A Routing Algorithm Based on Dynamic Forecast of Vehicle Speed and Position in VANET

Research Paper (postgraduate), 2015

4 Pages

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Reactive routing protocols such as GPSR, and Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV)routing determination on an interest or need premise and keep up just the courses that are at present being used, along these lines lessening the weight on the system when just a subset of accessibleroutes is in use at any time. Communicationamong vehicles will just utilize an exceptionally set number of routes, and therefore reactive routing is especially suitable for this application situation.

In this paper, we take the position that VANETs would to be sure end up being the systems administration stage that would support the future vehicular applications.We analyze the factors that are critical in deciding the networking framework over the future vehicular applications. We dissect the elements that are discriminating in choosing the systems administration structure over which the future vehicular applications would be conveyed and demonstrate that there are dynamic examination endeavors towards making VANETs a reality in the near future.


GPSR, Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV), VANET

I. Introduction

In the recent years, vehicular systems administration has picked up a ton of ubiquity among the business and scholastic examination group and is seen to be the most important idea for enhancing proficiency and security for future transportations. With the wireless technology becoming pervasive and cheap, several innovative vehicular applications are being examined. We arrange these applications into two primary classifications-1

A. Safety Related

Applications like road conditions warning, collision alert,deceleration warning merge assistance, etc. will be grouped undersecurity related applications where the fundamental accentuation ison timely disseminations of safety discriminating alarms to close-by vehicles.

B. Internet Connectivity Related

Accessing messages, web searching, sound and video streaming are a percentage of the network related applications where the accentuation is on the accessibility of high data transmission stable web integration.2

While Info-stations and 3Gfundamentally give the vehicle to foundation (gateway) communication (V2I) in the context of vehicular communication, VANETs assumes a more generic framework that includes both the vehicle to vehicle communication (V2V), vehicle to passenger communication (V2P) and limited V2I communication with higher accentuation on the V2V communication. It is imperative to comprehend that the V2I communication model in VANETs is not all around characterized and a large portion of the present proposition accept the vicinity of restricted or irregular internet connectivity 3.

In this paper, we the benefits of utilizing VANETs based approachas a part of comparison to a pure V2V or V2P or a pure V2I based solutions and take a position that a tight integrationof the V2Vand V2I functionalities would turn into the best model for thefuture vehicular applications. In particular, we underscore that thepoorly characterized V2I communication infrastructure in VANETswould head towards the supposed “3G” methodology where thereis pioneering usage of the best accessnetwork. We believe that thelatency concerns identified with the security applications wouldbe served by the high data transfer capacity, low inactivity V2Vbase and thedelay tolerant internet connectivity based applicationsand the security concerns would be tended to through the V2Iframework 4.

The fundamental elements that would impact the adoption ofVANET architecture for future vehicular applicationswould be -

1. Extensive development of intuitive and interactive media applications
2. Low latency prerequisites for security applications
3. Increasing concerns about privacy and security

While there are solid motivations to receive the VANET architectureas pointed above, there are likewise a few examination challengesthat needs to be addressed beforeVANETs could become widespread.They include -Data dissemination techniques, Lack of simulatorsfor protocol evaluations, Security and Privacy concerns, Marketpenetration/Bootstrapping issues, collision avoidance capabilityand Automatic incident detection and Driver distraction studies5.

We contend for the accomplishment of VANET architecture and elaborate on the above mentioned research challenges in the accompanying areas with a plan to persuade the peruse that there is in reality a dynamic effort towards bridging these gaps and VANETs with a hybrid V2I- V2P infrastructure would indeed become a reality for the future vehicular networking applications.

II. Objectives

Routing in VANET has the following problems to be analyzed:

1. Traffic information such as section travel time, density and flow rate must be analyzed.

2. Traffic congestion, Road conditions and information can be exchanged between vehicles, including speed, acceleration,direction, and position, which can greatly improve the vehiclesafety.

Proposed approach uses the vehicle-to-vehicle, vehicle-to-passenger and vehicle-to-infrastructure communication to ease congestion is specially based on beacon messages.

3. Total profit is collected as the driving time and waiting time of vehicles.

III. Related Work

As of now, the Car-2-Car Communication Consortium 6 recognizedguidelines for offering vehicle-to-vehicle trades furthermorereference protocol planning, however did not describe channeland traffic models, channel utilization, and routing algorithmsyet. This leaves the floor to further study and recommendation, especially in the context of routing.

To be sure, the basic thought of VANETs gets from the unquestionablycomprehended model of mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs),framework less systems where wireless hosts communicate witheach other in the absence of a fixed infrastructure Multihop datacorrespondence in VANETs is normally given through area basedad hoc routing protocols 7, a class of multihop routing for adhoc networks.

Traditionally, multi-hop routing for MANETs can be arrangedinto proactive and responsive algorithms: in proactive routingalgorithms, each node in the mobile ad hoc network maintains arouting table that contains the ways to every conceivable destination.If the system topology by regional standards changes, every singlerouting tables throughout the network have to be updated.

In the event that the hubs in the system are sensibly mobile, the overhead of control messages to upgrade the routing tables becomes prohibitive. Reactive routing algorithms, on the other hand, find routes only on demand. Routes are designed when they are required, keeping in mind the end goal to minimize the communication overhead. A detailed review of routing algorithms in mobile ad hoc systems can be found in 8, which were of late incorporated by numerous commitments.

In this framework, an interesting approach is represented by position-based routing algorithms, which oblige data about the physical position of the partaking hubs and it is precisely the class of algorithms envisaged to be implemented in VANETs, due to the continuous localization process performed by GPS devices equipped on vehicles.

In such schemes (like Location Aided Routing (LAR) 8 andDistance Routing Effect Algorithm for Mobility (DREAM) 9 ),the forwarding decision is primarily based on the position of thepacket destination and the position of the node’s immediate one-hop neighbors. A point by point study of protocols that do usegeographic area in the routing decision is presented in 10.

IV. Proposed Work

A. Implementation Architecture

VANETs are a manifestation of mobile ad-hoc networks to provide communications among close-by vehicles and in the middle of vehicles and between vehicles and nearby fixed equipment. To this end, exceptional radios and sensors would be embedded within the car. The V2V-V2P communication infrastructure assumes the presence of high bandwidth with low latency 11.

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Fig. 1: System Architecture of Proposed Solution

The radios regularly work on unlicensed band making the range free. V2V-V2P would be the security related application since the inactivity necessities for these applications are extremely stringent. The V2V-V2P foundation in VANETs can give low inactivity information scattering from the purpose of effect to the close-by vehicles utilizing short range radios.

B. Simulation components

Using NS-2 to simulate network transmission through the establishment of a statistical model, for the evaluation and design of network protocols to provide a good test platform and experiment, compare SWF-GPSR with AODV routing protocols. For comparison performance of the forwarding strategies, select three key markers for assessing for evaluating routing protocols for data collectionand analysis of results.

(i) Time efficiency: Time efficiency is used as the main efficiency factors.

Basic fuel charges: 550

Net profit: (Driving charge + Waiting charge) - fuel charge

(ii)Speed: Speed and acceleration are computing factors of efficiency of sensors.

Speed= Distance covered/ time

(iii) Route length: The number of nodes through which data packet from the source node to the destinationnode successfully posted, that is, the count of hop.

Route length= current position(x, y, z) - previous position(x, y,z)

(iv). Link Stability: The number of routing link changes in simulation time.

C. Implementation Processing

Implementation processes as per following simulation steps:

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Fig. 2: Initialization of Simulation of VANET

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Fig. 2 presents the initialization of simulation in which black circles are the vehicles and red are the passengers that standing at the corners of the roads.

Fig. 3: Proposed Solution Showing Sensor & Execution Work

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Fig. 4: Proposed Solution Showing Congestion Control andAlarm

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Fig. 3 presents the working of sensors. As the entire black loopgenerating are the execution of information collection processusing the sensors according to greedy approach. Fig. 4 presentsthe congestion control and alarm process. As the entire blackdots dropping from the sensors are the executions of congestion control and alarms.

V. Simulation Results

The new set of issues is composed of two groups:

1. Basic expense
2. Net profit

The simulation results are drawn on the basis of profit computed from the proposed solution. The profit is computed in terms of cost i.e. time (sec).

Fig. 5 presents the results of existing SWF-GPSR protocol in which we can see that the profit value is even in negative.

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Fig. 5: Results of existing SWF-GPSR protocol

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Fig. 6: Results of proposed AODV protocol

Fig. 5 presents the results of proposed AODV protocol in which we can see that the profit value is nearly 1000 in positive.

Comparative Analysis

Thus the enhanced solution provides better efficiency than theexisting SWF-GPSR routing protocol. Further AODV proposedmethod will increase the processing speed of the project. It alsoimplements the congestion alarm to enhance the security andtraffic control.

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Fig. 7: Comparison results of GPSR and AODV routingprotocol

VI. Conclusions

In this paper, changes in the distance and location from the relativespeed of vehicles,according to types of vehicles,makes heuristicgauge for vehicle velocity in light of wave variances in equilibriumtheory, achieves collection of the nodes of stable relative velocity,then designs the proposed AODV routing protocol to predictcontinuity and change timing ofvehicles speedand change timingof vehicles pace, and after that processes position that vehicles mayhappen in, figuring out the most brief course before limit sendingmodel is enacted. The outcomes demonstrate that the proposedAODV convention has better power and higher execution.

The next step of research is to enhance the speed forecastedcurve division rate and cutoff speed processing routines and moreproficient VANET routing algorithm for particular city road.


1 H. Hartenstein, H. Fuller, M. Mauve, W. Franz, “SimulationResults and Proof-of-Concept Implementation of the FleetNet

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A Routing Algorithm Based on Dynamic Forecast of Vehicle Speed and Position in VANET
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VANET, Routing Algorithms, Dynamic Position Forecasting
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Preeti Soni (Author)Amit Kumar (Author), 2015, A Routing Algorithm Based on Dynamic Forecast of Vehicle Speed and Position in VANET, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/306628


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