Impact of Work Life Balance, Career Development and Reward on Employee. Performance in Petroleum Sector of Pakistan

Diploma Thesis, 2015
50 Pages, Grade: A

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Table of content




1.1. Theoretical background
1.1.1. The Impact of Work Life Balance on Employee Performance
1.1.2. The Impact of Career development on Employee Performance
1.1.3. The Impact of Reward on Employee Performance
1.1.4. Why to study Employee performance in Petroleum Sector Organizations of Pakistan
1.2. Gap Analysis
1.3. Statement of the problem
1.4. Research Objectives
1.5. Significance of the study
1.7 Research Question
1.8 Delimitation of the study

2.1 Work Life Balance
2.2 Career Development
2.3 Reward
2.4 Employee Performance
2.5 Relationship of Work Life Balance and Employee Performance
2.6 Relationship of Career Development and Employee Performance
2.7 Relationship of Reward and Employee Performance
2.8 Theoretical Framework
2.9 Hypothesis

3.1. Research Design
3.1.1. Quantitative Research
3.1.2. Cross Sectional Study
3.1.3. Unit of Analysis
3.2. Population and Sample
3.2.1. Sampling Technique
3.2.2. Instruments for Data Collection
3.2.3. Instruments for Data Analysis
3.3. Sample characteristics
3.3.1. Age
3.3.2. Marital Status
3.3.3. Qualification
3.3.4. Gender
3.3.5. Organization Name
3.3.6. Employment Status
3.3.7. Job Status
3.3.8. Work Experience
3.3.9. Work Life Balance
3.3.10. Career Development
3.3.11. Reward
3.3.12. Employee Performance
3.3.13. Data Analysis and Technique

4.1. Descriptive Statistics
4.2. Correlations
4.3. Regression

5.1. Research Questions
5.2. Conclusion and Recommendations
5.3. Limitations of the Study



Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten


We thanks the Almighty Allah for making it possible for us to complete this piece of work. Special thanks to Allah for the knowledge, wisdom, courage and determination He has granted us.

We extend our sincere appreciation to our research supervisor Dr. Sajid Bashirwho guided us from research proposal to the report writing. He really inspired, motivated and assisted us during the process of this work and heartiest thanks for research and development department (R&D) for their guidance and assistance time by time as needed.

We greatly obliged to our dear parents for their support, care and courage during our study. We arethankfulto our dear parents. God may bless them abundantly. Our sincere gratitude further goes to our dear brothers and sisters for their prayers and giving us all the support we needed in this study.

Thanks also go to the Employees and Management of ARL and OGDCL who allowed us to do research on the Company. Special thanks to the respondents who sacrificed their precious time giving us relevant information that backed our research.


This study focuses on finding out the impact of work-life balance, career development and reward on employee performance in Petroleum sector of Pakistan. The data was gathered through questioners from 266 employees working in Petroleum sector of Pakistan. The results showed that employee performance is affected by career development and reward. This research targeted those different factors that regulate the employee performance in Petroleum sector of Pakistan. Among the factors that are scrutinized are work life balance, career developmentand rewardand their relation was seen with the employee performance in the Petroleum sector of Pakistan. The data was collected through survey technique from the sample size of 300 respondents and the convenient sampling was used as the respondents are known to be the employees of Petroleum organizations of Rawalpindi and Islamabad region. Correlation and regression analysis was used to analyze the factors that affect the employee performance in this sector. Under this study it was proved that there is insignificant negative relationship between work life balance and employee performance because Pakistan is developing country so poverty level is also significant here and one other thing is large family size that is why reward, career development and salary is a major indicator for employee performance in the Pakistan, many employees ignore work overload in front of reasonable salary because they are handling large family. Work life conflict is not big issue in this country because of joint family system. Family member share the burden of other members so employee feel relax at work place and they perform better while there is positive relationship ofcareer development, and reward with employee performance.


1.1. Theoretical background

1.1.1. The Impact of Work Life Balance on Employee Performance

Today, work life balance has turned into an undeniably pervasive concern to both businesses and representatives of generally associations. Work life balanceis about making and keeping up steady and sound working environments, which will enable workers to have balance between work and individual commitments and hence sustain delegate strength and profit. Worklife balance is an idea which revolves around setting the priorities between professional work such as office work and ambitions about career and personal life such as family, comfort, bliss and profound improvement.Whereas the Work life balance variables Psychological trouble, authoritative changes, working hours, managerial style, non-job obligations, work over-burden, work life clash and individual monetary issues and so forth have been demonstrated to influences or are prescient of occupation fulfillment (Kumari, 2012). As we all know thatwork life balance is now a subject of open deliberation and examination among representatives, businesses, academicians, analysts, government agencies and also the policy initiators.

People have distinctive necessities at diverse stages throughout their life and the idea of work life balanceadmits distinctive importance at each of these points (Kumari, 2012). The position of Pakistan is among developing countries where there are long workings hours in petroleum industry. Due to this, employees are fronting with work life balance clash and its results are affecting their performance (Ashfaq, Mahmood and Ahmad, 2013).Balance in work-life and family life enhances the performance of a worker and productivity which is positively associated with each otherand increases satisfaction levels. Increased performance frequently reflects employee’s commitment to the firm. This commitment and loyalty toward the firm is stretched by the extraordinary polices adopted by the firm.

These methodologies stimulate execution and additionally lessening the turnover suggestion of an employee (Eaton,2001). People encounter more clash in the focal point of work and individual life as they keep on hunt the personal satisfaction that they require. Effectively adjusting work and family life is one of the significant difficulties confronting current individuals’ specialists (Halpern, 2005).

1.1.2. The Impact of Career development on Employee Performance

Now-a-day's employees are additionally career conscious than ever before. They are requesting more in terms of individual development and improvement.Career developmentarranging is vital for both the people and for the association in light of the fact that it is unrealistic to get ready for the profession without recognizing the needs of association and skills of worker. Workers get to be more fulfilled by their employment and would never need to leave the association furthermore association need to hold its brilliant representatives to attain its targets and long haul corporate objectives. That’s why association ought to need to put resources into progressing worker vocation improvement projects to make both representative and association effectiveness.

“Career development is a continues life long process of developmental experience that focus on seeking, obtaining and processing information about self, occupational and educational alternative life style and role options” (Hansen, 1976). Put an alternate way Career developmentis a procedure through individuals comes to comprehend than has they identify with the universe of the work and their part in it. Career development is the proactive arranging and usage of activity steps towards your professional work life objectives. At the point when employeesplan to leave the association was investigate and evaluated that career developmentis most vital element that satisfy employee and enhance its performance (Shujat, Sana, Aftab and Ahmed, 2013). Owners need to perceive that representatives are associations’ most vital resources. They ought to be gave with projects to individual furthermore career development. This involves, long range getting ready for Career developmentincluding ways of securing employees support (Ogaboh, Nkpoyen and Ushie, 2010).

Career improvement will turn into a more arranged process between the individual and individuals from undertaking groups instead of a corporate incorporated movement. Corporate capacities of numerous types, even human asset strategies, pay frameworks, and other standard schedules may get to be more decentralized with just the most general approaches originating from the focal point. Authoritative learning won't happen without individual learning abilities and limits at all levels. It is getting to be harder to observe what a given employment ought to comprise of and how one ought to contract and train individuals for the uncertain and changing parts that will develop.

Administrative steps will, of need, keep on existing in these associations however with numerous less rungs. In fact/practically moored careerists will discover broad opportunities in such associations yet may land stuck either in positions that don't stay testing or, on the other hand, in occupations in which adapting new abilities will be a ceaseless necessity (Schein, 1996).

1.1.3. The Impact of Reward on Employee Performance

Rewardeither monetary or non-money related, as compensation, wages, pay etc. is the most widely critical indicators for an Organization to measure the performance of their employees. There is so much changing happening in the business world and each business association has much dependence on worker performance.

The role petroleum industry plays cannot be overemphasized, among which are structuring the capital market, refining of crude oil for local consumption, provision of employment for both indigenes and foreigners and the marketing of crude oil and petroleum product. However, the success of the industry rests so much on its human resources capability, which is the most valuable asset of any organization. The challenging tasks of every manager at all level are how to build a befitting reward and compensation system to incorporate both organizational goals and individual needs, thus, have a motivated workforce and improve productivity. Rewards are viewed as an essential apparatus to check and increase the employee’s performance. Administration utilizes rewards for employees’ inspiration. So we can say that attractive reward system for individual motivation and employee’s convenience to perform better is very essential. The occasionally compensation additions, stipends, rewards, incidental advantages and different recompenses on normal and particular periods keep their resolve high and make them more inspired (Danish, 2010). Employee performance has been taken as a most critical dependent variable since few decades in organizational perspective (Fared, Abidan, Shahzad, Amen and Lodhi, 2013).

Reward is one of the critical components to propel workers for contributing their best push to create development and increase organizational performance in both budgetary and non-monetarily. Reward framework is the instrument used to expand worker's production. It looks to draw in and hold suitable representatives, encourage them to minimize strain and clash.The target of entrepreneurs is profitability. Your organization prosperity relies on upon your workers' performance; poor performance of employees is negative to your organization's prosperity. Making a balanced methodology to overseeing and guiding your work power requires the aptitude of a human assets pioneer and the backing of your organization's official initiative.

To draw in and hold their workforce, Petroleum industry needs to make changes in their current reward framework by coordinating reward procedure with human asset system. Also, Petroleum industry needs to consider remunerate as an execution spark and a part of association's business method. Rewards are viewed as an essential device to check the employee’s execution. Administration use rewards for workers inspiration. So we can say that alluring reward framework pull in new workers for association and propel existing employees to perform their best (Fareed et al., 2013). A couple of relationship during the time see delegate as additional expense and moreover hazard to their operations, consequently don't remunerate them appropriately, and where it is more suitable, the pay is not comparative with the attempts and capacities that workers put into the association works out, rather than concentrating on how delegates will be compensated legitimately, a couple of affiliations concentrate more on other resource, for instance, materials, machines and money. The effort is more on the most capable strategy to improve the era process with basically zero idea for human attempts.

1.1.4. Why to study Employee performance in Petroleum Sector Organizations of Pakistan

When we talk about Petroleum sector organizations in Pakistan, it has remained less attention of the researchers for last decades.In Petroleum sector of Pakistan employee’s job are too challenging there are long working hours and safety measures requires in the field to perform this job. The work life balance issues effect the employee performance and it is major issue which diminishes the employee performance.

This research has great significance as it investigates the impact of work life balance, career development andreward in the petroleum sector of Pakistan. This research also recommends how employer can get advantage by designing work life balance, career development and reward according to employee need in return he get more productivity and performance through employees. Likewise, it would be valuable for further researcher; as it could be useful for the source of literature.

Oil and gas executives may need to revisit the way they manage performance. Better performance management begins with a more focused approach to measurement and reporting system. Oil and gas companies are flooded with data, and the flow increases day by day. This raising tide of data brings the risk of measuring for the sake of measurement, executives need to focus their analytical resources on information that matters most.

Worker’s work-life balance must to enhance by sustaining individual equalization empowering aptitudes and also creating hierarchical parity strong capacities. In accordance with this, the Finance Department ought to consider handling the work-life predicament on a few fronts. Firstly, open doors for people to upgrade their work-life administration abilities ought to be made. This could happen by means of tutoring and instructing, and also formal courses on time management, arranging and prioritization, and anxiety administration. Besides, the office ought to focus on creating powerful and steady administrative and initiative abilities. Sought results connected with this incorporate building solid connections and expanded correspondence with workers so as to be mindful of and backing their part needs.

Thirdly, this exploration constructs a case for the office to end up operationally effective as this altogether effects on work-life parity. It ought to focus on the essential hierarchical building pieces, for example, effective techniques, clear parts and obligations, powerful resourcing, sufficient worker advancement and change administration capacities. At last, the Finance Department needs to precisely look at its way of life and qualities to guarantee that they are parity empowering. The way of life ought to be steady and adaptable, and it ought to remunerate results, not time at work.

1.2. Gap Analysis

This study examines the impact of work life balance, career development and rewardon employee’s performance in petroleum sector of Pakistan. In Petroleum sector employee jobs are too competitive and hard, where there are long working hour and too much safety measures are required to perform the job. In petroleum sector there is very little scrutiny of the researchers in the field of relationship and combined impact of work life balance, career development and Reward on employee performance in Pakistan.

According to Beauregard and Henry (2008)numerous firms ignores to direct formal checking and assessment of their work-life balance practices, expecting that on the grounds that the practices are continuously offered, they are constantly used to great impact. There is a lack of examination focused around precise arrangement assessment information to address the inquiry of whether work-life balance practices are accomplishing their expected points.

According to Hayman (2005) with expanded concern by representatives for the limit between their work and non-work exists, the procurement of viable work life activities is quick turning into a need for associations and HRM specialists all through the current world. There is a need to concentrate on those elements that impacts worker's performance. Also we must control those elements individually.

By the control of these elements workers can likewise expand their performance. For example assessment of the performance of the workers and complete diagnosis of the workers will likewise upgrade the workers' performance in the inquiring sector. Career development is additionally a component for the improvement of the workers' performance (Ashfaq et al., 2013).

1.3. Statement of the problem

Based on previous literature, an increasing number of studies on work life balance, career development and rewardissue have been taken out due to the understanding the effects of demanding employee performance in today’s new generation competitive world. In recent time it was quite new that this issue has gotten the enthusiasm of researchers.Work life balancemay have attained the status of characterizing employee issue and a few advancementshave without a doubt been made at the presentation of adaptable game plan. However having said that very little study are center has been made to tending to the issue of work life balance impacts to representatives work performance (Hyman, 2003).

This study is specifically designed to see combine affect work life balance, career development and reward in the perspective of employee performance in Petroleum sector.Whether there is any interference to the employees and family organization work life balance, career development and reward is harder to achieve now a day increasing in demand of employee performance.This affects the work life balance, career development and reward increased job satisfaction and increased turnover and absenteeism rate which give an impact to employee performance. In the long run organizations productivity and performance will be affected. This study is carried out based on problematic question. How as far family friendly policy and work life balance, career development and reward impact toward employee performance in petroleum sector.

1.4. ResearchObjectives

The objectives of this study were to analyze;

1.4.1 The determinants of employee performance in Petroleum sector of Rawalpindi region.

1.4.2 Identify the relationship between work life balance and employee performance.

1.4.3 Identify the relationship between career development and employee performance.

1.4.4 Identify the relationship between Reward and employee performance.

1.4.5 Identify the internal relationship between work life balance, career development and reward.

1.5. Significance of the study

Although there is very less work has done in the field of petroleum sector of Pakistan. This study will increase body of knowledge in the form of literature for researcher in future.Once the results are concluded the study findings may be significant to Human Resource Managers that how they can increase the performance of employees with the help of Work life balance, Career developmentand Reward. It is hoped that study findings may be used as basis for further research and investigations in form of literature.The findings may provide information and practical help to managers in different organizations especially on knowing how to increase employee performance in petroleum sector.The study is conductedusing the sample size of 300; the respondents are the employees of OGDCL and ARL of Rawalpindi. The results can be generalized to the petroleum sectorall over the Pakistan.

1.7 Research Question

The major objective of the present study is to see the individual and overall impact of work life balance, career development and reward on employee performance in Petroleum organizations in Pakistan. To achieve these objective the major research questions which this study will attempt to answer are:

1.7.1.Research question 1

How work life balance affect employee performance among employee working in petroleum sector organizations of Pakistan?

1.7.2. Research question 2

How career development increase or decrease employee performance in petroleum sector organizations of Pakistan?

1.7.3. Research question 3

How reward motivates employee and their performance in Petroleum sector/organization in Pakistan?

1.7.4. Research question 4

How work life balance, career development and reward overall impact on employee performance in petroleum sector of Pakistan?

1.8 Delimitation of the study

No matter how efficiently a study is conducted, it cannot be perfect in all respects. This study was conducted in accordance with the objectives of the study; the study may not include broad explanations of facts and figures due to the nature of the study. Second: limitation, which affects the study, is the availability of required data was problem all the documents and files are kept strictly under lock and key due to their confidential nature. Third: the problem of short time period also makes the analysis restricted as one cannot properly understand and thus analyze all the operations of aPetroleum sector in Pakistan.


The review of related literature to our research is presented in this chapter. Aspects which are covered in this chapter are work life balance, career development, reward and employee performance.

2.1 Work Life Balance

In today we living up to expectations world, the vast majority of the employees time is spend at the work spot, making their work assume control over their lives has an entire, this expanding interest for their occupation require workers to significantly more drove to their work even after available time this has brought about lot of work issue, for example, stress and in balance in the part as specialist, parent or relatives.

To have an agreeable picture of what work life balance is about, it is vital to first comprehend term itself. Relatively few representatives really comprehend what work life equalization is about, and understanding from each other may contrast. Guest (2001) expressed that work life balance is a type of illustration, in the English Grammar "balance" is a complex word with the mixture of importance. The issues in breaking down work life balance just start with the idea of equalization, and there is additionally a need to consider work and life.

Work can be at first characterized as paid vocation. Although, this soon separates when additional unpaid hours, the time considered to travel and from work are taken. The term work life balance is in itself a misnomer and serves just as a helpful short hand for work and whatever remains of life and family life is one and only part of life outside the work.

Greenhaus, Collin and Shaws (2003) recently distinguish between three types of work life balance and they are:-

- Time balance (Equal time devoted to work and family)
- Involvement balance (Equal involvement in work and family)
- Satisfaction balance ( Equal satisfaction with work and family)

The practices that are meant help employees better manage their work and non-work times are called in the literature as work-family policies, family-friendly or family-responsive policies(Lazar and Ratiu, 2010). Firms can concentrate on supporting workers' work-life balanceto secure their full of feeling responsibility to the firms. For this, firms could set up a work- life balance strategy and projects that would help their workers in satisfying their authority work at the working environment and their individual obligations outside the work environment also (Kim, 2014). The business case for work-life balancerehearsal depends on their capacity to improve recruitment and maintenance, and decrease work life balanceamong workers. It creates easiness in work and balance the work and family life. The result improves in employee attitude, behavior and performance (Beauregard, Alexandra, Henry and Lesley, 2009).

In the organization it is observed that when workers' need in admiration of making a work-life balance is met then outcome of high job satisfaction and employee performance (Gregory and Milner, 2009).Balance in work and family life improves the performance of an employee and benefit is absolutely corresponded with performance and builds fulfillment levels. High performance reflects employee duty to the association (Hussain and Mujtuba, 2012). Work-family balance is characterized as "fulfillment and great working at work and at home, with at least part conflict(Clark, 2000).

Also, Parkes and Langford (2008) characterized this as "a singular's capacity to meet work and family duties, and additionally other non-work obligations and exercises. That is, these two definitions for work-life balance suggest making an adequate mix of work and life (Thornthwaite, 2002). Work-life balance is about making and keeping up strong and solid workplaces, which will empower workers to have adjust in the middle of work and individual obligations and in this way fortify representative faithfulness and profit. Various studies directed on work-life balance. Workers encounter large amounts of contention in the middle of work and family, taking into account work-to-family impedance and guardian strain. In the event that part over-burden is incorporated, then near to 60 percent of workers overviewed experience work-family clash. The more elevated amounts of work-to-family clash reported by directors or experts regularly are a capacity of their more drawn out work hours.

Different reasons incorporate professional stability, support from one's manager, support from associates, work requests or over-burden, work-part clash, work-part equivocalness, work disappointment, and far reaching utilization of correspondence innovation that smudges the limits in the middle of home and work What's more the dominant part of work-life studies have characterized work-life balance regarding the level of work-life clash (Carlson, 2009).

This study assumes that work-life balance corresponds to the absence of work-life conflict. Several empirical studies have showed that the experience of work-life balance is positively related to employees’ performance and organizational performance as well (Harrington and Ladge, 2009). Work-life balance contributes to efficient and effective work as wellincreasing employee’s performance (Magnini, 2009). The experience of psychological well-being and harmony in life helps employees concentrate on theirwork, resulting in better performance.

Long work hours and profoundly distressing employments not just hamper workers' capacity to harmonize work and family life additionally are connected with wellbeing dangers, for example, expanded smoking and liquor utilization, weight increase and gloom. Work life clash has been connected with various physical and emotional wellness suggestions.The experience of work-life balance satisfies employees’ psychological demands to maintain the balance between work and life. Several empirical studies have supported that employees’ experience of work-life balance contributes to favorable evaluation of their organizations and affective commitment (Muse, Gilles and Field, 2008).

2.2 Career Development

Career developmentinvolve being aware of personal goals, values, organizational goals and it involves continuously learning new things , applying new knowledge and taking advantage of opportunities and also taking risks in order to make your organization more effective and productive and also achieving personal and organizational goals. The purpose of career developmentis to enhance employees‟ current performance, take advantage of future jobs and to fulfill their career goals.

Now a day’s more competitive business world, it is not just critical for the associations to procure benefit however it has ended up most paramount to fulfill aggressive representatives. Career developmentarrangement is first step and a guide to create your career. Career developmentarranging is paramount for both the people and for the association in light of the fact that it is impractical to get ready for the career without distinguishing the needs of association and skills of representatives. So organization’s needs can't be fulfilled without fulfilling employee’s needs (Lingham, 2000). Career developmentincludes being aware of individual objectives, values, hierarchical objectives and it includes persistently adapting new things , applying new learning and exploiting open doors furthermore going for broke with a specific end goal to make your association more powerful and profitable furthermore accomplishing individual and authoritative objectives. The reason for profession improvement is to improve employees‟ current performance, exploit future occupations and to satisfy their career objective(Shujat et al.,2013).

Career development is the long lasting procedure of overseeing movement in learning and work. The nature of this methodology essentially decides the nature and nature of people's lives: the sort of individuals they turn into, the feeling of reason they have, the salary available to them. It additionally decides the social and financial commitment they make to the groups and social orders of which they are part. Career development is the deep rooted methodology of overseeing learning, work, recreation, and moves so as to move toward by decided and developing favored future. Career development opportunities are those which help in developing the employees in a manner that is beneficial for the employees as well as the organization.

Foongming and Tan (2008) Career development practitioner is an umbrella term that alludes to any immediate administration supplier in the career development field. This incorporates however is not restricted to career experts, profession instructors, career data authorities, profession administration specialists, work improvement officers, job bolster laborers, work experience facilitators, work designers, situation organizers, career mentors, and professional restoration laborer.

It is vital to note that career development happens with no mediation in all people as they develop. There isn't a situated age for when it will start some individuals will begin to consider word related decisions ahead of schedule in life, while others won't give this subject much thought, at any rate with respect to how it applies to them, until they are genuinely near to needing to choose how they will gain cash (Baruch, 2004).

While numerous people experience this procedure autonomously, just about everybody can advantage significantly from getting vocation direction. A career instructor or other also prepared expert, career instruction, or an alternate method for dealing with one's profession improvement, frequently brings about a people fashioning an all the more fulfilling and effective career way. This sort of intercession can start as ahead of schedule as grade school and ought to proceed through adulthood. Numerous individuals end up in need or something to that effect of direction as they experience issues or must settle on choices about their career (Carson and Carson, 1997).Career development is the arrangement of exercises or the on-going/long lasting methodology of adding to one career. It generally alludes to dealing with one's profession in an intra-hierarchical or between authoritative situations. It includes preparing on new abilities, moving to higher employment obligations, rolling out a profession improvement inside the same association, moving to an alternate organization or beginning one's own business.

Oleski and Subich (1996)career development is straight forwardly connected to the objectives and goals set by a single person. It begins with acknowledgment toward oneself and examination toward oneself of one's hobbies and capacities. The diversions are then coordinated with the accessible alternatives. The individual needs to prepare himself to procure the abilities required for the alternative or profession way picked by him. Finally, in the wake of gaining the sought competency, he needs to perform to accomplish the objectives and targets set by him. The associations need to grow right sort of career improvement programs to make the individuals develop to their maximum capacity and to hold gifted, equipped and skilled workers in the association.

Organization structure additionally regularly causes disappointment in the joining of endeavors of career development. The disappointment from the faculty office to arrange different branches of the association to place right individuals in the right occupations through fitting arranging frequently causes as a boundary for the individuals to add to their careers. The traditional idea of "career" was movement up a requested pecking order inside an association or calling. The thought was that individuals "picked" a career, which then unfolded in a precise way. It was an elitist idea: some had a career; numerous just had work; some did not in any case have that. For quite a while, then again, this customary idea has been dividing. The pace of progress, determined by innovation and globalization, implies that organizations are continually presented to change (Stoltz, 1996).

They are subsequently less ready to make long haul duties to people; where they do, it is in return for adaptability about the parts and undertakings the people will perform. Increasingly, in this way, security lies not in career yet in employability. People who need to keep up their employability must be ready to frequently learn new aptitudes. So professions are presently progressively seen not as being "picked" however, as being developed, through the arrangement of decisions about learning and work that individuals make for the duration of their lives. Career development in this sense require not be bound to the few: it can, and must, be made open to all (Winterton, 2007).

Career development is pivotal to the achievement of long lasting learning arrangements. Governments frequently express that such approaches need to be essentially determined by people. The reason is straightforward: educating can be composed as a framework, yet long lasting learning can't. It needs to grasp numerous types of adapting, in various settings. It is the person who must give the feeling of driving force, of cognizance and of coherence (Noe, 2006). It implies that if, the same number of governments accept, long lasting learning is critical to their nation's monetary intensity and social wellbeing, then their nation's future is essentially reliant on the nature of the choices and moves made by people.

Career development opportunities are important for the employees as their individual interest is developed and they look forward to stay with the organization which caters to its needs for the development of their careers through providing them the opportunities. By making available to the employees such opportunities, the organization shows that it is committed for the cherishment of its employees(Foongminget al.,2008).

Developing of the career ladders of the employees is an important retention policy. The employees tend to stay when they see there are more career development opportunities(Steel, Grrifeth and Hom, 2002). The importance of career development opportunities with respect to the employee retention is highlighted by Branham (2005) as according to him, of many reasons the employees leave, lack of career development opportunities is one of them.

The findings of Irshad and Afridi (2011) suggest that the career advancement or developing opportunities have a significant relation with employee retention and it tends to retain the employees. The reason is explained by Foongming etal.,(2008) stating that employees that are given the career development opportunities tend to repay the organization and as a result stay, so the career development opportunities are expected to help in employee retention.

2.3 Reward

As per Pitts (1995) Reward is the profits that emerge from performing an undertaking, rendering an administration or releasing an obligation. The reward for performing work is pay, numerous managers additionally offer prize bundles of which wages and compensations are just a part. The bundles normally include: rewards, benefits plans, wellbeing protection, allotted autos, valuable credits, financed suppers, benefit offering, offer choices and substantially more as per (Agwu, 2013).Rewards assume an imperative part in deciding the huge execution in occupation and it is absolutely connected with the procedure of inspiration. It is mentioned by Lawler (2003) that there are two components of reward which decide the amount of reward is essential, first is the measure of reward which is given and the second is the weighted an individual provides for a certain reward.

Rewardhad been seen to be a fundamental instrument in worker performance. An overall compensated representative feels that he/she is constantly esteemed by the organization that he/she is working for. They are additionally encourage to work harder and better on the off chance that they are mindful that their prosperity is considered important by their bosses, and that their profession and self-advancement are likewise being sharpened and dealt with by their organization(Sajuyigbe,Olaoye and Adeyemi, 2013).

Reward have two wide sorts; outward and inherent Reward are additionally called monetary and non-reward prizes and these prizes further managing an account part give more significance to financial rewards and economic reward. Danish & Usman (2010) clarified the effect of reward and recognition on employment fulfillment as well as inspiration of workers of the association. In this study, investigation shows close relationship between a few measurements of work inspiration and occupation fulfillment with relationship of money related and non-monetary reward.

Sarwar&abugre (2013) analyzed that rewardsinfluence on job satisfaction on employees in the service industry and its increase the performance of employees.Reward have positive impact on specialist performance in association in light of the fact that remunerates expand the work proficiency of laborers of the association. Reward and inspiration of representatives have positive association with one another (Pratheepkanth, 2011).

Accordingto Mishra and Dixit (2013) Monetary and non-money related rewards and profits are profoundly corresponded with employee’s inspiration in an association rewards framework. In view of positive relationship of in the middle of reward and inspiration likewise expand the employment fulfillment of employees. Work fulfillment prompts achievement and emotions of accomplishment amid the employment. Additionally connected expand gainfulness, build laborer's endeavors on occupation and prompts satisfaction eagerness, feeling of satisfaction (Kaliski, 2007).Rewards promote happiness and job satisfaction which increase productivity and employee performance (Boehm and Lyubomirsky, 2008).

Intrinsic and extrinsic rewards are determinants work satisfaction and employee performance (Clifford, 1985). As indicated by Andrew and Kent (2004) clarified in his examination all the workers rotate around the reward and recognition so the both viewpoints have much significance for representatives. Great reward framework help to hold superior workers in the firm scorecards must be satisfy the superior worker's sentiments (Carraher, Gibson and Buckley, 2006).

Bishop (1987) disclosed that pay identifies with profit and reward framework identify with size of the firm. Financial and non-monetary prizes rouse the workers of any association and these reward likewise brought about higher development and benefit (Reio and Callahon, 2004).The outcomes in mirror that there is a measurably noteworthy relationship between reward and recognition individually, and inspiration and fulfillment. The study revealed that if prizes or recognition offered to representatives were to be adjusted, then there would be a relating change in work inspiration and fulfillment and performance (Ali and Ahmed, 2009).

2.4 Employee Performance

Employee performanceincorporate work conditions, the association in the middle of employee and employer, methodology of preparing and change opportunities, employer stability and complete arrangements of firm compensating. What's more, inspiration, as the aftereffect of remunerating, influences the staffs conduct and their execution specifically. Really, among all compelling components on employees execution, inspiration, which is the result of compensating, is the most paramount and key component. This idea comprises of diverse methodologies which influence employees conduct to accomplish some positive objectives (Gohari, Kamkar, Hosseinipour andZohoori, 2013).Human asset gives the premises to an organization further achieve accomplish supportable good advantage. Attracting and holding able workforce is a testing undertaking for each organization. It is distinguished that worker execution can be enhanced when organizations are inspired to attain their objectives.

Performance management is a process for enhancing authoritative execution by creating the execution of people and groups. Numerous methodologies, for example, objective setting methodologies, estimation and criticism methodology, occupation configuration approach and prize and distinguished methodology have been created and embraced on the planet with the point of expanding employee performance (Edirisooriyaa, 2014).

In the point of view of employee there is a contrast between job performance and effort. Effort is a representation and input to work and job performance is a result of output. Organization point of view effort and job performance may be hard to recognize an effort that is frequently surmised from the come about that is created (Christen, Lyer and Soberman, 2005).

Measuring performance is of great importance to an incentive plan because it communicates the importance of established organizational goals. “What gets measured and rewarded gets attention” (Bohlander, Snell and Sherman, 2001). In discipline of human resource management, different writers suggest the following indicators Measuring performance is of extraordinary significance to a motivator arrangement on the grounds that it imparts the significance of created hierarchical objectives. "What gets measured and rewarded gets consideration" (Bohlander et al.,2001). In control of human asset management, distinctive researchers recommend the accompanying pointers for measuring employee performance and they include quality that can be measured by rate of work yield that must be redone or is rejected. Customer satisfaction that can be measured by the quantity of regal clients and client feedback.

For measuring worker performance and they include: quality that can be measured by rate of work yield that must be revamped or is rejected; Customer fulfillment that can be measured by the quantity of illustrious clients and client criticism. Additionally, opportunists, measured regarding how quick work is performed by the worker when given a certain task; truancy/lateness watched when employees missing themselves from work; and accomplishment of targets measured when a employees has surpassed his/her set targets, he/she is then considered to have performed well to attain to goals (Hakala, 2008).

The administration of individual performance inside associations has customarily focused on surveying performance and apportioning reward, with viable performance seen as the aftereffect of the communication between individual capacity and inspiration.It is progressively being perceived that arranging and an empowering situation have a basic impact on individual performance, with performance objectives and guidelines, proper assets, direction and backing from the supervisors all being focal (Torrington, Hall and Stephen, 2008).

Human asset approaches and practices to be sure do influence authoritative and in addition singular execution. Work fulfillment for instance, has for quite a while been seen as key to influencing business execution and additionally duty. What's more specialists have additionally recognized inspiration as the intervening system and some recognize trust and resolve. Despite later regard for responsibility, inspiration is still thought to be an imperative impact to execution (Torrington et al.,2008).

2.5 Relationship of Work Life Balance and Employee Performance

Work-life balance which principally manages an employee’s capacity to appropriately prioritize in work and his or her way of life, social life, well-being and family is enormously interfaced with employee performance and occupation fulfillment. Where there is fitting harmony in the middle of work and life, employees have a tendency to put in their best attempts at work, so that their family is contented. Most research studies have demonstrated that when there are cheerful homes, work puts consequently ended up clash free and charming spots to be. Expanding wearing down rates and expanding interest for work-life offset have constrained associations to look past common Human Resources mediation. Thus, activities, for example, adaptable working hours, option work game plans, leave strategies and profits in lieu of family mind obligations and representative support modified have turned into a noteworthy piece of a large portion of the organization profit customized and recompense bundle.

Work-life balance practices are intentional authoritative changes in projects or hierarchical society that are intended to decrease work-life conflict and empower representatives to be more successful at work and perform well. The move from review work-life balance hones exclusively as a method for pleasing single person representatives with forethought giving obligations to perceiving their commitment to hierarchical performance and representative engagement is a paramount ideal model move that is still really in procedure (Lazar, 2010).

The extreme performance of associations depends on the performance of its representatives, which thus it depends on various elements. These variables can be connected to work or family or both. Work life balance upgrades productivity also subsequently, the benefit of a worker increases. The fulfillment or disappointment of the employees influences the Performance of the association (Mukururiand Ngari, 2014).

H1= Work life balance is positively associated with employee performance.

2.6 Relationship of Career Development andEmployee Performance

Worker is a profitable asset (resource) of the association. The achievement or failure of the association depends on representative performance. Hence, associations are contributing gigantic measure of cash on career development (Hameed and Waheed, 2011). A career is a not only occupation, as well as spins around a process, a state of mind, conduct and a circumstance in a individual's work life to accomplish set career objectives.Despite the fact that Career is the property of individuals, however for the utilized, it is firm that ought to arrange and oversee representative career.Career development obliges activity from both associations and workers keeping in mind the end goal to give greatest profit for both (Patrick and Kumar, 2011).

The finding suggest that for Information Technology professionals the influence of knowledge management is crucial for career development of employees. It was suggested that to share knowledge, giving tangible and intangible reward to enhance career development and employee performance (Shani, and Divyapriya, 2013).

In adding, Career development has shown significant relation with turnover in a sample of bank workers and several other job related behaviors in a sample of accounts (Blau and Boal, 1987).The studies discoveries adjust to that of Umer (2011) when associations give chances to development and improvement, for example, diverse courses and instructive sponsorship then workers are more fulfilled by their employments. Likewise when workers are prepared they perform better and accomplish thanks for the work that eventually prompts work fulfillment.

The discoveries likewise bolster (Walia and Bajaj, 2012) that there ought to be constant tutoring by seniors. As per representatives, exercises like tutoring by seniors ought not to be diminished as meeting expectations experience will be expanded. Coaching/ drilling is needed at any sort or level of occupation paying little respect to work experience.

H2= Career development is positively associated with employee performance.

2.7 Relationship of Reward and Employee Performance

According to Fareed et al.,(2013) extrinsic and intrinsic are positively correlated with job satisfaction and employee performance. The Rewarding procedure itself needs to influence the Performance of representatives in the positive way as is normal by directors. In this respect, the Performance estimation can be utilized theoretically to know additionally training needs, promotions for candidates, management problems, dismissals, and job rotation (Bretz, 1992). According to Chris and Abiola (2004) the employees give great value to different reward which gives by the organization. Rewards can be utilized to enhance performance by setting focuses in connection to the work given e.g. surpassing a few business targets. At the point when the worker surpasses their target, he or she can be given an extra add up to their pay; this will make them endeavor to accomplish more (Maund, 2001).

Examination has demonstrated that when individual are acknowledged and commended they have a tendency to enhance their performance. This is an alternate way an association can apply as a reward to enhance performance. Commendation could be indicated in the association pamphlet or in gatherings. At the point when administrators require some investment to meet and perceive representatives who have performed well, it assumes a major part in upgrading workers' execution (Torrington et al.,2008).

Organization ought to remunerate representatives all the more frequently. This enormously enhances execution contrasted with having the prizes perhaps just once a year. This is on the grounds that continuous reward are effortlessly connected to the execution (Thomson andRampton, 2003). An alternate path through which associations can utilize reward frameworks to build yield is by customizing the reward. At the point when reward have a tendency to be so general, representatives don't esteem them. Associations can utilize prizes to enhance representative execution by consolidating evaluation or advancement for representatives who have a decent record of execution. Administrators ought to be watchful for workers who perform well.

H3= Reward is positively associated with employee performance.

2.8 Theoretical Framework

A theoretical framework for this study has been developed as shown in the below figure. It is based on the objective of the study and the knowledge obtained from literature review.

2.9 Hypothesis

After reviewing the literature, the following hypothesis can be proposed.

H1= Work life balance is positively associated with employee performance.

H2= Career development is positively associated with employee performance.

H3= Reward is positively associated with employee performance.

H4= Work life balance is negatively associated with employee performance.

H5= Career development is negatively associated with employee performance.

H6= Reward is negatively associated with employee performance.


This chapter explains research methods used in particular study. The main focus of this chapter is research design, sampling and sample characteristics, instrumentation, reliability and validity.

3.1. Research Design

This research determining which factors increase and decrease employee performance among petroleum sector of Pakistan. For this study Questionnaire method is used and data is collected from representative sample.

3.1.1. Quantitative Research

Researchers have choices to conduct research Qualitative or Quantitative it’s depend upon the nature of research. The present research is quantitative in nature data is collected from respondent through Questionnaire and data is analyzed using different statistical tool.

3.1.2. Cross Sectional Study

Researcher have optioned to conduct cross sectional and longitudinal research. Due to time constraint the present study is cross sectional in nature. The current research efforts to determine contributing factor of employee performance the appropriate design in cross sectional because the factor affect employee performance does not change in short period of time

3.1.3. Unit of Analysis

The unit of analysis elaborates the unit/level from where the data is collected. The present study is tackle which factors increase employee performance and which are most appropriate and relevant to our research in petroleum sector of Pakistan, the unit of analysis for present study is and individual.

3.2. Population and Sample

The population of this study is all employees of petroleum sector which are working in Pakistan.The sample size is of 300 respondents to study Impact of Work life balance, Career development andReward on Employee Performance in Petroleum Sector of Pakistan.

3.2.1. Sampling Technique

The man aim of sampling is to select a representative group of element that truly reflect the characteristic of population. The present study adopt convenient sample technique. Convenient sampling is adopted as it identifies the relevant respondents to be the employees of the petroleum sector of Rawalpindi region.

3.2.2. Instruments for Data Collection

For the tools of measure, personally administered structured questionnaire is used attached as appendix.[Not included in this publication for copyright reasons.]

3.2.3. Instruments for Data Analysis

For the data analysis, statistical package for social sciences is used and correlation analysis is done to determine the relationship as well as extent of associations between the variables and regression analysis is done to determine how much of the variance in employee performanceis explained by the work life balance, career development and reward.

3.3. Sample characteristics

The following tables indicate the sample characteristics from whom the data was collected.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

3.3.1. Age

The age composition of the study, respondents was also an important factor in the process of understanding the relationship between work life balance, career development reward and employee performance. This was so because different age groups were assumed to understand the study variables differently yet considered vital to the study.

Age is demographic variable of this study. Table 1 represent the composition of sample with reference to age group. Around 14.7 % of the respondent less than 25 years of age and 41 % of the respondent are within 26-35 age as well as 36-35, 46-55 and above 56 are 23.7%, 13.5% and 7.1% respectively.

3.3.2. Marital Status

The marital status of the respondents was also covered and analyzed to assess their views in relation to the study variables of relationship between the relationship between work life balances, career development reward and employee performance in petroleum sector of Pakistan. This contained of those who were single and married.

The second demographic variable is marital status. Marital status is very crucial in work life balance and its affect employee performance.

The composition of sample with reference to marital status. Around 69.2% respondent are married while and 30.8 % respondent are unmarried.

3.3.3. Qualification

In order to get information from all categories of people, those that have attained primary, secondary, tertiary, and university levels of education were all approached during the study process. This established the levels of education of the respondents.

The highest percentage of respondents possessed graduate degree. The reason for having majority of respondents with this degree is the fact that in petroleum sector organizations majority oflower level office jobs like assistants are selected on having at least graduate degree. A good number of respondents (23.7) possess master and above degree while Matric and Intermediate are 4.9% and 16.9% respectively. Thus an attempt was made to have data from employees having a diverse educational background .

3.3.4. Gender

Thefourth demographic variable is Gender. The gender of respondents was established. This aimed at knowing how males and females as community members actively participate in privates organizations in Uganda. The study targeted both male and female which gave a variety of findings that were not biased making it gender sensitive.

Majority of respondents are male while 18.8% unmarried public sector employees also filled in the questionnaire.

3.3.5. Organization Name

Thefifth demographic variable is organization name. The data is collected mostly from employees of Attock Oil Refinery 53.8% of the study because most of our friends and colleague are working there while 31.6% and 14.7 % are working in Oil and Gas development company limited and other organization such as Pakistan state oil and Shell petroleum pumps etc.

3.3.6. Employment Status

Result shows that out of 266 respondent 164 employees are permanent and 102 employees are non-permanent.

3.3.7. Job Status

TheSeven demographic variable is Job Status. It shows that 21.1% respondent job status are managerial while 78.9% respondent job status are non-managerial.

3.3.8. Work Experience

Theeight demographic variable is work experience. Result shows that 6-10, 11-15, 16-20, 21-25, 26 and above experience respondent are 32.7%, 20.3%, 4.5%, 5.3% and 5.3% respectively.

Reliability Test

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

3.3.9. Work Life Balance

Work life balance is important factor which affect the employee performance. The reliability score of this variable found as 0.736.

3.3.10.Career Development

Employees are the asset of the company which enableorganization to achieve its bench mark and desired targets. If employee is intrinsically satisfied thorough career development then they perform well.

Reliability analysis of Career Development

Initially the reliability score of career development was found to be 0.487. By deletion of fifth item, the reliability score improve to 0.616.


Reward is most influence factor of employee performance especially in underdeveloped country like Pakistan.

Reliability Analysis of Reward

Initially the reliability score of career development was found to be 0.437. By deletion of fifth item, the reliability score improve to 0.591.


Organization prosper and growth depend on the employee performance. Employee make one organization different than other and increase productivity and wealth of organization.

Reliability Analysis of Employee Performance

Initially the reliability score of career development was found to be 0.326. By deletion of second, third and fifth item, the reliability score improve to 0.512.

3.3.13.Data Analysis and Technique

Data was analyzed through SPSS using the following procedure:

- All complete questionnaire were be used.
- Each item of Questionnaire are coded.
- Coded data were entered into SPSS
- Correlation Analysis were used to found out the association between variables.
- Hierarchical regression analysis determined the relationship between the work life balance, Reward, career development and employee performance.
- The result will be discussed on the basis of novel of petroleum sector in Pakistan


In this chapter we will discuss the result and interpretation whether there is relationship between the independent and dependent variable. The dependent variable influence independent variable or not. To test various relationship correlation and regression analysis were used.

4.1. Descriptive Statistics

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

4.2. Correlations

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

The correlation analysis indicates that Work life balance hasinsignificant negative relationship with employee performance because its sig value is .306 which is greater than 0.05 and Pearson correlation is -0.63 which indicate negative relationship while career development and reward has positive significant relationship with Employee performance because both significant value is .000 which is less than 0.05 and Pearson correlation of career development is 0.343 and reward Pearson correlation is 0.43 which show positive relationship.

To further test the relationship between work life balance, reward, career development and employee performance regression analysis were used.

4.3. Regression

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Regression analysis indicates that employee performance has a significant impact on career development and reward while insignificant impact on work life balance because in underdeveloped country like Pakistan there is joint family system which help to reduce employee work life conflict activities and employee prefer reward and compensation as compare to work life balance activities

Summary of Accepted/Rejected Hypothesis

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten


This chapter presents and discuss the findings of the study. The findings serve to reinforce the existing knowledge proven about the relationship between work life balance, career development and reward with employee performance. The major objective of this chapter is to explain the result found in cheaper 4. It will also describe the result and highlight significant finding of preset study.

5.1. Research Questions

5.1.1. Research question 1

The first research question which this research attempt to answer we stated in chapter 1.

How work life balance affect employee performance among employee working in petroleum sector organizations of Pakistan?

To find out answer to above mention question hypothesis were developed and tested it is stated that the correlation and regression analysis indicated that insignificant negative relationship between work life balance and employee performance because Pakistan is developing country so poverty level is also significant here and one other thing is large family size that is why reward, career development and salary is a major indicator for employee performance in the Pakistan,

Many employees ignore work overload in front of reasonable salary because they are handling large family. Work life conflict is not big issue in this country because of joint family system. Family member share the burden of other members so employee feel relax at work place and they perform better.

5.1.2. Research question 2

How career development increase or decrease employee performance in petroleum sector organizations of Pakistan?

The hypothesis develop to answer the above mention research question were tested after data collection the result support the hypothesis that career development is significantly and positively associated with employee performance.

5.1.3. Research question 3

How reward motivates employee and their performance in Petroleum sector/organization in Pakistan?

The hypothesis develop to answer the above mention research question were tested after data collection the result support the hypothesis that reward is significantly and positively associated with employee performance.

5.2. Conclusion and Recommendations

An organization’s performance and outcome depends on the employees’ performance the organization have. In the context of Pakistan working hours are not prolong but the field job of petroleum sectors are so long as compare to the other sectors. For the purpose 300 questionnaires were distributed in petroleum employees. From this sample only 266 useful surveys were returned which were considered and used in accumulating the results of the studywhich indicates the relationship between the respective variables. The result of the surveys shows that there is a weak relationship between dependent and independent variables.

In light with the above study findings and conclusions, the following recommendations are made as under; Since career development and reward normally lead to immediate efficiency of the Company for improved performance, the study recommends management in manufacturing companies to always;

With a specific end goal to stay alluring in exceptionally aggressive worldwide investigation showcase, the Administration has been rolling out dynamic improvements in the speculation policies and regulations at customary interims.

There should be ventures taking into account new monetary motivating forces, straightforward and open administrative environment, affectation of business sector changes and innovative advances, the Legislature expects positive impact on neighborhood upstream market and trusts that forward force will be kept up.

The most fascinating conclusion of this study is that workers of creating nation like Pakistan additionally expect a quality work life as an indicator of their occupation fulfillment that will enhance their performance improvement. Just salary, incentive, work nature or work life balance, are not the most coveted desires of workers rather employees expect an aggregate adjust in their work life that have more grounded impact on their fulfillment and performance which Creates work life balance, career development and reward opportunity exercise periodically as if such factors are adopted together then performance and efficiency of the Company will be greatly influenced positively.

Moreover, longitudinal study is fundamental by including every single conceivable variable as these four components are not satisfying the broad ideas of precursors of occupational satisfaction. Predictably, this study gives a foundation to inspect the relationship among work life balance, reward, career development and employee has limited focus in their role.

The significance of reward in any association is extremely cruiser for the employees’ performance. It is regular process that human performance and fulfillment is taking into account inspiration and inspiration can be expanded with reward. This study demonstrates the speculation that remunerates absolutely change the employees’ performance in petroleum sector of Pakistan.

The study also recommends top management in most organizations to emphasis on the proper Employee performance determinant and measuring of efficiency deviations to identify weaknesses in the process of managing employee performance.

5.3. Limitations of the Study

The study was limited by funds as it was not be enough to cater for transport and secretarial services. The researcher however got financial support from her relatives to support her during the research processing.

Being the first research, the researcher lacked enough experience and skills during the process of her research. However, the researcher tried hand in hand with the help of her supervisor to make the required information for the whole research process in time.

The study was also faced with a problem of not finding all respondents in the time of the study due to them being too busy with the organization work. The researcher however made appropriate time table with the top company managers that suited all the respondents during the process of data collection for reliable and valid information


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Impact of Work Life Balance, Career Development and Reward on Employee. Performance in Petroleum Sector of Pakistan
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impact, work, life, balance, career, development, reward, employee, performance, petroleum, sector, pakistan
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Abdul Maalik (Author)Nafees Ahmed (Author)Imran Nazir (Author), 2015, Impact of Work Life Balance, Career Development and Reward on Employee. Performance in Petroleum Sector of Pakistan, Munich, GRIN Verlag,


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