teacher colleges as mentioned in chapter three, and 15 former science students-teachers working in secondary schools around Iringa Municipal of which all of them were diploma holders in science education. Other data were obtained through documentary review where, planning schedules, books and training manuals were visited. The response rate for the questionnaire of this study was 50 (96%) out of 52 respondents collected their questionnaires and all 15 former science students-teachers were interviewed.

Table 4.1 below gives summary of the participants with respect to their academic qualification and experience.

Table 4. 1 :Profile of the respondents (Science tutors)

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Source: Field Data (2013).

Key:M-Males; F-Females; D-Diploma- Bachelor degree; MD- Master Degree

4.2 Data Presentation and Discussion

In the following sections data are analyzed and discussed basing on the main themes of data collected under the guidance of research question as stated in chapter one. For the convenient we repeat the research questions below:

- What are the resources available for implementing professional development initiatives?
- What are the approaches used during professional development for science tutors?
- Are the objectives of professional development initiatives normally attained?
- To what level science tutors can apply the knowledge gained in their professional life?

4.2.1 Resources used in the implementation of professional development initiatives
4.2.1.1 Availability of resources for implementing professional development initiatives

This aspect aimed to find out the resources available in teacher colleges for implementing science professional development initiatives for tutors. In this aspect data were collected through documentary review, questionnaire and interviews. Resources that were searched for included training manuals, books, practical equipments and laboratories. The findings on this aspect revealed, that Most of the teacher colleges lack enough facilities for implementing different science activities. One of the tutors claimed;

1…In our college the major problem we face is the shortage of facilities and infrastructures to ensure smooth learning of sciences. During workshops this has been a problem to most of the teacher colleges. To the extent, that some practicals could not be conducted as usual due shortage of facilities… (Tutor from college C, 5/04/2013).

2.Another tutor reported;“here in our college we have only one laboratory for all science subjects; physics, chemistry and biology. So the same laboratory room is used interchangeably to cover all the three science subjects. This hinders us as science tutors to convene on job professional development because science subjects differ in terms of facilities and the general laboratory set up” (Tutor from college B, 17/04/2013).

In most of the teacher colleges visited large proportion of science tutors commented, that several teacher colleges have Information and Communication Technology (ICT) facilities however, most of those facilities are absolutely out of use, and because there are no rehabilitation procedures once they are impaired. Findings also revealed that most of the science tutors were not conversant enough to manipulate ICT facilities effectively and integrate with science teaching and learning.

It was found that if teacher colleges could have functioning ICT facilities, and tutors who are able to manipulate them, then the problem of shortage in science teaching and learning facilities could be mitigated a bit. This concurs with the idea made by Payne (2007) who commented that science teachers` colleges should be strengthened and expanded, with enormous teaching resources, including curriculum materials, laboratory equipments, and information technologies. These also should be renewed and improved regularly. Once this is done it will enable sciences to be taught through hands-on or inquiry-based way. When tutors were interviewed on how ICT facilities are applied during PDI, one tutor commented;

“In our college we have about 80 Personal Computers (PC`s).Currently only about half of them are working the rest are not working. Our college leadership does not take any measure to rehabilitate them. Due to this it is very difficult to use such facilities during workshops and seminars as they can not accommodate all participants. Once our college becomes a host of training to tutors from other teacher colleges” (Tutor, from college A: 22/04/2013).

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Figure 4.1: A picture of college “A” computer laboratory.

Another tutor claimed;if we could have enough computer facilities it could help us to solve the problem on shortage of books and other learning materials as this could help us to surf some of the information through internet(Tutor from college D, 10/04/2013).

These observations contradict with what was commented by Darling-Hammond (1998), who reported that, the use of multi-media software at any context helps science tutors to present three dimensional structures, and carry out virtual experiments. Generally, it is commented that multi-media softwares are among the most innovative and constructive tools for exciting science and technology education.

Further information on the resources available for professional development initiatives to science tutors was obtained through documentary review. The researcher reviewed training manuals in all four teacher colleges mentioned in chapter one and three. Where, it was obseved that there were two forms of training manuals one for pedagogy and other for specific scince subjects. These training manuals were found not to concur directly with the objctives of professional development initiatives and the content depicted seemed to lack coherence . Also it was observed that training manuals present were used reapetedly for long time without modifications to cope with prevailing changes in curriculum ,and science and technology as it is known that sciences are always flexible.As a result tutors were subjected to learn old materials which could not assist them in their working environment.

Through documentary review ( See appendix B), only few copies of training manuals were found to be available for tutors. This indicated that there were a big problem on materials and other learning facilities.Most of the science tutors 86% reported that there were no enough materials like books and training manuals that could enable them to earn knowledge related to their field.Even libraries contained very old copies of different books which could not help science tutors in prevailing situtation.To confirm the results, interview with science tutor on how available training manuals helped them to cope with their local working environment.

One tutor reported ;

“Training manuals we have here are very old.They can not enable us to manipulate our local working environment effectively.There is a need for responsible authorities to take this issue into consideration”(Tutor from college D,10/04/2013).

When science tutors were asked through questionnaire to state wheather their colleges were trying to assure the availability of resources the reponses were as summarized on the table 4.2 below:

Table 4. 2 :Organization assurance on the availability of resources ( N=50)

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Source:Field data, (2013).

Table 4.2 indicates (86%) of the respondents science tutors reported that, the organization did not ensure on the availability of resources that could improve the effectiveness of professional development initiatives. While only (14%) of respondents reported that their teacher colleges assured the availability of resources for effective professional development initiatives. This implies that, most of the organizations were not responsible on the availability of resources for science tutors training.

Therefore, according to the findings above it indicates that the support of organizations at ensuring that resources are available for effective professional development initiatives to science tutors was almost unimportant.

To confirm the results in table 4.2 above this section is substantiated by interview data as has been evident in the following tutors` reactions:

Our college does not make enough efforts in making sure that materials are available to ensure that training meets the pre-set objectives. Sometimes we were supposed to employ our own efforts in order to make trainings successful… (Tutor, from college A: 22/04/2013).

Another tutor claimed, “If our college and the Ministry of education and vocational training at large could provide enough support in terms of resources in our trainings I hope science teaching in Tanzania could largely improve”(Tutor from college B, 17/04/2013).

This observation probably explains what Susan (2004) found that science teachers attending different in-service trainings do not get proper skills for implementing curricula used due to lack of human and physical resources, budgetary constraints, irrelevant materials, shortage of time for the professional development programmes implementation and poor leadership skills. O-saki (2004) argues that, in Tanzania, materials such as apparatus, chemicals and equipment used in the laboratory tend to be unavailable, making the teaching and learning process even more difficult.

4.2.1.2 Ability of science tutors to design teaching/learning materials and use them during professional development and in their working field

This aspect was aimed to observe if the improvised science teaching and learning materials were used during professional development to science tutors for the purpose of ensuring that sufficient teaching and learning materials are available. One science tutor commented that:

We have never been trained on how to prepare improvised science teaching and learning materials by using our local working environment. If that could be the case our teaching and learning of sciences could be very simple and effective. However, even few improvised science teaching and learning materials we made through our own effort have never been used during professional development initiatives… (Tutor from College B: 10/5/2013).

The above finding contradicts with what was argued by Nitko (2001) who commented, that when learning and tasks for students are framed in authentic and realistic environment students will normally recognize it as part of their everyday life.

When science tutors were asked through questionnaire whether improvised science teaching and learning materials they prepared during normal science practical classes were applicable during professional development as one of major objective for PD trainings their responses were as indicated on the table 4.3 below:

Table 4. 3:The use of improvised science teaching materials (N=50)

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Source: field data, (2013).

Findings above indicate that (68%) of respondents reported that, improvised science teaching and learning materials were not used at all during professional development as it was indicated in objectives of different professional development initiatives schedules for science tutors. While (16%) of respondents reported that improvised science learning materials were a little bit used during in-service trainings,(14%) of the respondents reported that, improvised science learning materials were fairly well used during in-service trainings. Only (2%) of the respondents reported that improvised science teaching and learning materials were used during professional development initiatives. This indicated that science tutors professional development initiatives did not take into account on the use of improvised materials. Hence, science tutors could not perceive the role of exploring their local working environment in science teaching and learning, as a means to curb the shortage of science teaching and learning materials.

Similarly there was also a tendency of many interviewed science tutors to support the statistical information obtained above as these five tutors reported:

“During our trainings the use of improvised materials in science learning has been receiving little attention. if this could be otherwise we could minimize a lot of costs”(Tutor from college C, 5/04,2013).

Another tutor claimed; …due to shortage of science learning materials the use of improvised materials could be the remedy for the problem…(Tutor from College D: 09/04/2013).

…. Most of the science teaching materials are commercially prepared .It is not easy to prepare these materials using local materials. Also the knowledge obtained from PD trainings was inadequate to put it into practice. So once we experience shortage of these materials there is no way out ,than teaching sciences theoretically throughout…(Tutor, from college D:09/04/2013).

Similarly, another science tutor reported;

Practicals in chemistry and biology require the use of chemicals whose preparation needs advanced procedures on how to prepare by mixing different components .Which sometimes needs to be imported. In our trainings we have never been given alternative local materials that could enable us to prepare such chemicals” (Tutor from college C: 05/04/2013).

Another physics tutor reported,

… In physics most of the practical facilities used are complex .that is why most of the trainings we have been attending did no put any emphasis on how we could make them locally… (Tutor from college A: 22/04/2013).

These observation probably contradicts with what O-saki (1991) found that, for effective classroom teaching it is necessary for teachers to capture students attention by referring science application in their daily lives, use of current events, locally available materials and environment. Generally, improvisation of teaching and learning materials has been proven to supplement scarce commercially prepared materials. In Tanzania poorly funded teacher colleges do not make efforts to help tutors to reduce dependence on readymade apparatuses. In fact using teaching and learning materials could increase learners` interest on sciences.

4.2.2 The appropriateness of approaches used in professional development to science tutors
4.2.2.1 Approaches used during professional development for science tutors

To realize the approaches used during PD trainings the researcher listed some of the famous approaches used during professional development in most of the educational institutions regularly. Frequency determination on responses made by science tutors on different approaches was performed to determine approaches which were normally used during professional development initiatives. Figure 4.2 demonstrates the results.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Figure 4.2:Approaches used during professional development

Source: Field data, (2013).

As indicted on figure 4.2, Majority of science tutors (66%) indicated that workshops followed by seminars (24%) were the approaches which were mostly used during professional development initiatives for science tutors. On the other hand coaching, case study and action research appeared to be not very common approaches used during professional development initiatives as only (2%) of respondent tutors for each commented that they were used in their institutions and (4%) commented that study groups were common in their colleges.

For further verification of these results interviews were used.The resercher interviewed several science tutors one of them reported;

….In our college seminars and workshops are normaly used during professional development.However,for the case of science subjects workshops are more frequently used because,during workshops tutors participation in the course of the training is very high as compared to seminars ,where facilitators are normaly key speakers. I can say seminars are like teacher-centerd teaching and workshops are learner-centerd teaching… (Tutor from college C, 5/04,2013).

Similar trends were evident in the interview with onother science tutor in this question as reported in the following lines;

“Workshop is a very good professional development approach as it allows maximum interaction among participants.Through this tutors can share difficulties and experience among themselves by reflecting on different working backgrounds”(Tutor from college A, 22/04/2013).

The findings are in contrast with those of Jesness (2000) who found that, although seminars and workshops are common forms of professional development activities they are widely criticized as infective. This is because they cannot provide a room for science tutors to manipulate properly their local working environment. The reason for this is, because they are characterized by insufficient time for in-depth activities and content concentration necessary for increasing science tutors’ knowledge and skills on how to explore local working environment.

4.2.2.2 Professional development forms which enable science tutors to excel well professionally

Furthermore, the study sought to examine whether there were professional development approaches which enabled science tutors to excel professionally effectively as compared to others. The researcher asked science tutors to state the form of professional development initiatives (in-job or out-job) normally convened in their colleges. Two tutors claimed;

…In our college we normally have in door professional development programmes and outdoor professional development programmes. Science subjects like chemistry, Physics, Biology and Mathematics their professional development programs are normally conducted out door, while professional subjects which insist on teaching methods are normally conducted in door. In door or job embedded professional development is better than outdoor professional development as tutors can reflect on their real working environment easily…(Tutor from College C, 05/04/2013).

Another tutor claimed;in door professional development trainings helps us to explore well our local working environment as we can build new knowledge within them (Tutor from college B: 17/04/2013)

According to Darling –Hammond (1999) the more time given to teachers for conducting in door planning, discussion and other professional development activities, the more effectively the teacher will teach and consequently the more student learn. This is, because science teachers will be in position to reflect effectively on their local working environment as pointed out on chapters two and one.

Through questionnaires, science tutors were asked to indicate the dominant mode/form of professional development between in job professional development and out job professional development in their institutions. The findings are summarized on the table 4.4 below:

Table 4. 4 :Dominant mode/form of PD in Teacher colleges (N=50)

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Source:Field Data, (2013).

As shown on table 4.4, findings show that (68 %) of respondents indicated that, the mode/form of professional development which was dominant in their institution was out job professional development and (32%) of respond tutors indicated that on job professional development was dominant in their institution. That means most of the professional development initiatives for science tutors were normally conducted out door. On the other hand this could help them to experience different working environment and compare with their real working environment, and learn how to manipulate different working settings.

Also, these findings are in contrast with what was reported by Herndez (1998) who found that, the process of molding science teachers educators must be based on practical issues related to the day to day work in their real working environment. Again they should not only be trained on how to teach, but also research directly on issues related to their areas of expertise. Although outdoor trainings can help science tutors on how to explore different working environment in relation to respective contextual challenges.

4.2.2.3 Activity based science learning approaches

Science is all about doing so any science class should be taught through learner- centered approach where, there is maximum interaction between teacher and students, among learners themselves and among teacher student and materials (Tilya, 2003). Hoffein (1991) contends that, science class should be characterized with practical activities which adhere to the following phases as shown on Table 4.5 below;

Table 4. 5 :Implementation of activity- based in a science classroom

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Source:Adopted from (Hoffein, 1991).

Following steps in table 4.5, if activity–based science teaching is properly implemented, it has a potential role to promote inquiry skills, which are essential in learning science and also can motivate student to enjoy learning of science (Hoffein,1991). When the role of a tutor in a science class merely remains as facilitator and the student-centered approach prevails. The approach has the potential to enhance students` constructive learning, conceptual understanding and understanding the nature of science.

Information collected through interviews with respect to this aspect indicated, that science tutors were dictated to use a particular teaching method depending on the availability of science teaching and learning materials. As reported in the following lines:

“Teaching sciences using activity-based approach or learner- centered approach is a very good approach at inculcating different scientific concepts to students .However, Inadequacy of teaching and learning materials, normally hinders activity based science teaching and learning”(Tutor from college B:17/04/2013).

Another science tutor reported; …in different trainings most of the concepts have been presented theoretically. Lack of activities in science learning was due to lack of equipments… (Tutor from college D: 10/04/2013).

4.2.3 Attainment of professional development objectives

Through documentary review (Appendix B) on program planning schedules, findings indicated that most of the professional development initiatives for science tutors in diploma teacher colleges had the following main objectives:

- To develop capacity of science tutors in teaching subjects effectively.
- To develop positive attitudes towards science subjects.
- To teach science using appropriate interactive approaches and design teaching and learning materials.
- To enhance student -teacher performance when they will be in their working stations.

Through questionnaire and interviews science tutors were asked whether professional development initiatives conducted met the pre-planned objectives as listed above. Most of the interviewees indicated, that in most of the cases pre- planned objectives for the majority of the PD were not met due to various reasons including shortage of funds, facilities among others.

4.2.3.1 Developing capacity for science tutors to enhance science teaching skills

Woolnough (1991) argues that, sciences should be learnt by doing as this will develop capacity and skills to students on how to perform tasks, investigations, discoveries, Inquiry and problem solving. It is said that teachers tend to teach the way they were taught. Shortage of facilities and other basic requirements for science learning embraces science students to learn sciences in a more theoretical way consequently their capacity to handle science issues become poor.

Consider for example, the following experience of two tutors:

PD trainings conducted different activities for only few days. This did not save us from remaining incompetent in the content knowledge and skills for teaching sciences. Science tutors need enough time and many training programmes as possible to become competent” (Tutor from College D: 09/04/2013).

Another tutor claimed;

...Sciences is all about doing so, practical activities in the teaching and learning occasion are of paramount concern. Inadequacy of teaching and learning materials, equipments and lack of enough laboratories (Organization support) hindered the attainment of pre-planned PD objectives. Consequently this does not help me as science tutor to teach my student effectively… (Tutor from college B: 17/04/2013).

Findings above indicate that, inadequate teaching and learning resources is one of the factors greatly affecting the implementation of the professional development programs. Most of the teacher colleges under this study had shortage of teaching and learning materials and shortage of infrastructures (laboratories libraries and classrooms).O-saki (2004) suggests that, education institutions should posses all necessary facilities and other infrastructures so as to operate effectively. Science teachers` ability to manage teaching and learning is often influenced by adequate trainings in professional development courses characterized by presence of enough materials and facilities.

4.2.3.2 Developing positive attitudes towards science subjects teaching

Although most of the tutors complained, that professional development objectives in most of the time were not met due to the shortage of training facilities, materials funds among others. When tutors were asked through questionnaire to show a sense of connection to science teaching post science PD. responses are summarized on

Figure 4.3 below:

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Figure 4.3:Tutors sense of connection in science teacher education post PD

Source:Field data, (2013).

Figure 4.3 above depicts that, (64%) of respondents strongly agreed, that when they attend PD trainings in sciences they feel a sense of connection to the field, (22%) agreed that upon attending PD trainings they experienced a sense of connection to science teacher education, (8%) were neutral about this,(4%) disagreed the statement and only one tutor (2%) strongly disagreed that PDI enhanced a sense of connection to science teacher education.

Furthermore, to determine tutors efficiency after attending professional development trainings they were asked to rate the item. The responses were as it is summarized on table 4.6 below:

Table 4. 6 : Tutors sense of efficiency (N=50)

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Source:Field data, (2013).

Table 4.6 depicts, that (60%) science tutors strongly agreed the statement,(16%) science tutors agreed the statement ,(12%) tutors were neutral to the statement,(6%) of respondents disagreed the statement and (6%) tutors strongly disagreed the statement. These findings indicates that regardless of what is implemented during professional development initiatives tutors tend to enhance the level of self efficacy and confidence upon attending different professional development initiatives, and hence develop positive attitude towards science teaching.

Again to determine the ability of science tutors to function autonomously and effectively respondents were asked to rate the item. Their responses were as summarized on figure 4.4 below;

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Figure 4.4: Ability to work autonomously and effectively

Source:Field data, (2013).

Figure 4.4 depicts, that (64%) of respondents strongly agreed the statement, Ability of science tutors to function autonomously and effectively (20%) of respondents agreed the statement, (8%) of respondents were neutral to the statement (2%) of respondents disagreed the statement and (6%) tutors strongly disagreed the statement. This finding indicates that, large proportion of the sample strongly agreed that as they attended PDIs their ability to work autonomously and effectively increased.

These observations clearly show that, professional development for science tutors enabled the trainees to change attitude by increasing interest and preference in teaching sciences as well as new teaching methods. Similarly, O-saki (2004) argued that, the teachers’ ability to manage teaching and learning as well as changing attitude towards teaching often is influenced by adequate and effective professional development courses. This also concurs with what was found by Bell (1993) who argued that, teacher development includes three dimensions: professional, personal and social ,where professional development is all changes in professional ideas, attitude and practice that enable the teacher to work better than before; personal development involves attending to teachers` feelings associated with their views about the change process and about being teachers, and social development includes new ways of working with other teachers.

4.2.3.3 Former science student -teachers learning outcome

One of the major objectives of PDI was to make sure that science tutors are able to prepare science teachers who will perform well in their working stations. The researcher met with 15 former science student- teachers working in secondary schools around Iringa Municipal and convened interviews with them. Hernandez (1998) argues that, in order for science teachers to perform well in their working stations, teacher -educators has to do several things in the course of preparing them while they are still in teacher colleges. This is, because it is known that normally teachers teach the way they were taught in previous levels particularly at college level. To make this effective science tutors has to do the following;

- They should model and illustrate a variety of teaching methods, techniques and process; therefore they need to be educated well in pedagogy.
- They should demonstrate practical issues related to day-today in the classroom so as to impress their prospective science teachers to enjoy science teaching.
- Science teacher-educator must know and understand the institution where they work and where their students will work.
- Science teacher educators must know how to work in teams and collaborate in work. This will enable their prospective science teachers to adopt it in their working station.
- Science teacher educators must enjoy teaching .This disposition will generate positive attitude towards science teaching in their students.

With respect to this aspect interviews (Appendix C&D) were used to interview both tutors and former science student- teachers. Most of the former science student-teachers indicated that science tutors improved a lot in terms of practical skills soon as they were back from PDI. Large proportion of former science student-teachers commented, that tutors increased confidence while conducting practical sessions. Also tutors used to suggest a lot of alternative means of how to teach sciences in order to develop inquiry mind of students. This was experienced much once tutors were back from PDI.

One former science student-teachers reported;

…. As our science tutors were attending different PD trainings on science teaching we experienced different changes. For example when our Chemistry tutor attended PD training after he was back he said I attended science workshop at Morogoro, we have been taught on how to prepare good science activities for students. To date I am using the knowledge at my working station… (Former science –student teacher: 23/04/ 2013).

Another former science student- teacher explained;

“When I was at the college I experienced difficulties on how to state specific objectives during preparation of lesson plans for science teaching. My problem was on which is the right phrase between “At the end of the lesson” or “By the end of the lesson” One day my Chemistry tutor came in the class and said in the workshop I attended we discussed and found that the right phrase to be used when stating specific objectives is “By the end of the lesson”, Because this phrase indicates that assessment commences from the beginning of the lesson to the end. Contrary to the Phrase “At the end of the lesson” which indicates that assessment of the lesson normally is done at the end of that lesson something which is totally wrong. To date I remember this idea and I am still applying it in my daily responsibilities” (former science –student teacher: 23 /04/2013).

Another former science student- teacher claimed;

In our school trainings for science teachers are very rare .So what I got when I was a student- teacher in my college is what I always apply at implementing my daily responsibilities as science teacher(former science -student teacher: 24 /04/2013).

Therefore, the results above imply that professional development to science tutors helps also their students to perform better at their working environment. Similarly, Banilower (2002) urged that, student achievement and growth are associated with extensive teacher participation in professional development. It can also be explained, that the size of student achievement gaps decreased with increased teacher time spent on professional development. This signifies that science teachers can work best in their profession with adequate supplementary trainings in their professional life in order to ensure successful performance to both students and teachers in their academic ground.

4.2.4 Application of knowledge gained by science tutors during PD in their work

Fifth research question aimed to collect information pertaining science tutors ability to apply knowledge they gained during PDI in their real working situation. Information on this aspect was collected through questionnaire and interview.

4.2.4.1 The impact of contextual factors in the ability of science tutors to apply knowledge gained during PDI.

This section investigated on the impact of contextual factors like leadership, financial support and policies in the ability of science tutors to apply the knowledge they gained in different PDIs.

4.2.4.1.1 Leadership and financial support

Moore (2000) reports, that leadership of principals is an important ingredient to support professional development initiatives in teacher colleges. Also, as tutors improve competence in their profession, they need to be encouraged to step beyond their classrooms. They should play roles in development of the whole college and beyond. This will help at enforcing some issues at college level once the management fails to take part on their responsibilities.

On the downside science tutors indicated that college Principals did not set aside money for purchasing different materials and equipments for implementing PDI activities for tutors and for normal class sessions use. Principals preferred to allocate money for buying only chalks and papers for teaching and preparing examinations respectively, but other practical materials and equipments were only bought during preparations for national examinations. Tutors also faulted the government for failing to allocate adequate funds to science teacher colleges for buying materials, instruments and other teaching and learning materials. When tutor were interviewed on how the organization has been supporting them to apply knowledge they got during PD trainings they reported as follows:

Leadership sometimes is an impediment to us as science tutors when we want to apply our knowledge. For example, if the college is under the leadership of principal who is a tutor in art subjects it becomes very difficult for him to understand and finance requirements for science subjects in their colleges. One day I requested for money so that I could buy different chemicals and equipments. My Principal rejected the request, and said facilities and chemicals could not cost such amount of money. Consequently I didn’t teach my student what I wanted to teach them… (Tutor from college, C: 05/04/2013).

Another tutor commented;

…Normally organization leaders are not interested with any efforts in their organization that will tend to consume money than enabling the organization to earn. This condition normally subject us as science tutors into difficulties once we want to apply our current knowledge gained… (Tutor from college D, 10/04/2013).

The above finding contrasts with what was found by Fernandez (2000) who asserted that, a supportive principal should be endowed with characteristics like; Visibility, Molding, support high expectations ,decisiveness and courageous. Moore (2000) offers further suggestions for principals and directors of college professional development programmes to support the professional development for science tutors. These include; planning ahead, starting early, and establishing a routine tapping internal resources, establishing mentoring programmes, holding staff meetings for PDIs and observing and guiding change.

4.2.4.1.2 Policy

Science tutors indicated that many changes in the curriculum for teacher colleges have been a big confusion in the implementation of their daily responsibilities as science tutors. Before, tutors were preparing science teachers in both pedagogical and content parts. Later on the curriculum changed where tutors were required to prepare science teachers mainly on pedagogical skills without content from their science subjects. This did not persist again to date science teachers are prepared on both content and pedagogy. One tutor explained;

“Curriculum changes from the one which involves both content and pedagogy to the one which involves only one part in particular pedagogy is a big confusion to me as science tutor, because how can you apply practical skills you got during PD training in the science class which insists only on science teaching methodologies?”(Tutor from college C, 17/04/2013).

Another tutor claimed; …curriculum changes should take preliminary investigations so as realize the pros and cons of the changes. Otherwise, changes can either be good or totally wrong… (Tutor from college D, 17/04/2013).

These findings indicate ,that the majority of science tutors were not involved on the changes that are put forward by the government as a result when these changes comes into implementation, then tutors experience difficulties. These results probably contradict with what was reported by Susan (2004) that, capacity building and raising awareness on the programme largely depends on the involvement of implementers in designing and implementation of the program.

From these findings the researcher concludes that; most of the science tutors failed to perform well in their teaching, because professional development trainings were fragmented, curriculum changes without involvement of implementers, and changes in science and technology. Furthermore, principals and the ministry of education and vocational training do on not offer tangible financial and material support to facilitate In-service trainings.

CHAPTER FIVE SUMMARY,CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.0 Introduction

This chapter gives summary of the study.Precisely,the chapter summarizes the whole study by reviewing the purpose of the study ,methods employed,data analysis and study findings.Further ,the chapter gives conclusion of the study and puts forward recommendations basing on the main issues raised from findings and discussion.

5.1 Summary of the Study

The study aimed to evaluate professional developemnt initiatives offered to science tutors in diploma teacher colleges in Tanzania. Three objectives guided the study.The first objective was to examine the resources available and used in the implementation of professional development initiatives, the second was to explore the appropriateness of approaches used in professional development to science tutors and the last objective was determine the way science tutors are able to apply knowledge gained during professional development in their real working situations.

5.1.1 Reserch methods

The study employed embedded mixed method research design and sampled fifty two science tutors from four diploma teacher colleges in Tanzania and 15 former science student-teachers .Simple random sampling and purposive sampling procedures were used.Data collection procedures inluded closed and open ended questionaire items ,documentary review and semi-structured interview guides. Data gathered in this study were analysed quantitatively using the statistical package for social science (SPSS) version 16 .Qualitative data were analysed through content analysis procedures .Some extracts from interviews were also quoted and reported.

5.1.2 Summary of the findings

Teacher education is among the very important component at ensuring that education system in Tanzania operates properly. This compels for the need of effective professional development initiatives for science tutors in diploma teacher colleges. Practicing science tutors need to construct their complex new roles and ways of thinking about their teaching practices within the context of a supportive learning community (O-saki, 2004).

The study results indicate that PD trainings to science tutors experinces a lot of turbulances in terms of their efficiency.The study revealed that about 86% of repondents reported that their institutions did not ensure the availability of facilities for effective science professional development.The result indicated that large proportion of respondents has ranked ability to convene effective practical sessions as an areas that PDIs attributed a lot ,and have been with great effects in their practice as science tutors.Moreover, about 66% of respondent science tutors claimed that seminars and workshops were the main approaches that were used during professional development and they contributed to a big extent at improving their teaching skills hence student perfomance.

Analysis also indicated that the nature of leardership in education institutions has great impact at ensuring that things goes as they were scheduled.Large number of respondend tutors reported ,that some of the principals do not take into condideration of what has to be done in science subjects due to financial constrain.Also tutors indicated that large number of ICT facilities available in teacher colleges are not working,and even if they could be working properly tutors themselves are not competent enough on how to use them.

Moreover, Interview with former science student- teachers indicated that science tutors performance in teaching improved as they were back from PD trainings.It was observed that tutors used to come with new things and concepts post PD trainings ,and that has been helpful even to these former science student- teachers ,as they can apply different skills they learnt from their tutor in their real working environment.

Findings also has indicated that most of professional development initiatives were infective due to shortage of funds ,facilities among others.Most of them suggested that, it is better that the government puts more emphasis on how science tutors can be trained to explore their local working environment properly.Also it was reported that trainings to science tutors should be continous in order to ensure that science tutors cope with prevailing changes and challenges .

5.2 Conclusion

The results for the study on hand provided evidence that most of the professional development programs for science tutors do not meet pre-planned objectives. The large proportion of science tutors indicated that, most PDIs were not successful due to shortage of funds,facilities and support from teacher colleges and the government.Therefore,unless the government and teacher colleges at large put emphasis on supporting professional development initiatives to science tutors ,then its influence on science and technology development in Tanzania is likely to be pathetic.Considering that Tanzania is among the poor countries in the world, unless science tutors are trained on how to explore effectively their local working environement the problem on shortages of facilities and equipments will not be curbed in long terms.

5.3 Recommendations

Based on the findings of this study,we could like to put forward the following recommendations;

5.3.1 Recommendation for further studies

- Similar studies should be conducted ,but this time the main focus should be on how improvised science learning materials can improve science teaching and learning as compaired to non- improvised materials.

- Another study should be conducted to examine how proper science assessment procedures can improve science teaching in diploma teacher colleges and secondary schools.

5.3.2 Recommendations for action

- There should be a follow-up mechanisim by both the ministry of education and vocational training and teacher colleges .In particular for all in-service trainings offered to science tutors so as, to track on the success and difficulties encountered in the course of PD trainings implimentation.
- Science teacher education can not be a substitute for high-quality beginning science teachers or other basic conditions for teaching in colleges.It continues to be of great importance to attract talented people to the profession ,and it is necessary for the government to equip teacher colleges with resources that make high-quality science instruction possible.
- The goal of science tutors professional development should be in alignment with those of the curriculum under practice.Many systematic reforms done by the government should emphasize on high quality assessment procedures for students while advocating constructivist science teaching approaches to develop specific skills required in a particular context.
- Teacher colleges should make sure that science tutors professional development must be thought of as a long term process which begins with initial preparation and only ends when the tutor retires from the profession.This new approach to education and development of science tutors requires a transformation of processes and policies that support tutors,their education,their work and their growth in the profession.
- Teachher colleges should make sure that, professional development approaches other than workshops and seminars are acknowledged with all efforts .This will enable science tutor to explore strength of these approaches which are missing in the mentioned approaches.

REFERENCES

Andrew, S. (2010). Teacher Training and Staff development.UK:Pergamon Press.

Andre, J., Housego, I., & Thomas, E. (1990). “Effective in-service programs in developing countries: A study of expert opinions” in teacher and teaching in the developing world, New York: Garland.

Ary, D., Jacobs, L. C., Sorensen, C., & Razavieh, A. (2010). Introduction to research in education (8thed.).Belmont, CA, USA: Wadsworth.

Babyegeye, E. B. (2000). Educational planning and administration, Dar es Salaam, Open University of Tanzania.

Ball, A. F. (2000). Preparing teachers for diversity: Lesson learned from U.S and South Africa. Teaching and Teacher Education, 16, 491-509.

Banilower, E. R. (2002). Results of the 2001–2002 study of the impact of the local systemic change initiative on student achievement in science. Chapel Hill, NC: Horizon Research.

Bell, J. (1993). Doing your research project: guide for first time researcher education and social science.Philadelphia: Open University Press.

Best, J. W., & Kahn, J. V . (1986). Research in education. New Delhi: Prentice Hill of India

Best, J. W., & Kahn, V.J (1993). Research in Education (7th ed).Boston: Allyn Bacon.

Best, J. W., & Kahn, V.J (1998). Research ineducation. Oaks C.A: Sage publishers.

Best, W. J., & Kahn, V.J (2006). Research in education(10th Ed.). Boston: Pearson.

Blank, R. K., & de la Alas, N. (2009). Effects of teacher professional development on gains in student achievement: How meta analysis provides scientific evidence useful to education leaders. Washington, DC: Council of Chief State School Officers.

Blythe, T., Allen, D., & Powell, B. S. (1999). Looking together at student work. New York: Teachers College Press.

Bogdan, R. C. & Biklen, S. K. (2007). Qualitative research for education: An introduction to theories and methods. New York: Pearson education Inc.

Borg, W. R., & Gall, M. (1989). Educational research: An introduction. New York: Longman Inc.

Bottinger, P. (1992). Chemistry in the German secondary school (gymnasium).A paper presented at the 204th National Meeting of the American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, August 24.

Burleson, D. R. (1980). Elementary statistics. Massachusetts: Winthrop Publisher.

Charles R. D., & Romiszowski, A. J. (1997). Instructional development paradigm, London :Edinburg

Chonjo, P. N., & Osaki, K. (2002). Report on the situational analysis and needs for science teachers in-service training course.Education II project, ministry of education and culture. University of Dar es Salaam.

Chonjo, P. N., Osaki, K. M., Possi, M., & Mrutu, P. (1996). Improving secondary education at secondary school: A situational analysis of selected government secondary schools in mainland Tanzania. Dar es Salaam MoEC/GTZ

Clarke, D., & Hollingsworth, H. (2002). Elaborating a model of teacher professional growth. Teaching and Teacher Education, 18, 947-967.

Cohen, D. K., & Hill, H. C. (2000). Instructional policy and classroom performance: The mathematics reform in California. Teachers College Record, 102(2), 294–343.

Cohen, D. K., & Kill, H. C. (1998). State policy and classroom performance: Mathematics reform in California. CPRE Policy Brief No. RB-27. Philadelphia: Consortium for Policy Research in Education, University of Pennsylvania.

Cohen, L., & Manion, L. (1980). Research methods in education. Kent: Croom Helm Ltd

Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2000). Research methods in education. London: Routledge Falmer.

Colburn, A., & Clough, M. (1997). Implementing the learning cycle. The Science Teacher 64,5, 30-33.

Cooks, C., & Fine, C. (1996). Critical issues: Realizing new learning for all studentsRetrieved, on 20th July 2012 from the World WideWeb:http://www.ncre.org/sdrs/ares/issues/educators/profdev//pd 200.html

Craig, H .J. (1998). Teacher development :making an impact. Washington D.C: World Bank.

Creswell, J. W. (2012). Educational research planning conducting and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research (4thed.). Boston: Pearson Education Inc.

Darling-Hammond, L. (1998). Investing in quality teaching: State-level strategies. Denver: Education Commission of the States.

Darling-Hammond, L., & McLaughlin, M. W. (1995). “Polices that Support Professional development in an era of reform” In:Phi Delta Kappan, 76(8), 597-604

Dilworth, M. E., & Imig, D. G. (1995). Reconceptualizing professional teacher Development. The ERIC review, 3(3), 5-11.

El-Nemr, M. A. (1992). Personal communication. Egypt: University of Alexandria.

Fensham, J. P. (2008). Science education policy-making. U.S.A: UNESCO

Fernandez, A. (2000). “Leadership in an ea of change :breaking down barriers of culture teaching”. In C. Day, A. Fernandez, T. E. Hauge, & J. Moller (Eds.),The life and work of teachers: International perspective in changing times. London: Falmer Press.

Fogarty, R., & Pete, B. (2009). Professional learning 101: A syllabus of seven protocols. Phi Delta Kappan, 91(4), 32–34.

Fullan, M. (2001). The new meaning of educational change(3rd ed.). New York: Teacher College Press.

Garet, M. S. (2001). What makes Professional Development effective? Results from a national sample of teaching. American Education Research Journal, 38(4), 2-5.

Gay, L. R. (1981). Educational research competences for analysis. Columbia Charles. E.Merril Publisher Co.

Gearhart, M., & Osmundson, E. (2009). Assessment portfolios as opportunities for teacher learning. Educational Assessment, 14(1), 1–24.

Glatthorn, A. (1995). Teacher development. In L. Anderson (Ed.),International encyclopaedia of teaching and teacher education (2nd Ed).London: Pergamon Press.

Good, G. V. (1966). Essentials of educational research. New York: Meredith Publishing Company.

Guskey, T. R., & Huberman, M. (1995). Professional development in Education: new paradigms and practice.New York: Teachers college Press.

Guskey, T. R. (1995). Professional development in Education: In search if the optimal mix. New York: Teacher college press.

Guskey, T. R. (1995b). Results oriented professional development: In search of an optimal mix of effective practices. North central region. New York: Teacher College Press.

Guskey, T. R. (1998). The age of accountability: Evaluation becomes an integral part of staff development. Journal of staff development, 19(4), 82-90.

Guskey, T. R. (2000). Evaluating Professional development. Thousands .Oaks, CA: Corwin press, Inc.

Guskey, T. R. (2002). Professional development and teacher change. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and practice, 8(3), 381-391.

Hernandez, A. C. (1998). Preparation of Evaluation models. Madrid: EOI

Hirsch, S., Koppich, J. E., & Knapp, M. S. (1998). What states are doing to improve the quality of teaching: A brief review of current patterns and trends. Seattle: The Center for the Study of Teaching and Policy, University of Washington.

Hirsh, S. (2009). A new definition. Journal of Staff Development, 30(4), 10–16.

Hoffein, A. (1991). Practical Work in Science Education. London: Falmer press

Hongoke, J. (1999). Education Innovation in Developing Countries: A case for Unified Science Curriculum in Tanzania. Doctoral dissertation. University of Manchester: U.K.

Hord, S. (1997). Professional learning communities: Communities of continuous inquiry and improvement. Austin, TX: Southwest Educational Development Laboratory.

Huberman, M. (1989). Professional life cycle of teachers. InTeachers College Record, 91(1), 31-57.

Jesness, J. (2000). Workshop wonderland: Who’s teaching teachers? In E. Villegas-Reimers (Ed.),Teachers Professional development: An Introduction review of Literature. Paris, UNESCO: International Institute for educational Planning.

Jedege, D., Taplin, M., & Chan, S. (2000). “Trainee teachers` perception of their knowledge about expert teaching”. Education Research, 42(3), 287-308.

John, P. (2000). Strength and weakness of science. Retrieved from http www.streght –weakness teaching science html.

Killion, J., & Roy, P. (2009). Becoming a learning school. Oxford, OH: National Staff Development Council.

Kitta, S. (2004). Enhancing mathematics teachers` pedagogical content knowledge in Tanzania. Unpublished PhD Thesis. University of Twente: Enschede.PrintPark Ipskamp.

Kombo, D. K., & Tromp, D. A. (2007). Proposal and Thesis writing: An introduction.Nairobi: Paulines Publication Africa.

Kothari, C. R. (1990). Research methodology: Methods and techniques. New Delhi: Wiley Eastern.

Kothari, C. R. (2004). Research methodology: Methods and techniques(2nd Ed.). New Delhi: New Age International Limited.

Kumar, R. (1999). Research methodology: A step by step guide for beginners. New Delhi: Sage Publication.

LeFevre, D. M. (2004). Designing for teacher learning: Video-based curriculum design. In J. Brophy (Ed.),Using video in teacher education: Advances in research on teaching(Vol. 10, pp. 235–258). Amsterdam, Holland: Elsevier.

Leslie, W. T., Rodger, W. B., & Janet, C. P. (2004). Teachingsecondary schools science: Strategies for developing scientific Literacy (8th ed.)Ohio: Pearson, Merrill Prentice Hall.

Liebeman, A., & Wood, D. (2001). “When teachers write of networks and Learning”. In A. Liberman, & L. Miller (Eds.),Teachers caught in the action Professional development that matters.New York: Teachers College Press.

Manage Your Career (2006). Steps to success series. London: A & C Black.

Mangan, M. T., & Mitchell, M. (2006). Leading lesson study: A practical guide for teachers and facilitators. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Marsh, G., & Willis, G. (1995). Curriculum alternative approaches, ongoing issues. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Mezirow, J. (1978). Education for perspective transformation; women’s re-entry programs in community colleges. New York: Teacher’s College, Columbia University.

Millennium Project (2005). Investing on development: Apractical plan to achieve the millennium development goals.New York: United Nations.

MoEC, (1995). Tanzania education and training policy (TETP). Dar es Salaam: MoEC

MoEC. (2000).In-service Training Manual for Biology Teachers. Dar es Salaam: MoEC

MoEVT, (2007). Theories of learning and models of teaching (OED124). Dar es Salaam : Open University of Tanzania.

MoEVT. (2012). Basic Education Statistics in Tanzania (BEST). Dar es Salaam: MoEVT.

Moore, K. B. (2000). “Successful and Effective Professional development”. Early Childhood Today, 15(3), 14-15.

Morgan, E. (2005). Teachers’ professional development.US: Ezines.

Morse, J. M. (1991). Approaches to qualitative and quantitative methodological: Triangulation. Qualitative Research, 40(1),120-123.

National Staff Development Council (2010). NSDC’s definition of professional development. Retrieved from http://nsdc.org/standfor/definition.cfm

Nitko, A. J. (2001). Educational assessment of students (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merril

Njabili, F. A. (1999). Public examinations: A tool for curriculum evaluation (3rded.). Dar es Salaam,Mture Publications.

Norman, P. J., Golian, K., & Hooker, H. (2005). Professional development schools and critical friends groups: Supporting student, novice, and teacher learning. New Educator, 1(4), 273–286.

Omari, I. M. (2010). Education research concepts and methods: A practical guide based on experience.Dar es Salaam: School of Education, University of Dar es Salaam.

O-saki, K. (2002). Science education in Tanzania: Past, present and future trends. In K. O-saki, W. Ottevanger, C. Uiso, & J. van den Akker (Eds.),Science education research and teacher development in Tanzania,(pp. 1-14).Amsterdam: Vrije Universiteit.

O-saki, K. M. (1995). Issues in teaching and learning of sciences in Tanzania. Unpublished paper University of Dar es Salaam.

O-saki, K. M, Ottevanger, W., Uisso, C., & Von Der Akker, J. (2002). Science Education Research and Teacher development in Tanzania,Amsterdam Vrije University Printers .

O-saki, K. M. (2007). Science and mathematics teachers’ preparation in Tanzania. NUE,Journal of International Cooperation, 2,2-7.

O-saki, K. M. (1991). Factors Influencing the Use of Environment in Science Teaching: A study of Biology teaching in Tanzania. PhD Thesis, Edmonton, Alberta.

O-saki, K. M. (2001). Quality of Education in Tanzania. A focus on Curriculum Standards and accountability in Schools.A paper presented to Headmasters` Conference on Education-Held in Arusha ,January,15th 2001.

O-saki, K. M., Hosea, K., & Ottevanger, W. (2004). Reforming science and mathematics education in Sub-Saharan Africa obstacles and opportunities. TEAMS project. University of Dar es Salaam.

Oxford Brookes University Business School, Wheatley Campus, (2011). The professional development programme.Retrieved from http://business.brookes.ac.uk/postgraduate/2012/pdp/

Payne, J. (2007). Pre college science teachers need better training.U.S.A: University of Texas.

Phillips, G. W. (1996). Technical issues in large-scale performance assessment. Washington, DC: Office of Educational Research Improvement, US Department of Education.

Reeves ,D. B. (2010). Transforming Professional development into Students results. USA: ASCD Publisher.

Rosier, M. J., & Keeves, J. P. (1991). The IEA study of science: Science education and curricular in twenty three countries. Oxford: Pergamon Press.

Rowley, J. (2005). Mentor teachers as instructional coaches. In H. Portner (Ed.),Teacher mentoring and induction(pp. 109–127). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Sherin, M. & Han, S. (2004). Teacher learning in the context of a video club. Teaching and Teacher Education, 20, 163–183.

Smith, P., & Ragan, T. (1999). Instructional design. New York: John Willey and sons.

Somerset, H. C. A. (1992). Personal communication.Washington, DC: World Bank

Sparks, D., & Hirsh, S. (2000). A national plan for improving professional development. Retrieved from the World Wide Web: http://www.nsdc.org/library/NSDCPlan.html

Susan, L. H. (2004). Designing professional development for teachers of science and mathematics education (2nd ed.).Thousands Oaks, California: Corwin Press Inc.

Tecle, A. T. (2006). The potential of professional development scenario for supporting biology teachers in Eritrea. Enschede: Printpartners Ips Kamp.

Tilya, F. N. (2003). Teacher supporting for the use of MBL in activity based physics teaching in Tanzania. University of Twente: Enschede.PrintPark Ipskamp.

UNESCO (2003). Teacher professional development an international review of the literature. Paris: International Institute for Educational Planning.

University of Dar es Salaam (2002). Annual report2001/2002. Dar es Salaam: DUP.

URT, (2001). National report on the development of education2001-2004.

Utz, A., & Aubert, J. E. (2008). Fostering innovation, productivity, and technological change. In R. Utz (Ed.),Sustaining and sharing economic growth in Tanzania,Washington, DC: World Bank Publications.

Van Es, E., & Sherin, M. (2008). Mathematics teachers’ “learning to notice” in the context of a video club. Teaching and Teacher Education, 24, 244–276.

Wallis, C. (2008). How to make great teachers. New York: Teacher college press.

Wangeleja, M. J. N. (2004). Towards designing professional development for primary mathematics in Tanzania.Unpublished M. Ed (Science) dissertation. University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

Ware, S. A. (1992). Secondary school science in developing counties: Status and issues. Washington D. C: World Bank HR Background Paper Series, P HREE/92/53.

Winter, G. (2005). Thinking like an educator: An integrative approach to preparing educators.NY:New York.

Wool, F. H., & Thompson, S. R. (1981). Designing effective staff development programs. In D. S. Maryet al(Eds.),In-service education for content area teacher.Newawark, International Reading Association Inc.

Woolnough, B. (1991). Practical science.Buckingham: Open University Press

Yair, G. (2003). Performing motivation: How the structure of instruction affects students learning experience. British Educational Research Journal, 26(2), 119-210.

APPENDICES

APPENDIX A: SCIENCE TUTORS’ QUESTIONNAIRE

Dear Science tutors,

This questionnaire aims to collect information on evaluation of professional development initiatives for science tutors. You are requested to provide your genuine responses to each question accordingly. The information provided will be treated strictly confidential and only used for the purpose of this research.

Date of filling in the questionnaire….

Name of the College….

Tick to the appropriate response or fill in as appropriate in each of the following questions

I. Demographics:

1. Your gender

illustration not visible in this excerpt

2. Years of employment in science teacher college….

illustration not visible in this excerpt

3. What is the highest professional level of education you have attained?

illustration not visible in this excerpt

II. PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE

4. Does your organization assure the availability of resources like training manuals, funds books among others to guarantee effective Professional Development trainings to you as science tutor?

illustration not visible in this excerpt

5. Are the resources provided complied with the demand of professional development programmes under practice?

illustration not visible in this excerpt

6. Which form of resources is normally available and dominant during science PD in practical sessions?

illustration not visible in this excerpt

7. Are the improvised science teaching materials you prepared during normal science practical classes applicable during PD?

illustration not visible in this excerpt

8. Which mode of PD is dominant in your institution at ensuring that you excel professionally?

illustration not visible in this excerpt

9. Does your institution support you in terms of resources like training manuals, writing materials, books, funds among others during science professional development initiatives?

illustration not visible in this excerpt

10. Does the knowledge gained during PD enables you as a science tutor to apply it to the maximum as you can?

illustration not visible in this excerpt

11. Does the knowledge gained during PD enable you as a science tutor to convene practical sessions properly?

illustration not visible in this excerpt

12. Whenever I get into my science class I reflect and apply knowledge and skills gained during PD.

illustration not visible in this excerpt

13. Does the knowledge gained during PD facilitate you to design teaching/learning materials for science?

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Using the following 1-5 scale please indicate by circling the correct degree to which you agree the statement listed below:

illustration not visible in this excerpt

26. Put a cross (×) or Tick (√) for any of the following professional development approaches Used during professional development to science tutors.

illustration not visible in this excerpt

27. III.SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS

In your opinion explain how the knowledge you gained during different science professional development initiatives is applicable in your daily responsibilities? …

28. Explain how your organization provides enough support in terms of resources like training manuals, books funds among others during science professional development initiatives?

29. Which approach (s) of professional development among those you listed on the table above helps you much in excelling professionally as a science tutor? Give reasons.

30. In short explain the extent you can apply knowledge gained during PD as a science tutor…

THANK YOU FOR YOUR PARTICIPATION AND CANDID RESPONSES.

Please return your responses on time.

APPENDIX B: DOCUMENTARY REVIEW GUIDE

Name of the college..

illustration not visible in this excerpt

APPENDIX C: INTERVIEW GUIDE FOR FORMER SCIENCE STUDENT-TEACHERS

Dear former science student teachers,

This interview aims to collect information on evaluation of professional development initiatives for science tutors. You are requested to provide your genuine responses to each question accordingly. The information provided will be treated strictly confidential and only used for the purpose of this research.

Name of the institution in which former science student-teacher is working

1. In your opinion how did you assess your science tutors in the Practical classes once you heard that they were back some days ago from a particular training on their field?

2. Explain the way you experienced differences in teaching to your science tutors after you witnessed them attending on job training.

3. In your opinion elaborate why professional development to science tutors enabled you on how to perform well in different areas of your profession as science teacher?

APPENDIX D: INTERVIEW GUIDE FOR SCIENCE TUTORS

Dear Science tutors,

This interview aims to collect information on evaluation of professional development initiatives for science tutors. You are requested to provide your genuine responses to each question accordingly. The information provided will be treated strictly confidential and only used for the purpose of this research.

Name of the college…..

Level of education

1. What is the status of ICT facilities in your college as teaching and learning aid (material)?

2. In your own opinion explain how the knowledge you acquire during PDI is applicable at utilizing your local working environment in your professional life?

3. In your opinion how the knowledge you get during PD help you to ensure that science student-teacher achieves in their carrier improvement?

4. How the organization has been trying to support you so as to make sure that the pre- planned objectives are met?

5. What are the resources available for implementing science professional development programmes?

6. In your opinion are the pre-planned objectives for Professional Development trainings met?

7. What are the approaches used during science professional development in your institution?

8. In your opinion how the knowledge you get during science PD has a direct impact in your daily science teaching.

9. In your opinion which contextual factors has been impairing your ability to apply the knowledge you gained during PD trainings?

10. How activity -based science teaching and learning is applicable during PDI and in your classroom setting when teaching?

Appendix E

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Appendix F

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

120 of 120 pages

Details

Title
Evaluation of Professional Development Initiatives for Science Tutors in Diploma Teacher Colleges in Tanzania
Course
MASTER OF SCIENCE (SCIENCE EDUCATION)
Grade
A
Author
Year
2013
Pages
120
Catalog Number
V293249
ISBN (Book)
9783656910503
File size
2368 KB
Language
English
Tags
evaluation, professional, development, initiatives, science, tutors, diploma, teacher, colleges, tanzania
Quote paper
Thadei Filipatali (Author), 2013, Evaluation of Professional Development Initiatives for Science Tutors in Diploma Teacher Colleges in Tanzania, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/293249

Comments

  • No comments yet.
Read the ebook
Title: Evaluation of Professional Development Initiatives for Science Tutors in Diploma Teacher Colleges in Tanzania


Upload papers

Your term paper / thesis:

- Publication as eBook and book
- High royalties for the sales
- Completely free - with ISBN
- It only takes five minutes
- Every paper finds readers

Publish now - it's free