Evidence-Based Insights Linked to the Millennium Development Goals

Anthology, 2015

62 Pages






Chapter Page

1 The Findings: Bases for the Insights

2 Insights in Focus
Insight Focus 1: Social Responsiveness
Insight Focus 2: Psychological Well-Being
Insight Focus 3: Intercultural Dialogue
Insight Focus 4: Responsible Parenthood
Insight Focus 5: Decline in Under
Mortality Rate
Insight Focus 6: IT Based Educational Services
Insight Focus 7: Human Development

Bibliography (at the end of each insight focus)


The proactive stance on social responsibility is a lasting motive and direction. This book contains empirical insights as the authors’ contributions to the Post Millennium Development Goals Agenda for global development under the Sustainable Development Goals.


Writing this book is a choice and our endless gratitude to the One and only Power of the universe, GOD Almighty for the gifts of life: talents, knowledge, skills, work, health, energies and peace.

Our sincere thanks to Kampala International University for the opportunities and time to write this book; to Mr. Hassan Bassajjabalaba, Chairman, Board of Trustees, KIU and Prof. P.K. Tibenderana, Vice Chancellor, KIU for all the unconditional support to the Institute for Social Research, KIU whose efforts orchestrated and navigated our pieces of work to where they have reached now.


The September 2000 United Nations Millennium Declaration was never an option but a felt need for global development and sustainability in the aspects of (1) poverty reduction, (2) universal primary education, (3) gender equality and women empowerment, (4) child mortality reduction, (5) maternal health improvement, (6) fight for HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases, (7) environmental sustainability and (8) global partnership for development. Is the millennium development goals’ path cleared for completion? Sustainability is the answer rather than end the MDGs. For this reason, the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), a new development agenda, has been conceived to continue what the MDGs have started in the next fifteen years and may have to be applied to all countries for societal peace, more job opportunities and a global agreement for climate change.

The success of the MDGs and SDGs should be an obligation and a responsibility for everyone in this planet. There are numerous ways to get involved in every individual’s way such as in education, research and social responsibility. With the good intention to contribute to the SDGs new agenda through empirical research, this book reflects some evidence based findings from seven studies done in Uganda and Philippines. Shaped from these empirical studies are the insights and recommendations meant to shed light and broaden the horizons of the policy experts involved in the transition from MDGs to SDGs agenda.

Embodied in this book are as follows:

Chapter 1 presents The Findings: Bases for the Insights;

Chapter 2 elaborates on the seven Insights in Focus namely

Insight Focus 1: Social Responsiveness;

Insight Focus 2: Psychological Well-Being

Insight Focus 3: Intercultural Dialogue

Insight Focus 4: Responsible Parenthood

Insight Focus 5: Decline in Under 5 Mortality Rate

Insight Focus 6: IT Based Educational Services

Insight Focus 7: Human Development

For reasons of learning, the bibliography at the end of each empirical investigation under insights in focus, are intentionally in various referencing/citation styles (APA, Harvard, IEEE).

1 The Findings: Bases for the Insights

Study 1: Value Receptivity Among Academic Managers in Rwanda: Supporting the Millennium Development Goals’ Social Responsiveness

Table 1: Level of Value Receptivity/ Ethical Integrity

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Study 3: Challenges from Language Shift in Rwanda: Advocating Intercultural Dialogue as a Commitment Principle for the Millennium Development Goals

Challenges in the use of the English Language in Rwanda

Most of the students agreed (mean=3.26) that they understood the lectures in class after interpretation; the understanding after discussing what was lectured using the English language only was at high degree (mean=3.96).

Sixty five percent of the lecturers disagreed that the students used the English language in the lecture rooms but strongly agreed that the students understood after discussing what was lectured using the English language only.

Fifty percent of the administrators strongly agreed that the lecturers used the English language in the lecture room and agreed (3.33) that the students understood the lectures using the English language.

Ways to address the Challenges in the Use of the English Language in Rwanda

Based on the responses from the students, lecturers and administrators, the ways to address the challenges are: to make English speaking a must/rule in institutions of higher learning; make English language a national language for medium of communication everywhere in the country; train all teachers at any level of education starting from primary level up to the university; organize usual debates, public open talks and seminars; organize and sponsor competitions of essay writings; create news papers like young and youth talks; organize short English courses; increase English lessons/hours at all levels, government to come in to give help like supplying English books; building up libraries all over the country and lastly, to campaign and advocate for English usage in everyone’s life at anywhere in institutions of higher learning in Rwanda.

Findings Based on Observation

Observations were made though many institutions were in examinations. Some lecturers were not feeling at ease to be observed when lecturing. From the information gathered when moving around the university compound or in the staff room: the English language was used in the lecture rooms and only when the lecturer is lecturing. When students were alone, they used only Kinyarwanda. Most of the lecturers, especially foreigners, were using the English language in lecture rooms, staff rooms and in the compound.

Findings Based on Interview

1. Use of the English Language in Rwanda

Students were being true in revealing to have been using Kinyarwanda when in the university. Many tried to use the English language when the learning was taking place. When they were free or left alone, they used Kinyarwanda only. Foreign and “modern” students were the ones who used the English language only everywhere. The students, lecturers and administrators agreed that using the English language was affecting students’ performance academically. Everyone believed that there was a gradual improvement every new academic year.

Most of the students studied in Francophone system. When interviewed, most of them confessed that they began learning in English from advanced level of education. Those were students in first year and second year. There were also students in third year and fourth year who said that they started learning the English language at the university level. Most students did not get a chance of learning the English language privately because of different reasons. This brought them to have difficulties in English speaking and understanding. There were a few of students who did not have any problem with the English language. These students attended their former levels of education from Uganda, or had Ugandan teachers in Rwanda especially in private schools. All the lecturers had enough background of the English language either from their former education levels or private arrangements. Many respondents, let it be students or lecturers, accepted strongly that they learned the English language from radio, television and films.

Understanding in the Use of the English language in Selected Higher Institutions of Learning in Rwanda

Many students had difficulties in understanding what was taught and in expressing themselves in the English language. It was after a lecturer or the first learner had interpreted for them using mostly Kinyarwanda that all students understood. In a strict university where using English language was a must, students opted for discussions after the lecture. In these discussions, the language used was purely Kinyarwanda.

Challenges Encountered in Using the English Language as a Medium of Instruction in Rwanda

Many respondents agreed that they found using the English language difficult. No one agreed that he failed examinations at the university. Yet, the majority was failing to get average in their examinations. Results were pinned openly on the notice boards of all the universities with below average underlined or marked with black color. The lecturers agreed that their students had no problem with answering in English but the problem was learning everything using the English language. Reasons here were many but the one which was at hand were that they did not understand what was lectured using the English language. Other reasons were: having no time for revision and discussion, being reluctant on studies, speed and accent of the lecturers, lecturing not teaching, inferiority of the students and assumption of the lecturers that the students were of university level not of primary or secondary level.

Ways of Handling Challenges in the Use of the English Language in Rwanda

So many suggestions were given by the respondents especially from the students. Some suggestions are focused to the administrators of institutions of higher learning and others to the “government” as they pointed out. Most of the students suggested that it should be made a rule/ policy/ a must to use the English language in all universities whether in lecture rooms or university compound. Other suggestions given were: training of teachers/ lecturers, organizing and sponsoring debates, seminars, workshops, open talks, discussions, presentations and public talks. Some bright respondents thought of creating educational news papers for the youth or students such that they can read or contribute in English. Internet and English video shows were also suggested.

Study 4: Parenting Styles and Parenting Dimensions: Link with Post Millennium Development Goals’ Global Development Agenda

Parenting styles and its five dimensions as experienced by the nursing students (n=322)

1. Authoritative Style

The findings revealed very high average mean scores for the fathers which were 3.69, 3.33, 3.34 and 3.32 for parental attitude parental control, importance of child’s needs and home atmosphere respectively. Further, the fathers had these high average mean scores: 2.92 for parental communication and 3.02 for discipline tools.

A similar scenario was true for the mothers in terms of parenting dimensions with these very high average mean scores: 3.75 for parental attitude; 3.54 for parental control; 3.47 for importance of child’s needs and 3.43 for home atmosphere. In terms of parental communication and discipline tools the mothers were also rated high, with 3.23 and 3.08 average mean scores respectively. Evidently, it was pointed out that there was a very high to high authoritative style of parenting for both the fathers and mothers.

Hence, the dominant parenting style experienced by most student respondents was the authoritative style, otherwise known as democratic, balanced or effective parenting. Within this context, the results reflected a parenting approach among the selected nursing students that worked on values of cooperation, equality and responsibility for self, thus encouraged independence; one that taught and explained while respecting their children; a parenting style that discussed house rules and regulations, communicated warmly through eye or body contact, created a relaxed home atmosphere, enforced discipline through negotiation and incentives and accepted the growing autonomy of his/her children as well as his/her uniqueness.

2. Authoritarian Style

The authoritarian or autocratic style was also experienced by the nursing students from their father and mother. Rated high were the dimensions on parental attitude, 2.47 (father), 2.56 (mother) and parental control. 2.90 (father), 2.90 (mother) while the dimensions on parental communication, 1.93 (father), 2.18 (mother), importance of child’s needs, 2.18 (father), 2.15 (mother), home atmosphere, 1.88 (father), 1.93 (mother) and discipline tools, 2.27 (father), 2.28 (mother) were rated moderate.. Having a high control was a common denominator for both authoritative and authoritarian styles, while in terms of parental attitude, the authoritative parent was accepting while the authoritarian was demanding meaning that the parents issued commands and were expected to establish the standards of behavior to which the children must adhere. It was conspicuously revealed that in terms of parental attitude, the nursing students pointed out that their parents were a blend of the authoritative and authoritarian styles.

3. Permissive Style

Creditable to indicate was the tendency of the parents to be highly permissive in the aspects of parental control, parental communication and importance of child’s needs, the average mean scores of which were 3.00, 2.77, and 2.91 for the father; 3.20, 2.85, for the mother, respectively. Based on the fact that the student respondents were pursuing a nursing course, in this stage of their life, they were expected to develop autonomy/independence slowly. The parents’ authoritative style supported this aspect hence more permissiveness was exhibited by the parents in terms of requiring few rules, communicating carefully through reason, considering their child’s needs more important realizing the obligations, financial, emotional and physical support that accompany with having a child pursuing a career. The permissive approach gives the child extreme freedom however it results in disrespect.

4. Indifferent Style

The items to determine indifferent parenting in this study, indicated low average mean scores, 1.34-1.50 for the father and 1.34-1.57 for the mother, in four out of the five parenting dimensions (parental attitude, parental control, importance of child’s needs, home atmosphere, discipline tools) which signified that most of the student respondents believed that their parents were not neglecting them; that they set rules for them ; that their needs were more important instead of never important ; that their parents did not create a negativistic home atmosphere but relaxed instead and that discipline was properly enforced with guidance instead of very little or no guidance. However, parental communication (communicates with their children through objections and accusations) of the father was rated 1.98 while the mother’s rating was 2.03.

These average mean ratings interpreted as moderate were just as important to point out notably identified only in the authoritarian, permissive and indifferent styles. This conspicuously showed that these were moderately experienced by the nursing students from their parents who were practicing part of these authoritarian style: (1) communicating either through hands on hips, pointing fingers and shaking head; (2) considering their child’s needs less important; (3) creating a tense home atmosphere; (3) yelling and employing punishment. Some of the parents’ permissive parenting rated moderate were these practices: (1) submissiveness and (2) giving in and giving up. Knowing that their parents were more accepting and negotiating perhaps their submissiveness/giving in were manifested for the reasons that they found it beneficial or therapeutic to use for a particular situation. Meanwhile, they also gave up, believing that this strategy could somehow develop independence and self –confidence in their child.

On the premise that the parents are human beings, whose moods and emotions vary from other human beings, this may account for the nursing students experiencing a moderate indifferent parenting style expressed by the parents through communicating with objections and accusations with their children. With the parents dominantly authoritative, more of their accepting qualities can consequently overrule these unpleasant practices.

Profile of Parenting Styles

It was clearly evident that of the 322 student respondents, 59.01% and 69.25% rated very high the authoritative parenting as their father’s and mother’s dominant parenting style respectively. Further, the results reflected the parents as child centered; they explained rules in an overall climate of warmth; treated all his/her children equally in terms of needs; exercised leadership with direction; communicated with their children at the same level, created a home atmosphere which was calm and accepted the child’s uniqueness and capabilities.

The findings precisely indicated that a moderate authoritarian style of parenting was experienced by the selected nursing students from their fathers (54.36%) and from their mothers (60.31%). Similarly, moderate degrees of their parents’ permissive style were experienced by the nursing students with 50.31% for the father and 49.69% for the mother. This scenario proved that the parents’ parenting practices were less directed to being permissive, hence, they did not permit their children to behave completely as they wish for the reasons that they may become selfish, insecure and immature.

Majority of the student respondents,76.78% and 72.05% of the total respondents’ population, pointed out a low indifferent style of their father’s and mother’s parenting, proving that majority of the nursing students did not experience abusive parenting .

Study 5: Trend, Levels and Differences for Under-Five Mortality Rate in Uganda (U5MR): Is Uganda on Track in Achieving the Millennium Development Goal 4

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Figure 1: The Trend of Under-5 Mortality Rates in Uganda (1990-2013)

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Figure 2: Sex-Specific Differences of U5MR in Uganda (1990-2013)

Table 3: Differences in Sex-Specific Trends of U5MR in Uganda (1990-2013)

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Study 6: Information Technology (IT) Based Education Services in Selected Kenyan Universities

Table 4: Level of IT Based Education Services in Selected Kenyan Universities

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Source: Field data 2015

Study 7 :Economics of Tuition Fees: Cost-Benefit Analysis of a Differentiated Tuition Fee System in Selected Ugandan Universities

Table 6: Summary of Tuition Fee* Differentiation in Selected Ugandan Universities

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Source: University brochures, 2014


UGX: Ugandan shillings

USD: United States dollar

KIU – Kampala International University; KYU-Kyambogo University; MUK-Makerere University; NA – Tuition not reflected in the brochure.

Fees* reflect the average (from internal differentiation) departmental semester tuition excluding functional charge.


Insights in Focus

Social Responsiveness

Psychological Well-being

Intercultural Dialogue

Responsible Parenthood

Decline in Under 5 Mortality Rate

IT Based Educational Services

Human Development

Insight Focus 1 Social Responsiveness

Study 1: Value Receptivity Among Academic Managers in Rwanda: Supporting the Millennium Development Goals’ Social Responsiveness

Main Author: Eliezer Niyonzima, PhD cand., Dean, Institut Polytechnique de Byumba (IPB), Rwanda


A focal point about the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) is social responsiveness. In support of this noble direction, the United Nations Academic Impact (UNAI) conceived its principles of commitment for its projects by aligning with higher education institutions activities and research towards intellectual social responsibility to realize the MDGs by highlighting on the reciprocal relationship between education and sustainable development. This study portrayed value receptivity and social responsiveness in terms of measuring the ethical integrity of academic middle managers from selected private higher education institutions in Kigali, Rwanda, East Africa. The findings revealed low level of value receptivity due to some challenging ethical practices.

Value receptivity is inherent in the United Nations Charter. From a global mindset, the MDGs value based social responsiveness are well supported by an integral sector of the United Nations called the United Nations Academic Impact (UNAI) whose commitment principles aligned with higher education institutions support the MDGs social awareness drive such as poverty and hunger reduction, universal primary education, gender equality, reduction of child mortality, maternal health, fighting HIV/AIDS and other diseases, environmental sustainability, global partnership for development (MDG, 2000).

To impress on value based social responsibility, the UNAI implements through education the MDGs utilizing its commitment principles related to human rights such as freedom of inquiry, opinion and speech; equal educational opportunity regardless of gender, race, religion or ethnicity: acquiring the skills and knowledge necessary for the pursuit of higher education; building capacity in higher education systems across the world; encouraging global citizenship: advancing peace and conflict resolution; addressing issues of poverty; promoting inter-cultural dialogue and understanding, and the “unlearning” of intolerance (UNAI,2010).

An organization’s social responsibility or moral responsibility to people outside the organization directly affected by its actions is defined by ethics (Robbins, 2002). Value based practices imply the right behavior at any given time such as at home, work and when dealing with individuals and groups. Value receptivity for good behavior among employees is expected to be an ought to do if the individual employee and organization has to maintain its reputation and goodwill to its customers (George & Jones, 2002). In this study, value receptivity among academic middle managers was determined through measuring their ethical integrity.

This study was based on the Theory of Deontology or the Ethics of Duty. Deontology or the ethics of duty theory regards duty as the basis of morality (Boss, 2002). According to deontologists, the rightness of an action depends wholly or in part on the motives from which they are performed and not on consequences (Boatright, 2003).

Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) was one of the most influential deontologists (Cahn & Markie, 1998). He argued that people should do their duty purely of the good will, not because of rewards or punishment or other consequences. Kant developed two formulations of the categorical imperative. The first was formulated as follows: “act only on that maxim by which you can at the same time wish that it should become a universal law”. The second says: “so act to treat humanity, whether in thine own person or in that of any other, in every case as an end in itself, never as a means only” (Boss, 2002, p. 23). Sir William David Ross (1877-1971) also contributed to the development of deontology theory. He came up with a list of seven prima facie duties, that is, moral duties that may be overridden by stronger moral claims (Cahn & Markie, 1998).

Confined to the five private higher learning institutions in this study, value receptivity or the ability to recognize constructive social values among academic middle managers was indeed a challenge although it should also be recognized that the fact: HUMAN AS WE ARE, may outstand as a reason for the findings of this study, therefore, invoking value led academic institutions must not be underestimated.


The concerned academic institutions must endeavor to propagate and inculcate value based mission statement and codes of conduct/ethics to create a sustainable social responsibility and morally behaved corporate citizens. This could be done through attitude and behavior inventories at recruitment and selection phase; comprehensive orientation on values at work; regular enhancement seminars and workshops; appraisals of behavior and performance in the workplace and professional counseling schedules all year round.

The quality assurance units of institutions of higher learning and the African quality assurance network should establish guidelines to implement and monitor constructive personal and social values in the academe. Curriculum developers should incorporate ethics as a basic foundation course for all academic programs.

Since the study was conducted only in selected academic institutions, an expansion of a similar study to majority of the higher learning institutions would be an advantage where the generated evidence-based information could contribute to the evaluation on the implementation of the UNAI-MDGs globally and socially attuned awareness drive.


Boatright, J.R., (2003). Ethics and the conduct of business. 4th edition. New Jersey:

Pearson Education, Ink.

Boss, J.A., (2002). Analysing moral issues. 2nd edition. New York: McGraw-Hill Companies.

Cahn, S.M. and Markie, P.,(1998). Ethics history, theory, and contemporary issues. New York: Oxford University Press

Chêne, M & Mann, C., (2011). Sources of information on corruption in Rwanda. Anti-Corruption Resource Centre Retrieved from www.U4.no.

Dubinsky, J.E. & Richter, A., (2009). Global ethics and integrity benchmarks. Retrieved from http://www.corporatecomplianceinsights.com/wp-content/ uploads /2009/05/ethics-and-integrity.pdf

Farrant, J.S., (1980). Principles and practice of education. New edition. England: Longman Group UK Limited, pp.90-91.

George, JM & Jones, GR., (2002). Organizational behavior, New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc.,

International Institute for Educational Planning. (2007). Corrupt schools, corrupt universities: What can be done? Retrieved from http://www.unesco.org/iiep/PDF/pubs/synth_ethics.pdf.

Jackall,R., (1989). Moral mazes: The world of corporate managers. New York: Oxford University Press.

Johnson, K.W., (2010). Measuring organizational integrity and bottom line results l one can expect. Las Vegas: Ethics and Policy Integrity Centre.

MDG (2000), Retrieved May 10, 2015 at www.un.org/millenniumgoals/.

Perrow, C., (1986). Complex organizations: A critical essay. 2nd ed. New York: Random House.

Posner, B & W.H. Schmidt.,(1984). “Values and the American manager: An update. California Management Review (Spring): 202-216.

Robbins, SP & Langton, N.,(2002). Organizational behavior, concepts, controversies, Applications. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Inc.

Sledge, S. & Pringle, P., (2010). Assessing honour code effectiveness. Retrieved from http://www.virginiaassessment.org/rpa/5/SledgeandPringle.pdf.

UNAI (2010), Retrieved May 10, 2015 at www.academicimpact.un.org.

Insight Focus 2

Psychological Well-Being

Study 2: Counseled and Non Counseled Employees’ Psychological

Well-Being in the Workplace: Revelations from Police Force, Uganda

Main Author: Scovia Katushabe, PhD cand., Guidance Counselor, Kampala International University, Uganda, East Africa


An integral part of development is mental health or mental hygiene, yet there is growing recognition within international community that it is one of the most neglected development input as far as achieving the millennium development goals (MDG) is concerned. This revelation suggests that globally, mental health represents an integral part of human development as an essential determinant of well-being, quality of life, hope and directly impacts on a range of development outcomes and obviously a basis for social stability.

Many facets of work do not necessarily impact on employees’ core life needs. This cannot be said for well-being and life threatening issues, whose implications run very deeply indeed in employees’ mind, body and soul. The objective of this study was to investigate the difference in psychological well-being between counseled and non-counseled employees. The study utilized a comparative research and the population comprised of counseled and non-counseled employees of Uganda Police Force (Nsambya Barracks). The purposive sampling strategy was used to select 141 respondents of whom 66 were non-counseled and 75 were counseled employees. Questionnaires were used to collect data with acceptable validity and reliability results at 0.89 and 0.93 respectively. The t-test was used to establish a comparison in psychological well-being between counseled and non-counseled employees. The results indicated that there was a significant difference in psychological well-being between counseled and non-counseled employees (t=6.543, p< 0.05). It was recommended that employers should recognize the need to provide professional counseling services to employees because this will improve employees’ psychological well-being.

Workplace issues can lead to poor production or performance, decrease the ability to actually complete work, and possibly lead to legal trouble between employers and employees. In a workplace setting, it is important that everyone feels that they are safe and valued (HWWB, 2009). In a situation where employees experience personal and work related challenges, positive discipline such as counseling should be applied for improved and better psychological well-being of the affected employees, without which the organization is not likely to meet its mission and production targets. Employee well-being is therefore an increasingly relevant and necessary consideration in the modern workplace.

In this study , professional counseling services significantly improved counseled employees’ psychological well-being therefore, the more an employee accesses professional counseling services, the more he/she is able to deal with life/work challenges thus improved psychological well-being


Organizations that provide professional counseling to employees should continue doing so and those that do not should consider introducing it in their culture due to the associated positive benefits. Employees who exhibit health-threatening issues should be encouraged to seek counseling for a better and improved psychological well-being. The Ministry of Gender, Labor and Social Development, non-government organizations, and all policy making bodies especially those responsible to protect the interests of workers should consider designing policies that will introduce compulsory professional counseling services in all Ugandan work places. Organizations’ aims should be to develop organizational wellness policies to cater for physical, psychological and social needs of employees if they must depend on their skills and abilities to achieve their dreamt goals and objectives.

One of the directions of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) is human rights towards productive life. The findings of this study should serve as one of those empirical evidences that the MDG implementers can utilize as generated information to contribute to the awareness and promotion of the advances in productive life. Hence, there is need to investigate the reasons why some organizations do not employ professional counselors to meet employee counseling needs despite the existence of professional counselors in the country.


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Evidence-Based Insights Linked to the Millennium Development Goals
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The book contains 7 articles of academic staff, peer reviewed by Bugema International Multidisciplinary Research Conference slated on September 28-29, 2015. The conference was cancelled. We felt the need to disseminate the findings as the MDGs are coming to completion this September 2015. Evidence based data are needed to evaluate the past MDGs and to contribute for the next Sustainable Development Goals Agenda that will continue the 2000 MDGs direction.
evidence-based, insights, linked, millennium, development, goals
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N. Sumil (Author)M. Sumil (Author)M. Sumil Jr. (Author)S. Katushabe (Author)A. Richard (Author)E. Mwebesa (Author)T. N. Seje (Author)K. Muhanguzi (Author)N. Eliezer (Author), 2015, Evidence-Based Insights Linked to the Millennium Development Goals, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/303875


  • guest on 8/30/2016

    Policy Makers should read this. Especially those interested in uplifting education in developing countries - East African Region inclusive. It can act as a base during their process of Decision Making.

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