A Study of Policy Design for sustainability of ICT as a medium of education in Bangladesh. A role of NGO’s in development of teachers


Master's Thesis, 2015
142 Pages, Grade: C

Excerpt

ii
5. Propose changes in both education and ICT policies on the basis of analysis of
NEP 2010 and NIP 2009.

A Study of Policy Design fo
Bangladesh, a ro
The Rober
A
M
Subm
This paper aims to critically
the different policies formula
implemented in the educatio
The national policies formula
vision of achieving a target o
In the course of the research
critically analyzed to unders
v
or sustainability of ICT as a medium of ed
ole of NGO's in development of teachers.
Laila Habib
rt Gordon University, Aberdeen, UK
Aberdeen Business School
MSc International Business
mission Date: 14 January, 2015
ABSTRACT
y investigate the sustainability and accou
ated by the government and their effectiv
on sector, mainly in the rural sector of B
ated by the government have been desig
of digitization of the whole education secto
h, a few objectives have been identified w
stand the constraints that exist and identi
ucation in
untability of
veness when
Bangladesh.
gned with a
or by 2021.
which will be
ify the gaps

vi
in the existing policies; this thesis also provides an analysis of the role of NGO's
in the development of teachers who are the main media for delivering education.
A number of projects conducted by UNESCO, A2i (Access to Information) and
BRAC (Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee) have been conducted which
will also be used as a baseline providing a strong platform for putting forward
arguments in relation to the existing policies. Non-government organizations
play a vital role in executing the policies. Understanding the role of NGO's is
crucial when investigating the policies.
The research provides a pragmatic view through a more qualitative approach by
conducting six interviews of individuals from different backgrounds consisting of
project managers, entrepreneurs and teachers from educational institutions and
NGOs are involved in different projects relating to the development of education
in Bangladesh.
A full transcription of the interviews have also been provided and presented as
part of the data analysis of the qualitative aspect of the methodology.
Although the research focuses on the sustainability of the use of information
technology and the governing policies, a better understanding of the constraints
will provide a scope for further study into the socio-cultural and socio-economic
aspects of the development of this sector.
Keywords: Information technology, policies, education, non-government
organization, sustainability, development.

vii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Firstly I would like to thank my supervisor Dr. Bill Sutherland for his help. He
was always very helpful and provided me with good advice during my study. I
appreciate his feedback and constructive criticism.
Additionally, I want to acknowledge all survey participants for taking the time to
participate in the interview sessions and providing me with the relevant answers
to the concerns. Without their help, it would not have been possible to conduct
the study.
Finally, I want to express gratitude to my friends and family who have supported
me through my studies even when I was not able to cope with severe health
issues. I would also like to thank my closest friend and sister who have been
helpful in providing much insight into my research.

viii
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Abstract
v
Acknowledgement
vii
List of Tables
xiii
List of Figures
xiv
Acronyms
xv
1
Chapter One
1
1.0
Introduction
1
1.1
Background of Research
1
1.2
Statement of Research Problem
3
1.3
Rationale of Study
3
1.4
Aims and Objectives
5
1.5
Scope of Study
5
1.6
Chapter Synopsis
6
2
Chapter Two
8
2.0
Chapter Review
8
2.1
Defining Terms
8
2.1.1
Definition of Sustainability
8

ix
2.1.2
Definition of Policy
8
2.1.3
Policy and Sustainability in Education
9
2.2
Information and Communication Technology in Education
10
2.3
Education Development and Sustainability
11
2.3.1
Current Status of ICT in Bangladesh
12
2.4
Importance of Policies
14
2.4.1
Role of Government in Policy Development
15
2.5
Education System in Bangladesh
16
2.5.1
National Education Policy
17
2.5.1.1 Primary Education
18
2.5.1.2 Secondary Education
19
2.5.1.3 Vocational and Technical Education
19
2.6
Finance and Budgeting for Education Development
20
2.7
Policy Development and Review of ICT in Education
22
2.7.1
ICT in Education Main Focus Areas
22
2.7.2
ICT Based Education and Development
24
2.7.3
Competency Framework for Teachers
24
2.8
Use of Technology in Education
26
2.9
Stakeholders in Education and their role in sustainability
26

x
2.10
Research Questions
27
2.11
Conceptual Framework
27
2.12
Chapter Synopsis
28
3
Chapter Three
29
3.0
Introduction
29
3.1
Research Philosophy
29
3.1.1
Selected Research Philosophy
29
3.2
Source of Data
30
3.2.1
Secondary Data
30
3.2.1.1 Advantages and Disadvantages of Secondary Data
31
3.2.2
Primary Data
32
3.3
Data Collection Methods
32
3.3.1
Qualitative and Quantitative Methods of Data Collection
35
3.3.1.1 Quantitative Method of Data Collection
35
3.3.1.2 Qualitative Method of Data Collection
35
3.3.1.3 Purpose of Qualitative Research
37
3.3.1.4 Interviews
37
3.3.1.5 Semi Structured Interview
40
3.3.2
Research Approaches
40

xi
3.3.2.1 Deductive Approach
41
3.3.2.2 Inductive Research
41
3.4
Research Design Structure
43
3.4.1
Research Framework
43
3.5
Research Question Design
44
3.6
Primary Data Collection Process
45
3.7
Interview Respondents
46
3.7.1
Transcription of Interviews
47
3.7.2
Interview Participants
47
3.8
Qualitative Analysis
48
3.8.1
Qualitative Data Analysis Process
48
3.8.2
Grounding Theory
49
3.8.3
Framework Analysis
51
3.8.4
Conversation Analysis
52
3.9
Presentation of Research Findings
53
3.10
Reliability, Validity and Ethical Consideration
54
3.10.1
Reliability
54
3.10.2
Validity
55
3.10.3
Ethical Consideration
55

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3.11
Chapter Summary
55
4
Chapter Four
57
4.0
Introduction
58
4.1
Integration of National Education Policy and National ICT
Policy
58
4.2
Sustainability of the Policies
58
4.2.1
Key Focus Areas of Sustainability
59
4.2.2
Key features of National ICT Policy
60
4.3
Categorization of Key Points from Classification of Themes
60
4.4
Summary of Interviews
62
4.5
Key Findings from Literature
67
4.5.1
Problems identified for Infrastructural Development
67
4.6
Chapter Summary
67
5
Chapter Five
69
5.0
Introduction
69
5.1
Analysis of Framework
69
5.2
Critical Discussion of Research Questions
71
5.3
Critical Understanding of Gaps
73
5.3.1
Inequality in Education Sector
73

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5.3.2
Quality of Education
73
5.3.3
Governance and Management
74
5.3.4
Inadequate Resources
74
5.3.5
Non-Government Organizations
75
5.4
Critical Discussion of Research Methodology
75
5.5
Chapter Summary
76
6
Chapter Six
77
6.0
Introduction
77
6.1
Recommendations
78
6.2
Further Research
80
Bibliography
81
Appendix A
92
Appendix B
95
Appendix C
99
Appendix D
103

xiv
L
L
I
I
S
S
T
T
O
O
F
F
T
T
A
A
B
B
L
L
E
E
S
S
Table 1
Number of Educational Institutions in Bangladesh
12
Table 2
World Development Indicators
13
Table 3
Functions and responsibilities in secondary education
sector
20
Table 4
Development and Revenue Budget
21
Table 5
Allocation of Budgets for Projects
21
Table 6
ICT-CFT Framework
25
Table 7
Research Questions
27
Table 8
Strengths and Weaknesses of Qualitative and
Quantitative Methods of Research
33
Table 9
Qualitative and Quantitative Methods of Data Collection
36
Table 10
Advantages and Disadvantages of Interview Methods
37
Table 11
Types of Interview Questions
44
Table 12
Classification of Participants
47
Table 13
Techniques for Qualitative Data Analysis
48
Table 14
Grounding Theory
50
Table 15
Framework Analysis
51
Table 16
Conversation Analysis
52
Table 17
Discussion of Research Questions
71

xv
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1
Aims and Objectives
5
Figure 2
Education System in Bangladesh
17
Figure 3
Decision Making and Policy Planning for ICT in Education
23
Figure 4
ICT-CFT Framework by UNESCO
24
Figure 5
Conceptual Framework
28
Figure 6
Forms of Interview
39
Figure 7
Three Approaches to Research
41
Figure 8
Differences between Deductive and Inductive Approaches
42
Figure 9
Research Design Model
43
Figure 10 Flow chart of how data is collected by the interview
method
46
Figure11
Classification Tree
54
Figure 12 Main factors of Sustainability
70
ACRONYMS
ADP
Annual Development Program
BANBEIS Bangladesh Bureau of Education Information and Statistics

xvi
BAPS
BRAC Adolescent Primary School
BBS
Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics
BCC
Bangladesh Computer Council
BPS
BRAC Primary School
BRAC
Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee
BTTB
Bangladesh Telegraph and Telephone Board
EFA
Education for All
ERD
Economic Relations Division
GDP
Gross Domestic Product
GER
Gross Enrollment Rate
GIS
Geographic Information System
GoB
Government of Bangladesh
GPS
Government Primary School
ICT
Information and Communication Technology
ISP
Internet Service Provider

xvii
IT
Information Technology
MDG
Millennium Development Goal
MoE
Ministry of Education
[[[[[[[
MoPME
Ministry of Primary and Mass Education
[[[[
MOSICT
Ministry of Science and Information & Communication Technology
NAPE
National Academy for Primary Education
NCTB
National Curriculum and Textbook Board
NER
Net Enrollment Rate
[
NGO
Non Government Organization
NII
National Information Infrastructure
NPA
National Plan of Action
NRNGPS Non-registered Non-Government Primary School
PMO
Prime Minister's Office
R&D
Research and Development
RD
&
COOP
Rural Development & Cooperative

xviii
RNGPS
Registered Non-Government Primary School
RO
Research Objectives
RQ
Research Question
SD
Secondary Data
UN
United Nations
UNDP
United Nations Development Programme
UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
UNICEF
United Nations Children's Educational Funds
WAN
Wide Area Network
WB
World Bank
[[[[[

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION OF THESIS
1.0
INTRODUCTION OF THESIS:
The research project aims to critically study the National Education Policy (NEP)
2010 and National ICT Policy (NIP) 2009 of Bangladesh and provide a critical
evaluation through the analysis of the individual elements, identify gaps and put
forward suggestions for minimizing those factors which are considered to be
impediments in the progress towards the sustainability of using ICT as a medium
of education. The findings of the research have been found through conducting
qualitative analyses that is further discussed in a later chapter of this report.
Finally, this chapter contextualizes an overall background of the study, research
aims and objectives as well as the scope of the research project.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF RESEARCH:
Generally it has been perceived that ICT is a prime driver for the development
of education. Bangladesh is a nation rich in human resources, boasting 160
million people and has readily acknowledged that a solid and sustainable
development of its human resources can bring about immense benefits and
make a profitable impact on the socio-economic conditions of the country. A
nation which is largely dependent on agricultural resources (World Bank 2013)
and contributing largely to the nations GDP has been very adamant towards of
development of human capital when raised as a concern to the government and
other authorities. Over the past three decades, the government and other
governing bodies, namely the NGOs, have realized the potential of improving the
education sector through ICT, thus making room for people to excel in education
both nationally and internationally; this also created opportunities for the
country to move in pace with other developed and developing countries that are
well ahead in this field such as India and Sri Lanka. National policies for
education and information technology (IT) have been drafted by the government
of the people's republic of Bangladesh in alignment with the concerned ministries
of education, ICTs and also the Ministry of Primary and Mass Education ( MoPME)

and the external resources division (ERD); under the ministry of finance also
plays an active part in the policy draft and execution of the budget set for each
fiscal year in Bangladesh. All bills and policies are passed through the parliament
during the quarterly sessions where all elected representatives of the house are
present. One of the top issues in the government agenda is education and
infrastructural development of educational institutions and other facilities that
are directly impacting the education development in Bangladesh such as ICT. For
Bangladesh to move forward as a nation, it is crucial to expand beyond the
current prospects and traditional views of knowledge dissemination in the
classroom between teachers and students and paper and pen for sustainable
development. As the top issue in the current agenda of the government, the
National ICT Policy (NIP) originally drafted in 2009 has been designed to serve
the purpose of the improvement of the infrastructural development which is to
be governed by other authorities who are known to be experts in this area. The
NEP 2010 has also been aligned with the NIP 2009 to provide a firmer
foundation for education development. The NIP 2009 and NEP 2010 have also
been established comprising of different elements including allocation of budgets
and appointment of new experienced personnel that are to be engaged in
carrying out the process throughout the country. A well structured IT
infrastructure is more cost efficient thus minimizing the communication costs. In
contrast to other neighbouring countries where the technology sector is well
developed, Bangladesh has a long journey ahead. Educational development and
the role of IT are vital. As suggested by (Rahman et al. 2007), IT has a great
impact on the society which is directly impacting the development of
employment and education as a whole. Teachers are the best media through
which education can be provided to the underprivileged population of the
society. To have the most competent teachers who are well equipped with
enough knowledge to be shared, it is the responsibility of the government who
has allocated budgets to use it accordingly.

1.2 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM:
In reference to the recent initiative by the Prime Minister's Office (2013) and the
Ministry of Education (MoE) it has mentioned the need to develop a productive
workforce for the 21
st
century. Improvement of the educational curriculum as
well as the need for capacity building ensuring education for all is a vital part of
the development of education. The role of NGOs has also been highlighted as a
key factor for infrastructural development of educational institutions. According
to Rahman (2007), the ICT structure in Bangladesh is not as remarkable as
expected. With the favourable initiatives undertaken by the government and
NGOs, the sustainability of using IT for education still remains doubtful. With the
introduction of internet in Bangladesh in 1993, it was considered to be a
revolutionary change for the nation. The use of internet in the education sector
is thought to have brought about changes, but the change is not as much
significant as one would expect.ICT can make an important impact on the
sustainable development of the country and positively impact people's education
which is their fundamental right.
This research endeavours to investigate the various aspects of socio-economic
conditions that are impediments to the use of IT in primary education sector. As
pointed out by (Akbar 2004), the margin between the accessibility of technology
between the rural and urban regions is relatively high, raising concerns to many
scholars and academics who are working to develop people and improve their
skills and convert them into a productive workforce. He further argues that
facilitating the smooth flow of information and knowledge is crucial. His position
on ensuring that all education sectors receiving the same importance in terms of
ICT support is compounded by his claims that a ICT should also be seen not only
from an educational perspective but as a long term plan that can be integrated
into other sectors of the society such as economy and livelihoods and that it is
likely to generate beneficial returns.
1.3 RATIONALE OF THE STUDY:
Development of education requires a substantial investment of resources.
Investment of financial and human resources can bring about immense benefits
to the country, if carried out in an organized manner. Infrastructural

development to enable technology to flourish comes with certain barriers which
are relatively difficult to minimize without any support from the personnel who
are experts in this area. Proper governance and more structural and centralized
policymaking are essential for ensuring a proper execution of the formulated
policies. Assuming that the engagement of the students and teachers is crucial
means encouraging the participation in the training and development provided
by the related institutions that provide the necessary support for competence
development. For sustainable development of the education sector it is vital to
have the right elements in order to be equipped with the right instruments. It is
the responsibility of the government and other organizations to play their part in
delivering the knowledge about the systems to those who will take services from
the education sector. Sustainable development has been generally perceived to
be a notion that can only come about by participatory measures. This means
that all forms of development, including ICT in education, needs to be a
participatory process where micro, meso and macro level stakeholders are
responsible for contributing towards policy making to ensure that all voices at all
levels are heard and decisions acted upon. A2i with the joint collaboration of
UNDP, USAID has taken initiatives to transform the learning environment in to a
more effective and enjoyable experience for both teachers and students. It is
their vision to collaboratively change the conventional methods of teaching and
concentrate more on infrastructural development which they have identified as a
prime requirement for sustainable development.
In Bangladesh there are many institutions which are delivering education with a
minimum capacity for providing education with the right equipments and
facilities. Teachers are one of the key drivers in delivering education. How the
role is defined and the role of NGOs has also been discussed later in this
chapter. This research continues with a concentration on the existing studies and
the evaluation of the use of the technology in other countries where it has been
implemented. It continues towards a critical examination and analysis of the
national policies governing the education sector and thereby engaging resources
in execution of the policies. There is a debate about the strength of the policies
and the role of government and related bodies.

This study will continue to examine and provide recommendations in regard to
changing the perception of the teachers toward the use of technology and also
giving more insights into the gaps which are visible during analysis. Proposed
changes in the policies and the role of NGO's are to be critically highlighted
further in the report.
1.4 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES:
The research aims and objectives for the research study are presented in figure
1.
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY:
The study focuses on reviewing the existing NIP 2009 and NEP 2010. Both
policies have been critically studied to understand and determine the gaps and
put forward suggestions for bringing about changes in the policies that are

deemed to be more suitable at present in alignment with the progress of the
education sector in Bangladesh. The research objectives as proposed identify the
crucial aspects of the study concentrating on the improvement and development
of institutions and facilities as well as determining the role of NGO's in respect to
the development of students and competent teachers. Furthermore, the scope of
the study is limited thus giving room for further research. Limitations of the
study are discussed in chapter three of this report.
1.6 CHAPTER SYNOPSIS OF REPORT:
The report comprises of primarily 6 chapters. An overview of each chapter is as
follows:
Chapter 1: Introduction
The introductory chapter provides an overview of the research project. The
research aims and objectives including the scope and a statement of the
research problem have been examined. Furthermore, rationale of the study and
scope of the study are well expressed and contextualized in this chapter giving a
clear view of the total research study.
Chapter 2: Literature Review
While conducting the research it is mandatory to review any studies that have
been carried out in the past in relation to the research topic. All literature has
been gathered from different academic sources of website, peer reviewed
articles and text books. Aside to the websites, the author has also referred to
interviews online that have provided more insight into the focus areas of
sustainability and policy governance. All information gathered has been
presented in the review of literature chapter of this report.
Chapter 3: Research Methodology
This chapter provides a summary of the different tools and techniques to be
used in the process of data analysis and evaluation for deriving the expected
results. The research hereby consists of a qualitative evaluation of data
comprising of interviews, which have been used as a source of primary data. For

the purpose of gathering more concrete and reliable information, interviews with
the concerned persons in the field has also be conducted. The study is based on
qualitative methods of data analysis and deriving results. Interviews have been
conducted and transcriptions provided have been done accordingly, providing
the required data for further study.
Chapter 4: Data Analysis
Interview transcription and statistical data generated have been further analyzed
and presented in graphical and pictorial forms for better understanding. Based
on the information collated the researcher has been able to put forward
suggestions for improvement as mentioned earlier in aims and objectives section
of this report.
Chapter 5: Critical Discussion of Analysis
Following the critical analysis of the data, an evaluation and interpretation have
processed which helped to provide a concrete platform for the presentation of
the expected results. For the purpose of the study, qualitative data has been
used and therefore, the interpretations are more subjective and have been
explained through the interpretation of interview transcripts. From the analysis
of the data it has opened scopes for further research in the future.
Chapter 6: Recommendations and Conclusion
The aim of the research has been to analyze the NIP 2009 and NEP 2010 and
also critically examine the highlighted projects by UNESCO, A2i and BRAC
projects which different NGO's are taking part in. Factors which have been
considered as impediments have been thoroughly explained which can be further
explored for diversified interpretation and have brought about more new factors
to be considered as issues to be examined in the future. This research will also
open up opportunities for further study in the field of education and development
which is explained in the final chapter of this report.

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0
CHAPTER REVIEW:
This chapter provides an overview of the existing literature on sustainability of
ICT in the field of education in Bangladesh. This review has provided an attempt
to critically examine the NEP 2010 and NIP 2009 of Bangladesh. The report
comprises of an analysis of secondary data collected and interpreted in the
report giving a conceptual and formidable understanding of the research.
2.1 DEFINING TERMS:
2.1.1 Definition of Sustainability:
Sustainability refers to the long-term, cultural, economic and environmental
health and vitality emphasizing on the long term goals together with the
importance of linking social, financial and environmental factors.
Daniels et al. (2013 p241) defined sustainability as;
"Meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future
generations to meet their own needs while taking into account what is best for
the people and the environment"
It is crucial to understand how the vital factors combine to bring about the way
forward to creating a sustainable environment in the education sector of
Bangladesh.
2.1.2 Definition of Policy:
A policy can be defined as a set of principles and guidelines formulated and
published in a booklet dictating the long-term goals of the organization and are
widely accessible to the public.
Government of Bangladesh has formulated the NEP 2010 and the NIP 2009 for
introducing a solid platform for a road map which is to be implemented in
bringing about changes in the national education platform. Policies are crucial as
they define a path through which goals are to be reached and how. The report

looks into the alignment of the policies and their effectiveness in improving the
curriculum in the primary education sector of Bangladesh.
2.1.3 Policy and Sustainability in Education:
The underlining principle that exists in the formulation of a well structured policy
is the effectiveness it has in achieving the organizational goals and objectives.
As it has been a challenge for Bangladesh to execute the existing policies in the
right manner, the problems that are pertaining are immense and therefore,
effectiveness of the policies is questionable. Moreover, the realization about the
sustainability of using IT in education requires attention. Noam Chomsky (2013),
in his interview at the conference on `learning without frontiers' expressed his
concern on how institutions are adopting to the changes in technology and what
level of progress is being made in the aspect of technological advancement. His
concerns reflect traditional classroom attendance versus online learning, which
may rule university campuses out in the future. But what must be taken from his
assessment is that ICT should be viewed as a neutral tool that when adopted
can bring benefits to education and that conclusions should be based on how the
benefits are reaped and now why.
According to international statistics Bangladesh is the only country in south Asia
to have achieved MDG. Under the monitoring of United Nations (2012) and
World Bank (2013), it has been highlighted that Bangladesh has made
remarkable progress in the sectors of Health and Sanitation, but not as
remarkable in the education sector. The progress of education development is
not as significant due to the lack of infrastructural development especially in the
rural areas of Bangladesh. Alam et al (2009) in his research has also
recommended that a system needs to be in place which will confirm a solid
platform for improvement and quality of education entailing the backdrop of the
socio-economic factors of pertaining in the society. Integration of population and
development, side by side with the deployment of policies in the market is a big
challenge. In respect to this, the main component is the technological
transformation of the modern era.

2.2 INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY IN EDUCATION:
Information technology is on the forefront of development in education in the
least developed countries of the world. It has been noticeable that countries like
India, China, Malaysia and Singapore has made tremendous progress in
development of technology in comparison to Bangladesh, where the
development of ICT infrastructure has remained to be inadequate in respect to
other developed and developing countries in Asia.
Information and Communication Technology has been widely recognized as a
way to improve the education sector. According to (Gronlund 2011) et al. Islam,
2010, Soriyan, Mursu, Akinde and Korpela, 2001, UNDP 2005, UNESCO 2005,
WSIS 2005, education for developing countries is considered to be a huge
challenge and also a major factor in development. To implement the use of ICT
it is necessary to have the proper infrastructural facilities embedded in the
current system. Due to low investment of the government and other bodies in
the development of infrastructure it is becoming difficult to really undergo any
further changes in establishing a stable platform for advancement of technology.
ICT has a great impact on the society, economy, education, training and even
commerce. The concept of digital divide is not an area to be neglected any more.
Gronlund and Islam et al. (2010) also questioned the aspect of using internet
technology for distance tuition and its feasibility due to the penetration rate of
mobile telephone technology in remote areas of a country like Bangladesh. In a
further study by the World Bank (2013), it has been estimated that 77% of the
world population have now access to any sort of telephone and internet access.
In the report published by (ASDB 2007), it is said that in Bangladesh 97% of the
whole country is covered by mobile networks and 82% of the land area. As a
result it is possible to be extending the frontier of educational development
beyond the traditional concept and introduce new methods of teaching with
introduction of new technology, benefiting the whole population and bringing
about positive changes (Gronlund & Islam 2010, Alomari 2009, Anderson 2008,
2008b, Halse & Mallinson 2009, Komba 2009).

2.3 EDUCATION DEVELOPMENT AND SUSTAINABILITY:
Sustainability is a term more broadly used in the field of education with multiple
dimensions of array. Education in a country like Bangladesh is considered to be
one of the key elements of the several development indices for development of
human capital (Alam 2010).In the context of critical thinking about education
development and sustainable development it is crucial to identify the key factors
of creativity, adaptability, knowledge sharing for coping with the changes in the
external and internal environment. Alam et al. (2008) talked about the
education system and the inefficiency of the market system more commonly
known as the `economic structure' which is suffering due to lack of support from
the government causing the number of school drop outs to increase. For
sustainable development, it is crucial to have credible information to be credible
that is equally practical. In their research (Alam 2008, Hallak 1990) argued
about the existing link between education and human resource development,
that has direct impact on the economic growth of a nation. In their view, they
have argued on certain points:
Individual creativity and participation in the economic, social and cultural
roles in the society.
Improved understanding and growing respect for others to improve social
image and promoting self awareness.
Improvement in the area of health and nutrition
Improving opportunities for economic development
Social and cultural changes
Democracy
Environmental development (thus improving the livelihood of people).
Alam (2008) and Hallak (1990) again argued about creativity and participation
of individuals in the society in respect to the socio-cultural and socio-economic
aspects that have to be more deeply accounted for in respect to further
development to progress towards a better societal development. Other factors as
argued by both researchers include the factors of democracy, environmental
development required more attention and therefore, it is just to say that the

highlighted factors that are expected to improve with the engagement of the
right resources.
Thus, it can be argued that embedding knowledge and core values about the
necessity of education is a fundamental requirement for sustainability.
2.3.1 Current Status of ICT in Bangladesh:
Bangladesh is a country that faces challenges towards becoming a learning
society, where all citizens have access to the facilities of IT, knowledge and
qualifications required to move forward into the next century. The demand for
extensive introduction of computer education from primary to tertiary level as
well as the prospect of career progression facilitated by NGOs like Ahsania
Mission and Bangladesh Computer Council( BCC), in their own premises where
they provide training to individuals. Information technology was first introduced
in Bangladesh in 1984 at the Bangladesh University of Engineering and
Technology where the foundation was laid in the computer science and
engineering department (Ali 2003).
As per the education statistics published by BANBEIS (2012), presented in the
report published is presented in table 1 there are 1000 ICT training centres
nationwide contrasting to the number of primary, junior, secondary and higher
secondary and degree colleges. This reflects the concerns of proper
infrastructural development mainly in the rural areas of Bangladesh. The data
provided in the below table 1 shows that there seems to be big gap in the trend
of infrastructure development.
Table 1: Number of Educational Institutions in Bangladesh.
Institutions
Number
Primary
83,796
Junior
5,694
Secondary
15,748

Higher Secondary and Degree Colleges
2,339
ICT Training Centre's.
1,000
(Source: Ahsania Mission 2003, Ministry of Education 2014)
For development of the sector it is vital for the government and entrepreneurs to
take steps for bringing about changes. In the current context, the main problem
that prevails is the lack of development in the infrastructure. Alam (2008a)
mentioned in his research the adoption of imported technology and development
of indigenous technology. Bangladesh being a nation much dependent on import
of goods and services require proper planning and assimilation of adoption in
terms of technology transfer. Some of the socio-economic indicators of
Bangladesh are shown in the following Table 2. These indicators highlight the
current situation of Bangladesh. According to the data published in the World
Bank Database (2013), the GDP of Bangladesh was 5.8 % in 2013. Like other
developing countries, Bangladesh faces the challenges of infrastructural
development in the IT. All leading institutions in Bangladesh are now taking road
towards using the concept of technology thus bringing about the changes in the
future.
Table 2: World Development Indicators
Population
166,280,712 ( July, 2014)
Gross Domestic Product
$ 129.9 Billion
Gross Domestic Product (Real Growth
Rate)
5.8%
GDP Per Capita
$2100.00
Population Below Poverty Line
31.5%
Telephone ( Land Line)
962,000 ( 2012)
Excerpt out of 142 pages

Details

Title
A Study of Policy Design for sustainability of ICT as a medium of education in Bangladesh. A role of NGO’s in development of teachers
College
Robert Gordon University Aberdeen  (Aberdeen Business School)
Course
International Business
Grade
C
Author
Year
2015
Pages
142
Catalog Number
V300458
ISBN (eBook)
9783668620247
ISBN (Book)
9783668620254
File size
2236 KB
Language
English
Tags
Education, Dissertation, Policy, Sustainability, Teachers
Quote paper
Laila Habib (Author), 2015, A Study of Policy Design for sustainability of ICT as a medium of education in Bangladesh. A role of NGO’s in development of teachers, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/300458

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