An Anatomy of Mind. Being Essence of the Dhammasangani in Abhidhamma

Research Paper (undergraduate), 2015

300 Pages, Grade: 3.80


Table of Contents

Abbrebiations Used



Brief Description of the Matrix (Mātikā)
The 22 Triads (Tika Mātikā)
The 100 Dyads (Duka Mātikā)
The 42 Suttantika Dyads (Suttantika Duka Mātikā)

The 89 States of Consciousness At a Glance
The Sensuous-Sphere States of Consciousness
The Fine-Material-Sphere States of Consciousness
The Immaterial-Sphere States of Consciousness
The Transcendental-Sphere States of Consciousness

The Classification and Exposition of Cetasikas
The 52 Cetasikas At a Glance
The 7 Common ʻ Universal ’ Concomitants
The 6 ʻ Occasionals ’ Concomitants
The 4 ʻ Unwholesome-Universals ’
The 10 ʻ Unwholesome-Occasionals ’
The 25 ʻ Beautiful ’ Concomitants
The 19 ʻ Beautiful-Universals ’ (Sobhaṇa Sādhāraṇā Cetasikas)
The 3 ʻ Beautiful-Abstinences ’ (Virati Cetasikas)
The 2 ʻ Beautiful-Illimitables ’ (Appamaññā Cetasikas)
The ʻ Beautiful Non-Delusional ’ (Paññindriya Cetasika)
The “ Or-Whatsoever ” Factors
Relating the 52 Cetasikas with the Cittas by a Table
Association of the Cetasikas with the different Cittas
Combinations of the Cetasikas relating to the different Cittas
Concomitants of the sense-sphere beautiful consciousness
Concomitants of the sense-sphere unwholesome consciousness
Concomitants of the sense-sphere rootless consciousness
Concomitants of the sublime consciousness
Concomitants of the supramundane consciousness
Fixed and Unfixed adjuncts of the Cetasikas

11 categories that analyse and expound Corporeality
1st Method: 43 sets viewed as a single category
2nd Method: 104 sets viewed by way of positive-negative dyads
3rd Method: 103 sets viewed as triplet categories
4th Method: 22 sets viewed as fourfold categories
5th Method: viewed as a fivefold single category
6th Method: viewed as a sixfold single category
7th Method: viewed as a sevenfold single category
8th Method: viewed as an eightfold single category
9th Method: viewed as a ninefold single category
10th Method: viewed as a tenfold single category
11th Method: viewed as an elevenfold single category
Condensed Tables of the 11 Methods
The 28 Material Phenomena
The Four Great Essentials
The 24 Derived Material Phenomena
Classification of Matter
Groups and Causes of Material Phenomena
Arising of Material Phenomena in the Sensuous Sphere
Death Moment of Material Phenomena
Arising of Material Phenomena in Other Spheres
CHAPTER 5 (Applying the M ĀTIKĀ)
Cluster of the 22 triads
A shorter compilation of the non-interrelated dyads
An intermediate compilation of the non-interrelated dyads
The ʻRoot Cause ’ dyads
The ʻPollutant ’ dyads
The ʻFetter ’ dyads
The ʻBond ’ dyads
The ʻRaging Current ’ and ʻYoke ’ dyads
The ʻHindrance ’ dyads
The ʻAttachment ’ dyads
The ʻClinging ’ dyads
The ʻDefilement ’ dyads
An end compilation of the non-interrelated dyads
Further exposition of the 42 Suttantika dyads
Questions for pondering



Appendix I: Abhidhamma Mātikā

Appendix II: The 89 States of Consciousness

Appendix III: Cittuppada Kaṇḍa (Pāli)

Appendix IV: Relationship of the Cetasikas with Cittas (In Pāli)

Primary Reference Sources (English)
Primary Reference Sources (Chinese)
Secondary Reference Sources
External links

About The Author


Abbrebiations Used

illustration not visible in this excerpt


The Dhammasaṅgaṇi in essence is a terse summary of the key principles of the other six books of the Pāli Abhidhamma Piṭaka. Its contents was written according to the Buddha’s teaching, which uncover every latent and functional bits of our subtler interior strata that comprises the 89 consciousness, the 52 mental concomitants, and total 279 corporeal phenomena—explicitly analyse and explain these often unseen complexities within us, from the psychological, philosophical, moral and ethical aspects. This is a book which lays the solid foundation theories and principles for its practical side of the Samantha-Vipassanā.

The present work is the result of almost a year of inquiry into the fundamental tenets of the Dhammasaṅgaṇi in the Theravada school of Abhidhamma. There were daunting yet enriching challenges in the preparation of the work such as the encounters with sometimes the ambiguous or different explanations for certain terms and principles from some of the translated modern literatures of the Dhammasaṅgaṇi. For such cases I made consultation to the Pāli texts of the Dhammasaṅgaṇi, to its commentary Atthasālinī and the sub-commentary Dhammasaṅgaṇi-Mūlaṭīkā. Subsequent consultations to the Pāli-English dictionaries by P.T.S. and others, are also sometimes faced with different renderings. My decision in such cases was including all their suggested meanings relevant to that context, and sometimes giving my recommended choice to what looked like is the obvious answer, and stating my reasons whenever that was necessary.

Another difficult task was to still following the topical layout of the Dhammasanghani but to steer clear of its traditional way of catechetical exposition, and at the same time able to present as much as of its theories and essence as possible. We know that a well-presented table speaks a thousand words. Hence the several tables that I have created and every detailed explanations followed thereto, should be the effective analytical study guides for the new students. The concept of the tables and also much of the contents of the work, have drawn a great deal of the ideas from post-canonical literatures of the Abhidhammattha-sangaha, Visuddhimagga, and the mentioned Chinese sources. My decision to also include the succinct Chinese definitions for the Abhidhamma terminologies is primarily to facilitate those bilingual readers to more comprehensibly understand the connotative nuances of the words in Pāli, by comparison of the English and Chinese translations.

I have avoided as much as possible making any unauthorised alterations to the way I should present every substance of the scripture. The brief explanations provided to the terms of the Tika and Duka Mātikā in Chapter One is done with intention of giving an introductory guide for the novices. The extended explanations of these terms are dealt with in Chapter Five. Consciousness are enumerated in 89 states, for which tables and diagrams are created to accurately describe every each of them in Chapter Two. A consolidated table of the 89 states of Consciousness, edited from the various sources, is provided in the Appendix.

Chapter Three enumerates the 52 Mental Concomitants, much of this are referred from the much more systemised information in Abhidhammattha-sangaha. I included Mental Concomitants as one single chapter due to their distinct significance weightage and their intimate coexistences with the Consciousness, besides also owing to its large scope of contents, and it being the second ultimate reality. A table is created to accurately illustrate the association of the individual mental concomitants with each of 89 Consciousness, as well as the combined sets of the mental concomitants with which the different types of Consciousness are conjoined.

Chapter Four enumerates the conventional 11 multifold methods of describing all that being the corporeal phenomena, comprising a massive total of 279 sets. Concise summaries for each of the 11 methods are tabulated out as well. A separate section is dedicated to describing the 28 material phenomena ascribed to the Abhidhammattha-sangaha, which is in fact a condensed synopsis of the 11 conventional methods of the Dhammasaṅgaṇi. Efforts are made to show the derivation of these 28 material phenomena pertaining to the Dhammasaṅgaṇi, and also to illuminate necessarily on each of these 28 phenomenal constituents for what had not been so directly stated in the Dhammasaṅgaṇi. Chapter 5 attempts to provide expanded and analytical exposition to all the terms in the Mātikā (or matrix) as well as showing their application in connection with the individual component units of the four ultimate realities, whenever is desirable.

The last Chapter I wrote on Nibbāna, however, is not a written chapter by itself in the original text. The decision for my choice lies on account of Nibbāna being the fourth ultimate reality and is the highest goal of all the Buddhist practising endeavours. Besides, the final objective of liberation and enlightenment for individuals is the genuine reason why the entire Tipiṭaka, moreover in the growing different languages, exists, and that very goal for us is also why the Buddha had existed in the first place. I decided to explain the subject matter of Nibbāna in an enumerated list than as a full descriptive text. Part of the reasons being to facilitate the referring in conjunction with the foregoing explanations within the same context. I made efforts to substantiate each of the definitive explanations by referencing to the relevant Tipiṭaka scriptures and commentaries whenever are possible.

The book of Dhammasanghani is a massive work dealing with every tiny details of the mind and body. Due to the complexity of the work, it is possible that some erroneous explanations, incorrect Pali words, or unintentional omissions may remain undetected in my work despite every strenuous effort has been made to identify such flaws. As many of the terms and principles in the Dhammasanghani are interrelated and they are best to be comprehended in a coherent way. Thus at some points it was necessary that I refer back, repeat, or even enhance the expositions that have already been provided in the preceding context as the work progressed.

Although this is a book from the Buddhist psychology literature, it nevertheless can be of considerable aid, irrespective of any kind of religions, to those wandering souls who are living their lives in more or less a fluffy way. Within the mundane affairs, it also can be a good reflective guidebook for couples who might be falling in “blind” love, or for people in any kinds of selfish relationship to mirror from; and perhaps as a last glimpse of hope for people who might be contemplating suicides whose lives are worth inestimable values unbeknownst to them. The in-depth specifics in this book should let you understand yourself thoroughly without any qualms, so that you can confidently manage issues and difficulties with a calmer and more stable mind in any troubled and doubtful circumstances.

May all who have read through this book eventually make big strides in their insight practices, achieve profound wisdom, realise spiritual liberation, and accomplish the bliss of enlightenment.


For the new comers, it is important at the outset here to have some brief understanding about a few things noteworthy, that is, the historical background of the Pāli Abhidhamma genesis, the relevant significance and roles of the Abhidhamma literature in the Tripiīaka, how the Dhammasaṅgaṇi relates to the other books of the Pāli Abhidhamma corpus, and what substantial relationship the seven Pāli Abhidhamma books of the Theravada has to the seven books of the Sarvāstivāda Abhidhamma.

The seven books of the Pāli Abhidhamma were recited at the Third Council of Buddhism, held at P āṭ aliputta around 251 B.C., which was 200 years or so after the passing away of the Gotama Buddha. At that time the Pāli Abhidhamma Piṭaka was included. After that, King Asoka's son, Reverend Mahinda, brought the Pāli Tripiīaka to Sri Lanka (then Ceylon), along with the commentaries that were recited at the Third Buddhist Council. Thus the authenticity and significance of Pāli Abhidhamma can be traced back to as early as the beginning of the 2nd century B.C.

While the Sutta and Vinaya Piṭakas lay out the practical aspects of the Buddhist path to awakening, the Pāli Abhidhamma Piṭaka expounds a system of philosophical psychology—a theoretical framework that supports the underpinnings of that very path. Literally, Abhidhamma means ʻconcerning the Dhamma’. Often being regarded as a quasi-scientific cognitive model of our mind, Abhidhamma deals with astonishing detail about our psycho-physical phenomena of existences. It provides instructions according to states, and distinguish between the mind, its associated mental factors, and forms. Through study of Abhidhamma, we gain precise insight into how our mind functions and subsequently are able to comprehend in a methodical way why we behaved in many circumstances as strangely and inexplicable as we sometimes were. The significance and benefits from mastering the Abhidhamma is further more all-important to every Buddhist practitioners.

As a matter of fact, Abhidhamma nomenclatures, its extensive classifications and exhaustive analysis, explain very much the reason for its prolixity and esotericism, and by no means can be comprehended with minimal effort. For example, in the Pāli text Dhammasaṅgaṇi, the question such as ʻKatame dhammā kusalā’ or ʻwhich are the states that are good’, had been asked 146 times in the various categories, and likewise other questions are also repeated over and again dozens of times. The similar questions-and-answers lengthy mode of teaching had also been structured in the other Pāli Abhidhamma books, which in a way explains the reason why the study of Abhidhamma literature has always been a wearisome effort. Even until today, not many researches had been carried out in Abhidhamma as compared to that of the Suttas. Generally, Abhidhamma remains very much a closed book amongst the scholars and even to the Buddhists themselves. To those who have the interests to study the Dhammasaṅgaṇī, this manual with many tables and lucid illustrations will ease the humdrum and weariness of that learning process.

As part of the term Dhammasaṅgaṇī, dhamma means ʻultimate realities’ (法), and saṅgaṇī means ʻcollecting together’ (集). Hence the name given to its Chinese title ʻ法集論’. The Dhammasaṅgaṇi begins with a Mātikā (matrix, ʻ論母’), which is a list of classifications of dhamma, or ʻultimate realities’[1], translated differently as phenomena, states, patterns, names, etc. Within the Mātikā, there are 22 Tika (triads or 3-fold classifications; ʻ三法門’), followed by 100 Dukas (dyads or the 2-fold classifications; ʻ二法門’) in accordance with the Abhidhamma method (論之論母), and also 42 Dukas conforming to the Sutta method known as Suttantamātikā (經之論母). Altogether, the 122 Abhidhamma classifications (Abhidhammamātikā) are also applied unanimously in the Vibhaṅga, Dhātukathā, Yamaka, and Paṭṭhāna of Abhidhamma treatises. The Dhammasaṅgaṇī enumerates all the phenomena (dhamma), namely our consciousness (cittas), the associated mental concomitants (cetasikas), and corporeality (rūpas). In the enumeration of phenomena, they are being arranged into various categories to bring out their exact nature, functions, and interdependent relationship between ourselves internally and with our surroundings as the external world.

Abhidhamma philosophy, from the standpoint of ultimate realities (paramatthat ā), exists on account of their own intrinsic natures (sabhāv ā)—are the dhammas that explain the ultimate, irreducible components of existence. It is by no means equivalent of the conventional realities which merely are referents of the generalised, reducible conceptual ideas (sammuti) lacking in ultimacy. Hence paramattha is used, which is derived from ʻ parama ’ which means ʻultimate or final’, and ʻ attha ’ means ʻreality’. Thus Dhammasaṅgaṇī sets forth enumerating the ultimate realities, using the classification method of the triads (tikas) and dyads (dukas) as laid out in the Matika. The Pāli Abhidhamma manifested fourfold ultimate realities in terms of Consciousness (mind), Mental Factors (concomitants), Corporeality (matter), and Nibbāna (unconditioned element). In another words, the whole purpose of the Dhammasaṅgaṇī, aside from being a terse synopsis, is an in-depth analytical enquiry into our inner self, as a detailed guide for the safeguarding of human moralities and ethics, and as an unerring blueprint for the ultimate deliverance from all sufferings for all humanities.

Let’s examine the important roles that the Abhidhamma literature play in relation to the Suttanta Piṭaka. The Dhammasaṅgaṇī enumerates and defines a diverse categories of term and phenomena which are written in the Suttanta Nikāyas but which differs in the methods of treatment. In the Suttanta Piṭaka, the query into the existence of phenomena of all living things and how an individual explains of his diverse functions, is through another five types of ultimate reality known as the Five Aggregates (pañcakhandhā), namely: matter, feeling, perception, mental formations (volition), and consciousness. These Five Aggregates have been classified and explained only partially in the Suttas. Whereas in the Pāli Abhidhamma, the Five Aggregates are dissected and analysed in considerable detail—by way of triads and dyads, consciousness, the co-adjunct mental concomitants, corporeal phenomena, and conditions.

The first three ultimate realities of the Abhidhamma—consciousness, mental factors, matter or corporeality—incorporate the Five Aggregates of the Suttanta. The Suttanta’s ʻaggregate of consciousness’ (viññākkhandha) can be comprehended by the term ʻconsciousness’ (citta) taken from Abhidhamma, but importantly, the word citta is to be understood to denote different classes of consciousness distinguished by their corresponding concomitants. The Theravada’s Abhidhamma distinguishes citta into a variety of classes known as the 89 states of consciousness, and by a finer method of practising differentiation, becomes 121 states in total. The mental procedure of the 52 mental factors (cetasikas) conjoin with the 89 states of consciousness, working on the basis of interdependency. The Abhidhamma philosophy enumerates the 52 mental factors that arise in conjunction with our consciousness―in which the Suttanta’s aggregates of feeling and perception are taken in as two factors, whereas the aggregate of volition (saṅkhārakkhandha) (行蕴) is sub-divided distinctly into 50 mental factors. However, a more significant distinction being that, the Five Aggregates are non-inclusive of the Abhidhamma fourth reality of Nibbāna, which in its own right, is an unconditioned reality―an ultimate state of deliverance from all sufferings.

- Dhammasaṅgaṇi is the first is the first of the seven books of the Pāli Abhidhamma Piṭaka. The seven books are arranged in its chronological order as listed below.

i. Dhammasaṅgaṇi (Enumeration of Phenomena)(法集論) ;
ii. Vibhaṅga (The Book of Treatises)(分別論) ;
iii. Dhātukathā (Discourse on Elements)(界論) ;
iv. Puggalapaññati (Discourse on the Description of Individuals) (人施設論) ;
v. Kathāvattu (Discourse on Points of Controversy)(論事) ;
vi. Yamaka (The Book of Pairs)(雙論) ;
vii. Paṭṭhāna (The Book of Relations)(發趣論).

Let’s also have a brief understanding of the relevant importance and co-relationship among these seven treatises. The Dhammasaṅgaṇī enumerates all the dhammas in the Mātikā and categorically analyses them in terms of mental phenomena and corporeal phenomena. The Vibhaṅga and the Dhātukathā give rather full analysis and detailed view of the selected categories of the Tika and Duka groups in the Mātikā. The Puggalapaññatti sets out the classifications of the different types of individual, serves to take account of the conceptual realities excluded by the strict application of absolute terms by the Abhidhamma proper. The Kathāvatthu, a controversial treatise ascribed to the elder Moggaliputta Tissa who convened the third Buddhist synod, is concerned mainly with refutation of the fallacious views of the schismatic schools outside the Theravadin fold. The Yamaka sets out to analyse the interrelationship of dhamma (from Dhammasaṅgaṇī, Vibhaṅga and Dhātukathā) and puggalas, resolving ambiguities and defining the precise usage of technical terms. The Paṭṭhāna, applies its scheme of twenty-four conditional relations together with all their conceivable permutations, to correlate with all the phenomena of existence enumerated in the Abhidhamma Mātikā. Compared to the analytical approach of the earlier treatises of the Abhidhamma, the Paṭṭhāna is a synthetic method which attests that the dhammas or phenomena are not isolated and self-contain identities but are nodes in a well-coordinated system of inter-related and inter-dependent thought-moment events. It is the most voluminous and most thorough of the seven books, comprising 2640 pages in the Burmese-script of the Sixth Buddhist Council edition. The Dhammasaṅgiṇī which is the summarised epitome of all the Abhidhamma literature, and the Paṭṭhāna being designated as the ʻGreat Treatise’ (Mahāpakaraṇa) and for which is compared as the profound testimony to the omniscience of the Buddha—the two together are the most important of the seven treatises, laying out the quintessence of the entire Theravada Abhidhamma philosophy[2].

It is important to note that although the various earlier schools of Buddhism also developed their own versions of the Abhidhamma, but only three Abhidhamma literatures actually still exist today, namely: the Pāli Abhidhamma, the Sarvāstivādin Abhidhamma, and the Śāriputra Abhidhamma. The Śāriputra Abhidhamma (舍利弗阿毗達摩) is thought to come from the Dharmaguptaka school.The Theravada Pāli Abhidhamma (上座部阿毗達摩) is preserved in Pāli by the Theravada school. The Śāriputrābhidharma-Śāstra (Sanskrit) (舍利弗阿毗曇論) survives only in the Chinese translation as the Sanskrit manuscripts are lost, although some Tibetan texts are still extant. The Śāriputra Abhidhamma is a vast commentarial literature which summarises the first two Abhidhammas. The later addition of the Yogācāra Abhidhamma (瑜伽行派阿毗達摩) which, although is based on the Sarvāstivādin system, is elaborated in certain works of the Mahāyāna Yogācāra tradition. The Sarvāstivādin Abhidhamma (說一切有部阿毗達摩), which was translated into Chinese, also had not survived the Sanskrit manuscripts. Although the Sarvāstivādin Abhidhamma also has seven scriptures, but neither any of these texts coincide with any of those seven Pāli Abhidhammas, nor are originated from any of them. The massive Jñanaprasthana-Śastra (Sanskrit) (發智論) was the culmination developed from the different six smaller śastras, which eventually led to the writing of the Sarvāstivādin Mahāvibhāṣā-Śastra (Sanskrit)—called the Great Commentary, (大毗婆沙論), under the patronage of king Kaniṣka during the first century B.C.[3]. Briefly, the seven books of the Sarvāstivādin Abhidhamma are:

i. Saṅgītiparyāya-śāstra (Discourses on the Gathering-Together) (集異門足論);
ii. Dharmaskandhapāda-śāstra (Aggregation of Dharmas) (法蘊足論);
iii. Prajñapti-śāstra (Treatise on Designations) (施設論);
iv. Dhātukāyapāda-śāstra (Treatise on the Body of Elements) (界身足論);
v. Vijñānakāyapāda-śāstra (Treatise on the Body of Consciousness) (識身足論);
vi. Prakaraṇapāda-śāstra (Treatise on the Exposition) (品類足論);
vii. Jñānaprasthāna-śāstra (Treatise on the Foundation of Knowledge) (發智論).

Commentaries are known to preserve the earliest possible interpretation of the texts. The following draws to compare the major commentaries between Theravada and other schools, explaining in terms of their categories of Cetasika (Mental Factors).

- Atthasālinī (The Expositor, ʻ殊勝義注’) ― a Theravada commentary on Dhammasaṅgaṇī by Buddhaghosa Thera, explains the 52 mental factors.
- Abhidhammattha-sangaha (A Manual of Abhidhamma, ʻ攝阿毗達摩義論’)―a Theravada commentary by Acariya Anuruddha,written as a condensed summary of the seven canonical Abhidhamma treatises, lists out the 52 mental factors.
- Abhidharmakośa (Sanskrit) (The Treasury of Abhidharma, ʻ阿毘達摩倶舍論’)―thought to be a Sautrāntika[4] rather than a Sarvāstivāda/Vaibhāṣika commentary by Vasubandhu Thera, which fundamentally is a synopsis of the Mahāvibhāṣā Śastra, lists out the 46 mental factors.
- Abhidharma-samuccaya (Sanskrit) (The Compendium of Abhidharma, ʻ大乘阿毘達磨集論’)―a Mahāyāna-Yogācāra (or Vijñānavāda) commentary by Asaṅga Thera, lists out the 51 mental factors.

The Dhammasaṅgaṇī appears to have been also called Dhammasaṅgaha[5]. King Vijayabāhu I, of Ceylon (1059-1114 A.C.) translated the Dhammasaṅgaṇī into Sinhalese[6], but this translation had been lost. The Pāli text was published by the P.T.S. in 1885, and it was translated into English by Mrs. Rhys Davids in 1900, under the title ʻ A Buddhist Manual of Psychological Ethics ’. Reverend Buddhaghosa also wrote a commentary on the Dhammasaṅgaṇī, called the Atthasālinī. There is also an English translation of the Atthasālinī (ʻThe Expositor’) by PE Maung Tin (edited by Mrs. Rhys Davids) and was first published in 1920.


Brief Description of the Matrix (Mātikā )

This chapter covers the classification of consciousness and their mental factors in Mātikā which summarises by way of roots, aggregates, sense-doors, planes of existence, causes, effects, and names. I will provide a brief exposition in this chapter on the Triads pertaining to Tika Mātikā, the Dyads pertaining to Duka Mātikā, and the Dyads pertaining to Suttantika-Duka. Further explanation by way of identifying their correlation with the four ultimate realities will be dealt with in Chapter 5.

Composition of the Mātikā and description of its constituents

The Abhidhamma Mātikā (see Appendix I) is the key to the Abhidhamma method of exposition. The Mātikā is marked off into 15 divisions, which consist of 1 division of triads, 13 divisions of Mātikā D yads, and 1 division of Suttantika Dyads. The Abhidhamma Mātikā has grouped the dhamma into triads in 22 ways, and grouped the dhamma into dyads in 100 ways. Each triad consists of three categories and each dyad consists of two categories. In Suttantika Duka Mātikā, the dhamma is grouped into 42 categories[7].

The 22 Triads (Tika Mātikā)

The table of the Triads is headed by the good or moral states (Kusala Tika), and this first triad contains good (moral), bad (Immoral), and non-causal (unmoral) states. For all the other triads and also dyads, the first state or term, from this first illustration which is the ʻgood states’, serve as the reference term common to all the other member states of each triad, and is where they are derived thereof.

I will briefly explain the definitions of the groups of triad and dyad, as are outlined in the table in Appendix I. The word Dhamma or States (法), should be interpreted in the sense of Tipiṭaka texts, virtues, root causes, absence from an entity, and conforming to ultimate realities. Kusala[8], as interpreted in Atthasālinī, means: of good health, blameless, productive of favourable kamma result, skillful. In a loose sense, Kusala can also covers such meanings as moral, wholesome, impeccable, good, right, decently skilful, espousing the good cause for happiness. Thus Kusala Dhamma must include the extermination of any wicked thought, either which has already arisen or the latent malignity. An exhaustive and in-depth definition of what are together that constitutes the Kusala States, will be uncovered later from the topics of Consciousness in Chapter Two and the Mental Factors in Chapter Three. These specific details are then reduced to a single ultimate interpretation of what comprises a Kusala State according to paragraph 985 of the text, namely: the three wholesome roots being greedless, non-hatred, and non-delusion; the aggregates of feeling, perception, and volitional activities together with the aggregate of consciousness that arise with the three wholesome roots; and actions that occur physically, verbally and mentally which coincide with these three wholesome roots[9]. Akusala means to the contrary of Kusala. This same way of antonymous definition applies to the remaining triads and dyads. Henceforth, I will skip the antonyms unless they are distinctive from the foregoing.

In the following triad, Sukha (樂) means happiness or ʻpleasurable feeling’ of object. Vedanā (受) means ʻwhat is felt’. Dukha (苦) means suffering, which signifies distressful or unpleasant feeling, is the root cause of all evils. The words ʻassociated with’ (相應) means conjoined with in a variety of ways, which are of a common origin, basis, objective or purpose. The state which is called Vipāka (異熟), means ʻresultant’, is referring to the distinct effect of both the moral and immoral volitions.

In the Upādiṇṇa triad, upādāniyā (執取) means ʻfavourable to grasping or to the objects of attachment’. The name, Upādinnupādāniyā, denotes the mental states arising from kamma (i.e. kamma -born, kammically acquired, or states which are ʻthe issue of grasping’) being ascribed to āsava or ʻIntoxicants’ of the mind. The triad of Saṅkiliṭṭha (染) refers to the defilements that corrupt a mind. In Vitakka triad, vitakka (尋) denotes states that apply the citta and the mental factors onto the sense-object, is called the ʻapplied thinking’, or sometimes known as ʻthe initial application of mind’). Vicārā (伺) denotes the ʻreflection’ or the continued examining process of the mind on the object, or sometimes called ʻthe sustained application of mind’.

In the Pīti triad, Pīti (喜) denotes the states which are accompanied by zest, which should not be confused with joy (somanassa) or with Sukha which is pleasurable feeling. Upekkha (捨) refers to states of equanimity through disinterestedness of temporal attachments, or of neutrality that adopts impartial views which is a balanced state of mind. The Dassana (見) triad explains the vision or insight, obtained through the first path of sotāpatti-magga (入流) - the first of the four stages of Enlightenment. Sotāpanna literally means ʻone who entered (āpanna) the stream (sota)’, is also called ʻstream-winner’. Bhāvanāya or ʻby cultivation’ (斷), denotes the further mental development or cultivation (bhāvanā) through the remaining 3 higher paths[10]. Bhāvanā, literally means ʻcalling into existence; producing’ is referred to the mental cultivation or the meditation. The 3rd term of the Dassana triad denotes the states, the roots of which are eliminable neither by insight nor by cultivation.

The Ācayagāmi (流轉) triad refers to states that make for the cycle of incessant rebirth and decease, attribute to the corruptions of mind and unwholesome kamma result. The Sekkha (有學) triad denotes trainees or studentship, whereas Asekhā (無學) denotes no further training that’s required as having already completed fruition of Arahantship. The Paritt a triad (小) appertains to states of ʻlimitedness’, confined in scope by nature of being little objects, little power, small effect, etc. Mahaggatā (大), on the contrary, appertains to persons of sublimity and wider scope, having able to remain unrecurringly aloof from sensuous appetites and discard mental corruptions. Appamāṇā (無量) denotes states which are incomparable, immense or immeasurable. In the Hīnā triad, Hīnā (劣) means low or inferior, Paṇītā (勝) means exalted or superior, which in a sense, is applicable to mental transcendence, and Majjhimā (中) means midway between Hīnā and Paṇītā. In the Micchatta triad, Micchatta and Sammatta (邪正) refers to the ʻfalse nature’ and ʻtrue nature’, the wrongfulness and righteousness, in either case of which, is kammically fixed as to its consequences. Its third scenario, Aniyatā (不定), denotes none of the either case, that which do not entail any fixed consequences kammically. The Magga (道) triad describes states which have the Eightfold Path as their object of thought; states which are dependent upon the Eightfold Path but in causal relation; and states that have the Noble Eightfold Path as dominant factor.

Uppannā (生) triad deals with states that have arisen, not arisen, and those that will inevitably arise. The Atītā (過去) triad illustrates ʻpast’ as having passed the nascent split second instant, and passed beyond the primal characteristics; exemplifies ʻfuture’ as ʻas yet happened’; and ʻpresent’ as emergence that is dependent upon the past and the future. In the Ajjhatta triad, Ajjhatta means ʻinternal, inward, from within, or personal’ (内), has an extended fourfold meaning[11], that is―personal in field (rapt at and mentally concentrated), self-reference (e.g. the six sensuous aggregates of individual), personal in range (e.g. in terms of areas, etc., of what had been achieved, or regarding one’s own scope of capability) in the sense of ʻself-dominion’, and ʻjust personal’ (which has the bearing on individual’s idiosyncrasy). Bahiddhā (also, Bāhirā) means ʻexternal’ (外), is referring to states that fall outside ʻpersonal’ irrespective of whether they are bound up with our controlling sense-faculties or not (i.e. in or for others). In the last triad, Sanidassana and Anidassana (有見無見) explain the visible states and the unseen states, both of which, to some extent, are impinging to self. The intermediate triad, anidassana-appaṭighā (無見無對), explains the unseen states which have no bearing upon self.

The 100 Dyads (Duka Mātikā)

There are altogether 10 gocchakas, called collections or clusters of Dukas, with each gocchaka contains a common factor. To articulate this further, the 10 common factors are grouped as: Het ū (Conditions or Causes, ʻ因’), Āsav ā (Intoxicants or Outflows, ʻ漏’), Saññojan ā (Fetters,ʻ結’), Ganth ā (Knots or Bonds, ʻ缚’), Ogh ā (Floods or Raging Currents, ʻ暴流’), Yog ā (Yokes, ʻ轭’), Nīvaraṇ ā (Hindrances, ʻ蓋’), Parāmās ā (Contagions or Attachments, ʻ取着’), Upādān ā (Grasping or Clinging, ʻ執取’), Kiles ā (Corruptions or Defilements, ʻ熏染’). See the Matrix in Appendix I. Among the Mātikā Dyads, there are 3 groups which are not called gocchakas because they are not mutually related to each other, or having states which are without the causal relations. These 3 groups are compiled separately as 6, 14, and 18 mutually unrelated dukas.

Here I shall explain only on those dyads which are not identical to the names that I had already explained in the preceding triads. Foremost in the Hetū Gocchaka of Conditions (因), it describes dhamma as ʻconditions’, either are connected with or appertaining to root causes. ʻUnconditional’ dhamma denotes no root causes as occurred in the same way. There are four permutations with Hetū which are―ʻare conditional states but are not conditions’, ʻneither are conditional states nor are conditions’, ʻboth are conditional states as well as are conditions’, ʻare not conditional states but are conditions’. This same analogy is observed in conjoining the other Hetū dyads (ʻare root-conditions/not root-conditions’) with ʻare associated with /dissociated from root-conditions’. It thus leads to be more classifications as having states which are: ʻthe root-conditions, and are conditional or unconditional’; ʻnot the root-conditions, and are conditional or unconditional’, ʻare conditional or unconditional, and either are associated with root-conditions or are dissociated from root-conditions’. The same method has been used in the subsequent collection of dyads.

In the Āsavā Gocchaka, Āsavā means ʻIntoxicants’, ʻOutflows’ (漏). It also means defilements, taints, or pollutants that befuddle the mind. Why it was termed as ʻIntoxicants’ originally in Reverend Buddhaghosa’s Commentary, was a matter of Indian culture. The Juice of the madira[12] or other fruits in the process of fermentation to produce wines and spirits, become intoxicants after a prolonged duration of time. In comparison, the mental states behave similarly―the mind gradually depraved with corruptive ideation over long duration, with attenuating impact on our moral principles and loss of primal nature of innocence. Intoxicants are the root cause that beget the incessant cycle of rebirths in the context of kamma. ʻCo-intoxicants’ states are those that occur together or at a later time as a result of the main intoxicants. Other divisions in this Āsavā -group should be understood in the same way as explained in the foregoing dyads group.

In the Saññojana Gocchaka, it describes ʻFetters’ (結) as the states which bond the person in perpetual rounds of birth-decease cycle, like the imprisoned convict whom with the crimes committed, shackled him through endless days and nights. Conversely, states which are ʻNot-Fetters’ appertain to those who are aloof from worldly defilements. States which are ʻfavourable to Fetters’ means states that whet, foster, and help in the furtherance of Fetters. Other remaining divisions should be understood in the same way as explained in the Hetū -group.

In Gantha Gocchaka, Gantha is defined as ʻKnots’, or more explicitly, ʻBonds’ (缚), which tie the person to all forms of corporeality, and existences, whether in the present times or towards the future. Hence, the ʻBonds’, in a strict sense, restrict the beings to recurrent rounds of endless birth and decease. Gantha bear close correspondence in definition with Saññojana (Fetters). ʻNon-Knots’ means, to the contrary, states of a person having abandoned all the bonds with the temporal attachments. States which are ʻfavourable to Knots’ refers to the states which are liable to become enmeshed in Knots, or to become bondage to the worldly attachments.

The Ogha Gocchaka describes Ogha as ʻFloods’ or ʻRaging Currents’ (暴流), like the massive ʻTsunami’ which is capable of devastating tens of thousands of homes and human lives, which spells similarly the beings, by the continuing immoralities of which, can become eventually ʻdrowned’ of all what they comfortably have—happy family, fortune, healthiness, etc. The Yogā Gocchaka describes states which are ʻYokes’ (轭), like the oxen which are yoked to the cart, metaphorically referring to beings who are ʻyoked’ to the immoralities and bound by the cycle of birth and death. The Nīvaraṇa Gocchaka describes states which are ʻHindrances’ (蓋) which hamper the arising of wholesome thoughts, virtuous deeds, jhānas, and the sublime paths-consciousness. The Parāmāsa Gocchaka describes states which are ʻContagions’[13] or ʻAttachments’[14] (取着). These four groups have interpretive affinity to the preceding groups of Intoxicant, Fetter and Knot, and therefore their divisions of dyad should also be understood in the same manner as have been explained in the foregoing.

Here is the explanation to the intermediate 14 Dyads which are not mutually co-relative. States termed as ʻobjective’ (有所緣) because they attend to objects and certainly won’t come into place without objects. States termed as ʻsubjective’ (無所緣) because they have no objects to be attended to. The term cittā dhamma being the ʻstates of consciousness’ (心法), cittā is equivalent of such mental phenomena as ʻMind’. States termed as ʻMental Concomitants’ or collectively as Cetasikā (心所法) because they are the accompanying factors which are inseparable from the mind. States termed as ʻConjoined with Consciousness’ (心相雜法) because they are completely coalesced with the person’s thought process from nascent to cessation stage. States termed as ʻoriginated by consciousness’ (心等起法) because they sprung from thought. States termed as ʻconnate with consciousness’ (心俱在法) because they naturally come into being together with the person’s thought. States termed as ʻMental Successors’ because they always follow consciousness, and are consecutive to thought. The subsequent combined states which are ʻconnate with and originated by consciousness’ (心相雜等起法), and ʻconjoined with, originated by and connate with consciousness’ (心相雜等起俱在法), should be understood in a similar light. States termed as ʻInternal’ (or Personal) (內法) and ʻExternal’ (外法) have already been explained in the triad. States termed as ʻDerived’ (所造法) because they are the constituents that lend the origins from the Four Great Essentials (mahābhūta)[15].

The Upādāna Gocchaka describes states which are ʻGrasping’ (執取) because of the great intensity of the person’s clinging to the world objects. The Kilesa Gocchaka describes states which are ʻCorruptions or Defilements’ (熏染) because those are the impairment of virtues and the contaminants of mind.

In the final compilation of the 18 unrelated Dyads, of which―the Dassana (insight), Bhāvanā (mental cultivation or meditation), Vitakka (the initial application of mind), Vicārā (reflection or the sustained application of mind) , Pīti (zest), Sukha (happiness) and Upekkha (equanimity through disinterestedness) dyads―have already been explained in the foregoing triad groups. The Kāmāvacarā (欲界缠) dyad refers to states that have the attributes of the sensual sphere―objects, sight, feeling, perception, thinking, reflection, etc. - are all states appertaining to the sense-sphere. In the Rūpāvacarā (色界缠) dyad, although scripturally rūpāvacara refers to the Brahma world up to the Akaniṭṭha heaven, nonetheless in the Abhidhamma context, it denotes states that have the attributes of the corporeality realms, or in another words, of those corporeal matters of the attenuating and delicate nature of the mind. The Arūpāvacarā (無色界缠) dyad, asides from the sphere of infinite space above the mythic Akaniṭṭha heaven, it more expressively refers to states that have attributes of the formless realms, having neither existence nor non-existence of perception in a Jhāna state―a much finer and more subtle nature of the mind. In Pariyāpannā (繫) dyad, states termed as ʻworldly bonds’ because they remain bound by the above-mentioned threefold planes of existence. The Niyyānikā (出離) dyad describes states termed as ʻleading-out’ of the cycle of incessant rebirths, equivalent of the spiritual liberation of Nibbāna[16]. The Niyatā (定法) dyad describes states which are fixed as to its rightful consequences instantaneously after the person’s death. Sa-Uttarā (有上) dyad describes states termed as ʻsurpassable’ because they can still be outstripped by others. The opposite is the ʻunsurpassable’ (無上) that is, by all means, incomparable. The Sa-Raṇā (諍;ʻ貪瞋癡’) dyad describes states termed as ʻconflictive’ because they are mental concomitants arising out of the three basic evil afflictions―greed, hatred, and delusion, due to infatuation[17] ― and the mental corruptions that are associated with the Four Kandhas[18].

The 42 Suttantika Dyads (Suttantika Duka Mātikā)

This section shall provide concise explanation of the 42 Suttantika Dyads. The Vijjābhāgi (明分) dyad describes states that ʻpartake of wisdom’ by way of association with it because they arise as parts or divisions of wisdom[19]. States termed as ʻbelonging to ignorance’ (無明分) because they arise as parts or divisions of ignorance. Ignorance herein arisen by virtue of self-deceiving intellects. For instance, although smart and intelligent, but one who unwittingly holding to keep themselves out of the facts of life, to realise its origin and this life hereafter, and the unmistakable path exhorted by the Enlightened One which would lead to cessation of all sufferings. The Vijjūpamā (電光喻) dyad metaphorically describes states of ʻlightning-alike’, much the same like the lightning flashes that are capable of the riddance of the darkness of evil minds. When states are termed figuratively as ʻthunderbolt-parallel’ is because those states resembles thunderbolt that can transform utter darkness into broad daylight, albeit may be only momentarily. The Bālā dyad describes states which are ʻfoolish’ (愚) because they are the acts, words and thoughts of imprudence, unconscientiousness and folly. Conversely, states which are ʻwise and discreet’ (賢) are owing to having attributes of wisdom and the person being scrupulous about such implication as to conduct and behaviour, impact and aftermath.

In the Kaṇhā-Sukkā (黑白) dyad, states which are ʻdark’ indicate an absence of the mental brilliancy, lack of the qualities of talent, cleverness, righteousness, conscientiousness, and other ethical values. Generally, all bad dhammas are considered as ʻdark’. States termed as ʻwhite’ because they are the properties and palpable signs of the brightness of one’s mind, and generally all good dhammas are regarded as ʻwhite’. The states of Kaṇhā-Sukkā is used strictly in the context of ethical significance. The Tapanīyā (苦行) dyad refers to states which are self- mortifying and conducive to remorse. The Adhivacanā (命名) dyad refers to states which are the nomenclatures, which essentially refer to the process of enumerating, interpreting, expressing, denoting, or the connotation of things or states, by designating them the specific names, special terms, or differentiable marks of exposition. It is not uncommon that certain words, inherent in a particular culture, religion or group would carry very different connotations for another. The Nirutti (詞法) dyad describes the ʻinterpretative’ states. In the Pāli dictionary by PTS, Nirutti carries the meanings as ʻexplanation of words’, ʻetymological interpretation’, ʻgrammatical analysis’, or ʻway of expressing’. States of Niruttipatha (詞道) denotes the bases or meanings of the word derivation. In the Paññatti (施設) dyad, Paññatti derived from pañña (wisdom), literally means ʻmaking known, manifestation, description, designation, name, idea, notion, or concept’, It describes states which are the customary or conventional designations, in which case it is common to having one word or the same idea to be enunciated in a variety of different ways. For example, the expression of takka (think), vitakka (initial application of mind), saṅkappa (intent), all are derived from the same base but are designated to express different meanings.

In the Nāma-Rūpa dyad, Nāma (名) means states which are ʻnames or terms’, are referring to our ʻmind’. Rūpa or ʻmatter’ (色), are referring to ʻappearances, the visibles’, being the objects of sight and their subsequent changes in form and conditions on which our varying perceptions are based. In the Avijjā - Bhavata dyad, states are termed as ʻignorance’ (無明) because the people are nescient of the ultimate facts of life, uninformed of the noble path leading to deliverance free from all miseries, but only befooled by their own self-conceived intellects. Following that, states are termed as ʻcraving for existences’ (渴愛) because they belong to the intense appetites for renewed desires and enjoyments - an insatiable thirst for their regenerated existences.

The Bhavadiṭṭhi dyad introduces the ʻtheories of becoming-of’ (有見) which signifies the belief of the continuance of existence, or soul (j ī va), as in the case of the views of the dissident schools. The opposite is the ʻdisbelief in continuance’ (無見). The Sassatadiṭṭhi dyad refers to the notion of ʻeternalism’ (常見), that this soul, this world, is eternal and imperishable. But, as we all know, that this earth and even the entire universe, will one day in the coming times approaching to an end and a whole new cycle begins thenceforth. The opposite extremism is the ʻtheories of annihilation’ (斷見), believing that life as well as other existing phenomena will one day cease, becoming extinct and be dissolved altogether. This supposition had dismissed the theory of birth and kamma, dhamma of the ʻDependent Origination’[20], and ruled out the perpetual harmonised interdependency of all things. In Antavādiṭṭhi dyad, the states about the beliefs that the power of God is limitless, that the universe is endless, that this soul is ceaseless, are some of the examples of the ʻInfinite Theory’ (無邊見). The opposite is the ʻFinite Theory’ (邊見) that all states contain their own limits and ultimate ends. In the Pubbantānudiṭṭhi dyad, it mentions the ʻtheories of origins’ (前際見) and the ʻtheories of hereafter’ (後際見), which are states of what are known out of the past occurring and states of what are presupposed and speculated of the future.

The Hirī-Ottappa dyad describes Hirī (慚) as states which are ʻshame’, and describes Ottappa (愧) as states which are ʻconscience or dreadful of moral remorse’. Ahirika referes to states which are unashamed of doing the disgraceful things, and are not in the least wary of being blamed, is termed as ʻunshameful’ (無慚). Anottappa refers to states whereby a person who do not carry out deed conscionably as what one ought to do, and feeling no sense of guilt, or do not carry through with the anticipated carefulness and responsibility, is termed as ʻunconscientious’ (無愧). In the Dovacassatā dyad, it mentions states which are the ʻgratification of contumacy’ (頑拒), characteristic of an ill-natured person who shows disposition of obstinate disobedience and who favours surly speeches and conducts. Pāpamittatā refers to the ʻwicked companionship’ (惡友) such as instances of friends who frequently introduced or influenced the person with those immoral or inappropriate ideas and things, and those friends who are the unbelievers of the Buddha and his teachings. In Sovacassatā dyad, Sovacassatā (温和文雅) means the states of ʻsuaveness’, or the qualities which include such gracious acts of mannerism, gentleness, elegant appearance and speech; including being acquiescent to admonitions and rightful reprimands. Kalyāṇamittatā (善友) refers to ʻgood companionship’, being a group good-minded people with whom this person chooses to always associate with, including such people who are the believers and earnest practitioners of the Buddha’s teachings; those who are unswerving believers of the kamma of their own consequences of deeds and thoughts; those who maintain a constant level of consciousness through insight and critical discernment of their every moves and thoughts; those who demonstrate in themselves a strong sense of virtues, ethics and morality; and those who renunciate all temporal temptations and never for once cease to accumulate the inner wisdom and spiritual accomplishment. The Āpattikusalatā (入罪善巧) dyad describes states relating to the proficiency in dealing with the monastic members who are contravening the disciplinary rules according to Vinaya. The Āpattivuṭṭhānakusalatā (出罪善巧) dyad refers to the proficient skills regarding the conditions and the re-qualification procedures of restoring the monastic sa ṇ gh ā members from breach of the rules that they had committed. The Samāpattikusalatā (入定善巧) dyad refers to states corresponding to the proficiency in sustaining concentration and inner states of absorptions called jhānā. There are five jhānā factors which are to be eradicated one at a time from the 1st to the 5th absorption. The Samāpattivuṭṭhānakusalatā (出定善巧) dyad refers to states of adeptness and easefulness of the person in recovering or emerging from those kinds of sustained absorption called jhānas.

The next three groups of (i) Dhātukusalata dyad, (ii) Āyatanakusalata dyad, and (iii) Ṭhānakusalata dyad, deal with the 18 Elements101 and the 12 sensual spheres. Respectively, the three describe: (i) states which are the ʻproficiency in the knowledge of the eighteen elements’ (界善巧), and states which are the ʻproficiency as to the contemplation and skilful application of the eighteen elements’ (作意善巧); (ii) states which are the ʻproficiency in the field of the 12 sensual spheres’ (處善巧), and states which are the ʻproficiency in the twelve-fold causal genesis’ 20 (緣起善巧); (iii) states which are the ʻproficiency in affirming the causes of events or occasions’ in a given conjuncture (導因善巧); states which are ʻproficiency in discerning the non-causes of events or occasions’ in a given conjuncture, (非導因善巧). These three pairs will be dealt with in greater detail in Chapter 5 as they involve the constellations of the 89 Cittas, 52 Cetasikas, Corporeality, and the unconditioned Element (Nibbāna) which will be covered in the next three Chapters.

In Ajjava dyad, Ajjava (質直) refers to states termed as ʻUprightness’, which denotes the person’s personality as one without deflexion, deceitfulness, depravity, and all the attributes of corruptness, or rather such characters that are honest, ethical, moral, conscientious and responsible. Maddavo (柔和) refers to states which are ʻMeekness’, the qualities appertaining to gentleness, mildness, but whom are tolerant and submissive in nature. In Khanti dyad, Khanti (堪忍) refers to states which are ʻforbearance’, which means one is having the qualities of constantly exerting self-restraint and patience, and also having the ability to endure sufferings. Soracca (可樂), derived from sorata (su + rata), literally means ʻgentle, kind, humble, self-restrained’ according to PTS. Its meaning is also close to ʻwell-loving, delightful, rejoicing, pleasing, that which gladdens’ in the virtuous context. It refers to states which are ʻdelightfulness’. In Sākhalya dyad, Sākhalya (和順) refers to states which are the ʻamiability’, is referring to the speech and conduct that are not impolite, abusive, disrespectful, disagreeably harsh, irritating, grating, but which are urbane, gladden and pleasant. Paṭisanthā (承迎) describes states termed as ʻcourtesy’ which also exhibit such well-liked qualities of hospitality, considerateness, friendliness, kindness, generousness. Indriyesu Aguttadvāra (不護根門) dyad literally means states termed as ʻunguarded as to the doors of sense-faculties’, which essentially means a person not exercising restraint from pleasurable desires over the six sense organs. To illustrative an example here, when one becoming increasingly covetous of an object, feeling dejected or overwhelmed at hearing a bad news, relishing perfume fragrance, feast on the palatable tastes, wallow in tactile tangibles, one is thereby so enchanted without complete control over his sense-faculties, is what is termed as ʻdoors of faculties unguarded or untended’. Bhojane Amattaññutā (食不知量) refers to states which are the ʻimmoderation in one’s diet’, one who does not exercise the measure of accepting or the partaking of food, is also called ʻintemperance as to food’.

In the Sati-Sampajañña dyad, Sati (正念) means states which are ʻfull mindfulness’, which essentially, according to the Four Foundations of Mindfulness[21] in the suttas, can be explained as keeping the constant awareness, a clear and complete understanding of impermanence as to: the body that is only the mortal flesh and impure; the sensation and feeling that are invariably accompanied by disappointment and suffering in the end; the mind that is forever capricious and freely subject to the whimsicality of thoughts; the dhamma which is only a function of the changing conditions and causes for which it thus do not exist definitely and absolutely. Hence through the diligent and consistant cultivation of these four applications of mindfulness, the person will eventually eradicate all greed that are the wrong views, craving and clingings; remove hatred and aversion; remove all doubt and restlessness—which are purely subjects of the Mind and Corporeality. Sampajañña (正知) means states which are the ʻthorough comprehension through wisdom’. It must be made clear that the word paññā (wisdom) has no best-fit equivalent of the European lexicon, for the word paññā throughout the many scriptures had been said by the Buddha in different places and times, to best correspond with the varying circumstances and needs of the audience, but nevertheless, with a common aim of delivering comprehension, relief and deliverance. In general, Wisdom or paññā, is an intellectual process of accumulated knowledge, erudition, and the ability to apply such knowledge and experience with an unmistakable insight and easefulness. Sampajañña, in connection with having the ʻfull mindfulness’, can be explained as: the person’s constant full awareness, clear and thorough understanding of the meaning of impermanence, through his every single motions and reactions, in all the daily activities, whether be it bodily actions, spoken words, or thoughts, that are made in response to every sense-objects that are impinging on the six sense-bases, consistently observing from moment to moment, that how each feeling arises, wandering, passes away or re-arises, and thus comprehend them fully, scrutinizing with reference to a set of principle dhamma of realities and truths, so that nothing is left unascertained and unknown. Another condensed yet rather concise definition of sampajañña in the Dhammasaṅgaṇī commentary is: one who understands impermanence in a right way (including all sufferings and egolessness), has wisdom[22] (sampajano is the adjective of sampajañña). Further explanation of the Sati-Sampajañña pair can be referred to in Chapter 5. The opposite of the two states are ʻunmindfulness’ (失念) and ʻnon-comprehension that is devoid of wisdom’ (非正知).

The Paṭisaṅkhānabala (思擇力) dyad refer to states which are the ʻpower of reflection’, which mean the ability with the sustained contemplation in the thought process. Bhāvanābala (修習力) refers to states which are the ʻpower of mental cultivation’, which means the pursuing and further development, proliferation of the good states, and attainment of the higher intellect. In the Samatha-Vipassanā dyad, Samatha (止) refer to states which are the ʻtranquility or calmness’, which carries such meanings as solid calmness; unwavering concentration of mind with the right focus; unperturbed mental procedure; or the power of composedness of the sense-bases. Vipassanā (觀) at this outset can be briefly explained as states which are the intuitive insights involving a clear awareness and comprehensive understanding of all the bodily and mental phenomena as well as all that is the material phenomena, in regard to the three characteristics of existence (無常,苦空, 無我), namely, impermanence (anicca), suffering (dukkha) and non-substantiality or ʻno-self’ (anatta). Samatha-Vipassanā will be elaborated more in Chapter Five. Samathanimitta (止相) refers to states which are termed ʻthe sign of tranquility’, indicating as the overall mark of composuredness and calmness of the body and mind. Paggāhanimitta (策勵) refers to states which are termed ʻthe sign of exertion’, indicating as the mark of energy, endeavour, or effort. Avikkhepa (不散亂) refers to states which are unperturbed, not being distracted, composed, and balanced.

Here I will explain on the Sīla and the Diṭṭhi Visuddhi dyads. Sīlavipatti (缺戒) refers to states which are termed ʻmorals depravity’ indicate a non-restraint or failure in the practice of the moral values, and failure to perform the vinaya precepts in the case of monastics members, which in either circumstances, leads to vitiating personality and disgrace. Diṭṭhivipatti (缺見) refers to states which are termed ʻdepravity in views’, which means views of speculation that are unsubstantiated, erroneous, and theories of fallacy which are not in conformance with the orthodoxy of Buddhist canonical texts. Sīlasampadā (具戒) refers to states which are associated with the ʻperfection of morality’ because of the high standard of the person who performs good deeds, and perfect morality and virtues. Diṭṭhisampadā (具見) or states termed ʻperfection of views’ because of the accumulated knowledge, learned experiences and erudition, of what is called wisdom which gives the wise visions. Sīlavisuddhi (淨戒) or states termed ʻpurity of morals’ because the practice of the morality and virtues have now come to an extraordinary stage of purity. Diṭṭhivisuddhi (淨見) or states termed ʻpurity of views’ because of the right visions and clearer insights which have allowed the person to attain a higher levels of purity leading to blissful deliverance.

In the Saṁvego dyad, states termed as ʻagitation’ because of the existing anxiety over such causes for worry (於煩厭處厭). State which, in this connection, is termed as the ʻendeavour appropriate to that agitation’ relates to making the appropriate attempts and efforts in response to the anxiety that arose out of those genuine causes for the worry (煩厭者之如理勤勵). In Asantuṭṭhitā dyad, states termed as ʻinsatiability over cultivation of good states’ (於善法不喜足) because of the insatiable appetite for the good or wholesome dhamma. States termed as ʻrelentless in effort’ (於勤勵不被遮止), being on account of the person’s unflagging effort and persevere in the path of attaining enlightenment. The Vijjā-Vimutti dyads describe states of ʻknowledge’ (Vijjā; ʻ明智’) which herein refer to the ʻhigher knowledge’ or the ultimate wisdom which are of three types; and states which are ʻliberationn’ (Vimutti; ʻ解脫’) which mean being destitute of all attachments and mental defilements, and thus it is ʻemancipated’ and achieve deliverance. In the dyad of Khayeñāṇa and Anuppādeñāṇa, Khayeñāṇa describes states which are the knowledge of the noble path which makes the ʻcessation’ of all defilements (Khayeñāṇa; ʻ盡智’); and Anuppādeñāṇa describes states which are the ultimate knowledge which can cause ʻentire extermination’ of all defilements (Anuppādeñāṇa; ʻ無生智’) by virtue of wisdom of the fruition path of the Arhantship. Here ends the brief explanation of all the triads and dyads of the Mātikā.



The 89 States of Consciousness At a Glance

Base on the categories of the triad and dyad in the Abhidhamma Mātikā by way of the three ethical methods (wholesome, unwholesome, and indeterminate), the Dhammasaṅgaṇi organises the classifications of consciousness by sub-dividing into the four spheres of existence. In the analysis by type, the constituents of consciousness are made up of 21 wholesome states, 12 unwholesome states, 36 indeterminate resultants, and 20 indeterminate functionals thereof, altogether constitute the 89 cittas. For simplification, Table 2.1 below numerically summarises the 89 classes of consciousness[23]. To facilitate easier reference, I further summarised them by type in Table 2.2. The detailed constituents of all the classes can be referred to the table in Appendix II.

Table 2.1: Summary of the 89 States of Consciousness

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Table 2.2: The 89 states of consciousness summarised by Planes and Types.

illustration not visible in this excerpt[24]

An important fundamental of consciousness as we shall explore in this subject content is that, consciousness cannot arise by itself alone, but is accompanied together by the different mental factors, as well as by material phenomena through the cognition of objects. In another words, the dynamic nature of consciousness is really a series of momentary mental acts of very short-lived consciousness, rapidly and constantly changing, are collaboratively the interconnected acts of cognizance. Because the discrete mental occurrences of the varied types are happening in such a rapid succession, ordinary people simply will not be able to understand such subtlety of mind without having some knowledge of the Abhidhamma analysis of consciousness and mental factors.

As delineated in Table 2.1, there are four planes of consciousness ‒ the sense-sphere, the fine-material sphere, the immaterial sphere, and the transcendental sphere. The first three are mundane. The fourth plane is the supra-mundane consciousness ascribed to its unconditioned element, Nibbāna. The four planes of existence are realms or worlds where all beings are reborn into. Consciousness of a particular sphere is not confined exclusively to that particular plane, but they may also arise in other planes of existence. However, in the case of kammically-active unwholesome consciousness which accumulates kamma, and also whenever a rebirth opportunity is possible, the being will tend to gain a new life in the same plane of existence. What this tells us is that the consciousness of an ordinary people of a particular sphere, ʻfrequent’ or tend to move about in their corresponding planes of existence rather than in other planes. The 25 types of the wholesome and unwholesome consciousness (kāmāvacara 12 unwholesomes, kāmāvacara 8 wholesomes, and rūpāvacara 5 wholesomes) are kamma -bound at every moment in one’s lifetime.

In the Sensuous Sphere consciousness (kāmāvacaracitta), it carries the characteristics of the craving for sensual pleasures (known as the subjective sensuality), and the five external sensuous objects, namely sights, sounds, odours, tastes, and tangibles (known as the objective sensuousness)[25]. All beings, spirits, and six sensuous heavens, exist in this sphere. The Fine-Material Sphere consciousness (r ū pāvacaracitta) relates to the plane of existence pertaining to the composed states of meditative tranquility called the r ū pajjhāna, which essentially is an attainment in meditative practice (by concentrating initially on a form object (r ū pa) as the meditation developed). Hence the word rūpajjhāna is derived. The Immaterial Sphere consciousness (ar ū pāvacaracitta) refers to the meditative states in which one has dispensed with focusing concentration on material form but instead one adopts the incorporeal states as meditative focus. Hence it derived the word, ar ū pajjhānas ‒ immaterial absorptions. The Supra-Mundane Sphere of consciousness (lokuttara citta) transcends the three mundane spheres (which contain all the conditioned physical and mental phenomena) by virtue of its unconditioned and ultimate element, nibbāna.

The 15 r ū pāvacara cittas and the 12 ar ū pāvacara cittas are sometimes collectively known as the 27 Mahaggata Cittas[26] . The 54 kāmāvacara cittas and the 27 mahaggata cittas are also collectively known as 81 Lokiya Cittas[27]. Lokiya means mundane, relating to consciousness which are associated with the three mundane spheres. These 81 Lokiya Cittas together with the 8 lokuttara cittas make up the 89 cittas.

With respect to its nature (jāti), consciousness is classified into four kinds―good (wholesome), bad (unwholesome), resultant, and functional. Let’s understand the relationship between them. Good states of consciousness (kusalacitta) are consciousness which are accompanied by the wholesome passions ‒ that forsakes three roots source of all wickedness (greed, hatred, and delusion) but embracing generosity, compassion, loving-kindness, and wisdom. Herein the word Kusala means ʻof good health’ (ā rogya), ʻfaultless’ (anavajja), ʻproductive of happy results’ (sukha vipāka). Bad states of consciousness (akusalacitta) are consciousness attribute to one or another of the three unwholesome roots which are greed, hatred, and delusion. The third category of consciousness is regarded as ‘indeterminate’ (abyākata; ʻ無記’) because it is neither wholesome and unwholesome dhamma but comprises the matured results or kamma of the wholesome and unwholesome dhamma from the four spheres of existence, and which essentially are the aggregates of feeling, perception, volition activities, and consciousness[28]. Hence it derived its name as ʻresultants’ (vipāka; ʻ異熟’). Kamma, herein being purely a volitional activity, transformed into the varied consciousness which are specific to this category, or, essentially are consciousness experiencing the ripening of kamma. The fourth category of consciousness is also termed ʻindeterminate’ or abyākata, because it comprises consciousness that is neither kamma itself nor is a kamma -resultant, neither it is wholesome nor unwholesome—thus is a non-causative action-thought. The mental activity here is kammically indeterminate because the action-thought is casually ineffective of kamma, and is being called ʻfunctional’ (kiriyā; ʻ唯作’)[29]. Literally, kiriyā means action. All Corporeality are all indeterminate states, as well as Nibbāna but in the unconditioned sense.

Looking by way of the planes of existence from Table 2.1, firstly in the sensuous sphere of individuals, there are 8 classes of good state, 12 classes of bad or unwholesome state, 23 indeterminate states on the resultants, and 11 indeterminably inoperative states on the functionals. Next, in the fine-material sphere, there are 5 good states, 5 indeterminate resultants thereof, and 5 corresponding functionals. Next follows by the immaterial sphere, in which there are 4 good states, 4 indeterminate resultants thereof, and 4 corresponding functionals. These three spheres are being categorised as mundane in which the rebirth of all beings occurred as a consequence of their own kammic results. Lastly in the transcendental or supra-mundane sphere, there are 4 good states, and 4 indeterminate resultants thereof. Altogether, they make up the typical 89 classes of our consciousness.

Looking vertically from Table 2.1 (i.e. by type), spanning the four spheres, there are altogether 21 wholesome states, 12 unwholesome states, 36 indeterminate resultants thereof, and 20 corresponding indeterminate functionals. Altogether they make up the 89 cittas. I shall explain each of the four planes of existence in the following sections.

The Sensuous-Sphere States of Consciousness


Table 2.3.1: The 54 states of consciousness along the sense-sphere plane of existence

illustration not visible in this excerpt

In the sensuous-sphere plane of existence, there are twenty of ʻWholesomes’ and ʻUnwholesomes’, twenty-three ʻResultants’, eleven ʻFunctionals’—54 consciousness in total.

Table 2.3.1 shows the eight classes of wholesome consciousness as ʻbeautiful, with root-condition’. The eight classes are dichotomised base on three principles. The first is the concomitant feeling in the four cases of joyful feeling (somanassa), and the four cases of equanimity (upekkh ā), often accompanied by disinterestedness, or state of neutrality in the sense of impartiality and not taking preference. The second principle is based on the presence or absence of knowledge; the third is whether the consciousness is unprompted or prompted. By ʻassociated with knowledge’ (ñ āṇ asampayutta), it means to comprehend things as they are in a non-delusive manner as one who has already acquainted with the mental factors of wisdom. Herein, ñ āṇ a is synonymous with wisdom, or the knowledge about all the right and wrong causes, implications, and conclusions. By ʻdissociated from knowledge’ (ñ āṇ avippayutta), it means having consciousness destitute of such comprehension of the wisdom, but it does not necessarily means also having ignorance (avijj ā) or delusion (moha). ʻUnprompted’ refers to acts of consciousness, arising not because one has performed such deed in the past or for whatsoever reasons, but rather because one acts out of the spur of the moment without any enticing factors. ʻPrompted’ refers to acts of consciousness which is not performed out of spontaneity but rather is acting under the influence of inducement either from within or externally. These eight classes of consciousness are ʻwith-roots’ (有因) or sahetuka (hetu q.v.) because they have the root-conditioned concomitants[30]. Root or Hetu (因) can be explained as a ʻstabilising factor’ in a particular consciousness. Cittas that have roots are comparatively stronger that those non-root consciousness. When a consciousness is termed as ahetuka or ʻrootless’, that means the consciousness is devoid of the concomitant causal conditions. In another words, non-root consciousness (無因) do not contain the three unwholesome roots nor do they contain the concomitant good roots (non-greed, non-hatred, and non-delusion), but they can either be wholesome or indeterminate (see Table 2.2). Consciousness which are rootless are unstable, weak and passive. These eight classes of consciousness are also termed as beautiful (sobhana) because they are connected with the wholesome roots and yield acts of good and right qualities. Beautiful consciousness excludes the 12 classes of unwholesome consciousness, as well as those non-root’s 18 classes (see Table 2.2 and Appendix II). With the above explanations, the 8 classes of consciousness thus can be comprehended easily.

There are 12 unwholesome consciousness in sense-sphere, which are divided into greed-, hatred-, and delusion-based. The Dhammasaṅgaṇi text gives a very extensive definition and explanation of what constitutes the three root causes of unwholesomeness—greed[31], hatred[32], and delusion[33] (or bewilderment). I summarise the essence of the meanings in the footnotes. In Abhidhamma, greed (lobha) and hatred (dosa) are mutually exclusive, that is, the two cittas can not coexist. However, anger and hatred commonly arise as a result of greed when the objectives are not met with. Delusion (moha) can exist in every states of these unwholesome consciousness, and delusion can also arise without the accompaniment of greed and hatred, as well as delusion becoming a precursor leading to the happenings of greed and hatred. In this category, there are eight consciousness rooted in greed which are dichotomised base on three principles. The first principle is the concomitant feeling whether it is of joy or equanimity; the second is based on the presence or absence of fallacy or heretical views; the third is of whether it is unprompted or prompted. The permutations are the same as in the aforesaid eight classes of wholesome consciousness, except that here the consciousness are associated with fallacy instead of with knowledge. D i ṭṭ hi means ʻview’ and is herein understood to refer as wrong view or fallacy. Prompted or unprompted act is according to whether it arises out of original spontaneity or inducement. There are two hatred-rooted consciousness which are dichotomised base on three principles, namely displeasure, associated with aversion, and whether it is unprompted or prompted. ʻUnpleasant’ feeling (domanassa) refers to unpleasant mental feeling that follows hatred. Why the word ʻaversion’ (pa ṭ igha) has being used instead of ʻhatred’, is because aversion includes all kinds of hatred from frenzied outrage down to annoyance, to even the slightest of the inconspicuous irritations. The last is the class of consciousness that is delusion-rooted, and is dichotomised base on two principles ‒ accompanied by equanimity, and whether it is associated with doubt or restlessness. Equanimity (upekkh ā), being disinterestedness from temporal attachments, has the attributes of neutrality, impartiality, and a balanced state of mind. Doubts (vicikicch ā) is a form of hindrance, refers to the perplexity in the thinking. Doubts deny a person of unerring answers or truth, and which leads to varying degree of skepticism and indecision. Uddhacca means ʻrestlessness’ or as explained in Atthāsalini: ʻdisquietude, mental distraction or confusion’. The factor of restlessness can exist independently, or coexists with the rest of the unwholesome consciousness but in such cases not as the predominant factor.

Table 2.3.2: The 54 states of consciousness along the sense-sphere plane of existence (Continued).

illustration not visible in this excerpt


[1] U Kyaw Khine referred to it as ʻultimate realities’ in his book ʻThe Dhammasaṅganī: Enumeration of the Ultimate Realities’. In Abhidhamma philosophy, ultimate realities are fourfold, viz. consciousness, mental factors, matter, and nibbāna.

[2] Above paragraph provides a glimpse of the 7 books. Details of them can be read from: Nyanatiloka Mahathera. Guide Through The Abhidhamma Pitaka: A Synopsis of the Philosophical Collection of the Theravada Buddhist Canon. (Sri Lanka: BPS, 1938).

[3] Cf. Frauwallner, Sophie Francis Kidd, eds. Studies in Abhidharma Literature and the Origins of Buddhist Philosophical Systems. (NY: University of New York Press, 1995) p.1–116.

[4] Cf. Robert Kritzer. Sautrantika in the Abhidharmakośabhaṣya. JIABU, Volume 26 (2003): No. 2

[5] Cf. Buddhaghosa Thera. Sumaṅgalavilāsini, the commentary to Dīgha Nikāya (DA.i.17).

[6] Cf. Wilhelm Geiger, Cūlavamsa, ed., (London: PTS) 2 Vols. lx.17.

[7] Suttantika Duka Mātikā was added by the Venerable Sāriputta to facilitate the study of Suttanta Piṭaka, according to the Commentary, ʻ Aṭṭhasālīni ’.

[8] Kusala is better not to be directly interpreted as ʻmeritorious’ because in Pāli term, ʻmeritorious’ carries the word ʻ pu ññ a ’ for which it sometimes has been used quite loosey in kammically wholesome action and thought. ʻMerit’ is more of a consequence of the acts of being kusala. The opposite, Apu ññ a, means ʻdemeritorious’.

[9] DhS par. 985. … Tīṇi kusalamūlānialobho, adoso, amoho; taṃsampayutto vedanākkhandho, saññākkhandho, saṅkhārakkhandho, viññāṇakkhandho; taṃsamuṭṭhānaṃ kāyakammaṃ, vacīkammaṃ, manokammaṃ.

[10] The 4 stages of realizing Nibbāna, namely, the first path of stream-entry (sotāpatti-magga); the remaining 3 paths of once-returning (sakadāgāmi-magga), non-returning (anāgāmi-magga), arahantship (arahatta-magga).

[11] Cf. Pe Maung Tin, Rhys Davids, eds., The Expositor (Atthasālin ī ) - Buddhaghosa’s Commentary on the Dhammasangani. (Oxford: P.T.S., 1976) p.60.

[12] Madira fruits from Mahua tree (Bassia latifolia or Madhuca latifolia), a native tree in India, the flowers and dry fruit husks are used in preparation of distilled liquors, alcohol and spirits. <>.

[13] Parāmāsa, as in the PTS publication and its Pali dictionary, was interpreted as ʻcontagion’.

[14] Nyanaponika Thera. The Buddhist Dictionary: Manual of Buddhist Terms & Doctrines. It interprets Parāmāsa as ʻadherence, attachment, or misapprehension’.

[15] Mahābhūta, the Four Great Essentials (or Four Great Elements)―the four primary material elements as earth, water, fire, and air.

[16] Nibbāna: the ultimate and absolute deliverance from all future rebirth, old age, disease and death, cessation of all sufferings and miseries. Cf. Nyanaponika Thera. Buddhist Dictionary: Manual of Buddhist Terms & Doctrines (Kandy: BPS, 1980) p.201.

[17] The exercise of greed and lust denotes ʻpassion’, whereas the sense of that strong passion, either with or without anger and delusion, denotes as ʻinfatuation’. Cf. DhS par. 1301, 1615.

[18] The Four Kandhas: Sensual feeling (vedanā), Recognition or Conception (saññā), Volition, the mental formations (saṅkhāra), Consciousness (viññāṇa).

[19] The 8 kinds of Vijja (wisdom), namely: knowledge born of insight (vipassanāñāṇa), power (iddhi ñāṇa) of the mind-body, and the six forms of supernormal knowledge (abhiñña) – consist of the five mundane powers through the utmost perfection in mental concentration (samādhi) , and one supermundane power attainable through penetrating insight (vipassanā). Cf. Pe Maung Tin, Rhys Davids, eds., The Expositor (Atthasālin ī) (London: PTS, 1976) p.68, 23.

[20] SN 12. Nidāna Saṃyutta, the text described the Paṭiccasamuppāda as having 12 components (commonly called the Twelve Nidānas; the Law of Dependent Origination; Dependent Co-Arising; Theory of the Casual Genesis: or Theory of the Cause and Effect), namely: (1) ignorance (avijjā,ʻ無明’); (2) volition (saṅkhārā, ʻ行’); (3) consciousness (viññāṇa, ʻ識’); (4) names and forms, which is, the Mind and Body (nāma-rūpa, ʻ名色’); (5) the six sense-organs (salāyatana, ʻ六處’); (6) contact (phassa, ʻ觸’); (7) feeling (vedanā, ʻ受’); (8) craving (taṇhā, ʻ愛’); (9) grasping or clinging (upādāna, ʻ取’); (10) becoming of existence (bhava, ʻ有’); (11) rebirth (jāti, ʻ生’); (12) aging and death (jarāmaraṇa, ʻ老死’) signifying impermanence. In this sequence of order, the preceding situation becomes the condition (缘) for the arising and extinction of the subsequent situation. The cycle of rebirth and death in this way continues endlessly.

[21] DN 22: Mahasatipaṭṭhāna Sutta; MN 10: Satipa ṭṭ hāna Sutta; SN 47.35 Satipaṭṭhāna Saṃyutta: Sata Sutta (short verses). Satipaṭṭhāna Sutta interprets them slightly different from those of the Mahasatipaṭṭhāna Sutta.

[22] DhSA 16, Kamavacarakusala-bhajamiyaṃ: Samma pakarehi aniccadīni janatī ti sampajaññaṃ.

[23] Table 2.1, 2.2, are the condensed outlines modified from the table in Nandamālābhivaṃsa’s ʻ Fundamental Abhidhamma ’ (Myanmar: Sagaing Hills, 1997) p.23.

[24] Excluding those cittas which are unwholesome and without Hetu (rootless), the rest are called ʻBeautiful’, including certainly the 15 cittas of the rūpāvacara, 12 of the arūpāvacara, and 8 of the lokuttara. Thus, the ʻBeautiful’ cittas are 59 in all (or 91 in broad total, i.e. 121 – 12 – 18 = 91).

Cf. Narada Maha Thera, A Manual of Abhidhamma … (Malaysia: BMS, 1956) p.55.

[25] By ʻ Kāma ’ (sensuality), it also refers to the four states of misery (Apāya) as the worlds of animals, ghosts, demons, and hell; human abode (Manussaloka); the six celestial realms (Devaloka) ‒ the eleven kinds of sentient existence. Cf. Narada Maha Thera, A Manual of Abhidhamma: Being Abhidhammattha-Saṅgaha of Bhadanta Anuruddhācariy (Malaysia: Buddhist Missionary Society, 1956) p.25.

[26] ʻ Mahaggata ’, literally means ʻgrown great’, or is interpreted as ʻdeveloped and noble’. Therefore Mahaggata citta means the state of developed consciousness attained in the fine-material and the immaterial absorptions. Cf. Nyanaponika Thera. Buddhist Dictionary: Manual of Buddhist Terms & Doctrines (Kandy: BPS, 1980) p.179.

[27] The 81 Lokiya Cittas: the overall consciousness of the 3 mundane spheres which are the 54 consciousness of the sensuous sphere, and the 27 mahaggata cittas (composed of the 15 fine-material-sphere consciousness and the 12 immaterial-sphere consciousness). Refer to Table 2.1.

[28] DhS par. 991: Kusalākusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ vipākā kāmāvacarā, rūpāvacarā, arūpāvacarā, apariyāpannā; vedanākkhandho, saññākkhandho, saṅkhārakkhandho, viññāṇakkhandho…

[29] DhS par. 583. The text gives a thorough definition of the abyākata dhamma as: … states which are neither wholesome nor unwholesome nor resultants but are the non-causative actions; all that is Corporeality; the unconditioned element (Nibbāna).

[30] Hetu means ʻroot’ or ʻcausal condition’. The frequently used phrase in suttas‒ʻ ko hetu ko paccayo ’‒ means ʻwhat cause, what reason’, Abhidhamma differentiated between the two specifically. Paccaya is an aiding condition (缘) like sunlight, water, etc. to the root of a tree (hetu) (因).

[31] These are ʻGreed’: that all are arising in the mind or in action, including all kinds of attachments, longing, clinging, infatuation, conditional love, delight, seduced towards existing and new existences, insatiable desires, fawning, wily and crafty, gloating, enticing others to vice, inflict evils and sufferings, covetous of and entangle in sense-objects, hankering after pleasant companionships and intimate relationships, lust, favourable regard, craving (for wealth, offspring, sensual pleasures, happiness, good life, etc.), assertiveness, concealing the truths, the ʻraging current’ and ʻyoke’ of existences … Cf. DhS par. 1065.

[32] The text describes ʻHatred’ as: essentially, holding animosity towards something being disadvantageous to oneself, or to others to whom one loves and esteems, or to whom one has no distinct relationship, whether that act has been done in the past, in the making, or will be happening, or simply is hatred that arises without any cause. Hatred also includes hostility, antagonism, indignation, anger, prone to getting annoyed, dislike, unfriendliness, rudeness, resentment, opposition, moody temperament; whether they are of susceptibility or a propensity, or of raging intensity to even the slightest irritation … Cf. DhS par. 1066.

[33] The text defines ʻDelusion’ as: in gist, the ignorance of sufferings (dukkha) as to the root causes and methodical practice that would lead to the cessation of all sufferings; ignorance of the learned past existences and the future requirements; ignorance of the universal Theory of Cause and Effect, also called the Theory of Dependent Origination (pa ṭ iccasamuppāda). Ignorance happens as a result of incomprehension, lack of penetrative or incomplete understanding, and misapprehension as to the Four Noble Truths and the ultimate realities; inability to reflect correctly; inability to distinguish between what is right and wrong as to morality and the Truth, that which dispossess the person of the purity of mind; inability to properly discern and become aware of own foolishness; uninformed of the barriers to bewilderment which us the root cause of all unwholesomeness. Cf. DhS par. 1067.

Excerpt out of 300 pages


An Anatomy of Mind. Being Essence of the Dhammasangani in Abhidhamma
Master Degree in Buddhist Studies
Catalog Number
ISBN (eBook)
ISBN (Book)
File size
2149 KB
anatomy, mind, being, essence, dhammasaṅgaṇi, abhidhamma
Quote paper
Tan Poh Beng (Author), 2015, An Anatomy of Mind. Being Essence of the Dhammasangani in Abhidhamma, Munich, GRIN Verlag,


  • No comments yet.
Look inside the ebook
Title: An Anatomy of Mind. Being Essence of the Dhammasangani in Abhidhamma

Upload papers

Your term paper / thesis:

- Publication as eBook and book
- High royalties for the sales
- Completely free - with ISBN
- It only takes five minutes
- Every paper finds readers

Publish now - it's free