Factors Influencing Public Participation in Urban Planning Projects. A Case of Nairobi Central Ward


Project Report, 2015
65 Pages, Grade: 1

Excerpt

TABLE OF CONTENT

DEDICATION

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

TABLE OF CONTENT

LIST OF FIGURES

LIST OF TABLES

LIST OF ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATION

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION
1.1. Background to the Study
1.2. Statement of the Problem
1.3. Purpose of the Study
1.4. Objectives of the Study
1.5. Research Questions
1.6. Research Hypotheses
1.7. Significance of the Study
1.8. Delimitation of the Study
1.9. Limitations of the Study
1.10. Assumptions of the Study
1.11. Definitions of Significant Terms in the Study
1.12. Organization of the Study

LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1. Introduction
2.2. Public participation in urban planning projects
2.3. Public awareness and Participation in urban planning projects
2.4. Degree of accessibility and Participation in urban planning projects
2.5. Financial Situation and Participation in urban planning projects
2.6. Theoretical Framework
2.7. Conceptual Framework
2.8. Knowledge Gap
2.9. Summary of Literature Review

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1. Introduction
3.2. Research Design
3.3. Target Population
3.4. Sample Size and Sampling Procedure
3.5. Data Collection Instruments
3.6. Validity of the Instrument
3.7. Reliability of the Instruments
3.8. Data Collection Procedure
3.9. Data Analysis Techniques
3.10. Operational Definition of Variables
3.11. Ethical Considerations

DATA ANALYSIS, PRESENTATION AND INTERPRETATION
4.1. Introduction
4.2. Questionnaire return rate
4.3. Characteristics of the study respondents
4.4. Public awareness and public participation in urban planning projects
4.5. Degree of accessibility and public participation in urban planning
4.6. Financial Situation and public participation in urban planning projects
4.7. Combined influence of the independent variables on the dependent

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, DISCUSSIONS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1. Introduction
5.2. Summary of findings
5.3. Discussion of the findings
5.4. Conclusion
5.5. Recommendations
5.6. Suggestions for further research

REFERENCES

APPENDICES
Appendix 1: Factors Influencing Public Participation in Urban Planning: A Case of Nairobi Central Ward – Questionnaire
Appendix 2 (a): Participants who attended meetings held in Sub-counties when developing the NIUPLAN master plan
Appendix 2 (b): Participants who attended meetings meant for selected groups when developing the NIUPLAN master plan
Appendix 3: Summary of Public Advertisement by the NCC and JICA when developing the NIUPLAN master plan

DEDICATION

I dedicate this research project report to my mother Rosemary Kanini Mburia. In her words, “Rome was not built in a day.”

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I wish to express my gratitude to my supervisor Dr. John Mwaura Mbugua for his guidance, academic advice, attention, and encouragement throughout the project

Special thanks go to the University of Nairobi (UoN) for the Masters of Arts in Project Planning and Management (MAPPM) program and for giving me the opportunity to learn in this great institution. Lecturers of MAPPM at UoN, thank you for your commitment and sacrifice to equip me with project planning and management skills

LIST OF FIGURES

Fig 1 Conceptual framework

Fig 2 Map of Starehe Constituency (IEBC, 2013)

LIST OF TABLES

Table 3.1 Operational definition of variables

Table 4.1 Questionnaire return rate

Table 4.2 Employment status of respondents aggregated by age and sub-location

Table 4.3: Frequency accessing information from various sources and participation in urban planning projects

Table 4.4: Mean, Variance and SD of responses on public awareness

Table 4.5 Correlation of indicators of public awareness and participation in urban planning projects

Table 4.6 How frequently the respondents said they experienced certain aspects of accessibility when accessing places in Nairobi city

Table 4.7 Mean, Variance and SD of responses on the degree of accessibility

Table 4.8 Correlation of indicators for degree of accessibility and public participation in urban planning projects

Table 4.9 Financial situation of research participants

Table 4.10 Mean, Variance and SD of respondents financial situation

Table 4.11 Correlation of indicators for financial situation and public participation in urban planning projects.

LIST OF ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATION

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

ABSTRACT

The purpose of the study was to establish how certain factors (public awareness, degree of accessibility, and one’s financial situation) influence public participation in urban planning projects. These factors were: The study was conducted in Nairobi Central Ward. Nairobi was preferred because it recently adopted a new master plan: Nairobi Integrated Urban Development Master Plan (NIUPLAN) which was said to have been developed through a consultative process. The objectives of the study were to establish how: public awareness, degree of accessibility, and financial situation influenced public participation in urban planning projects. The study is significant in the sense that by exploring some of the factors that might influence public participation in urban planning, urban planners can come up with remedial approaches which would ensure that their future planning activities are more inclusive, pro-poor and hence sustainable. The study used cross-sectional survey research design. A sample size of 375 participants was selected from a population of 13,325 inhabitants within Nairobi Central Ward. This sample was divided equally into three regional clusters: City Square; Muthurwa; and Nairobi Central sub-locations found in Nairobi Central Ward. Up to 333 participants returned the 375 self-administered questionnaires making up for a response rate of 88.80%. Analyses of test-retest reliability gave an index of 0.79. A correlational analysis performed on the collected data established that there was a very weak relationship between public awareness and participation in urban planning projects but there was no relationship between degree of accessibility and public participation in urban planning projects. It was also established that there exists a weak positive correlation between a person’s financial situation (income, expenditure and savings) and their participation in urban planning projects.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1. Background to the Study

Urbanization leads to the concentration of people in dense human settlements called urban centers (US EPA, 2012). According to a 2014 report by the United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN DESA), settlement are often classified as urban based on “a combination of characteristics, such as: a minimum population threshold; population density; proportion employed in non-agricultural sectors; the presence of infrastructure such as paved roads, electricity, piped water or sewers; and the presence of education or health services” (UN DESA, 2014, p. 4).

The United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (UNCHS) established that at least 3 billion people in the world lived in towns and cities as of the year 2000. The world population then was projected to grow at a daily average rate of 211,000 with about 180,000 people being added to the urban population every day (UNCHS, 2001). Of all regions, Africa has the fastest rate of urbanization today and when combined with Asia, these two will have the highest numbers of urban dwellers by the year 2030. The sad reality to these explosive population growth rates is poverty with 750 million of the one billion poor people in the world live in urban centers today and a majority of the future urban population is expected to be poor (UNCHS, 2001).

It is now estimated that 62% of the urban population in sub-Saharan Africa resides in informal settlements (Arimah, 2009). These slum dwellers experience some of the worst environmental and living conditions known to man and they tend to be excluded from participating in the economic, social, political and cultural spheres of the city (Arimah, 2009). Sadly, the poor and other marginalized communities are ignored during urban planning processes (UNFPA, 2007). The United Nations also notes that even though urbanization is an indicator of development, developing countries are struggling with their rapid rates of urbanization. These struggles are far from over considering that 60% of the projected 8.2 billion people in the world are expected to reside in urban areas come the year 2030: 742 million of these 8.2 billion people are expected to reside in African cities alone and this is more than two and a half times the urban population in the year 2000 (UNDP, 2006). Over 2.2 billion more people are expected to be added to the urban populations in Asia and Africa between 2014 and 2050 as urbanization in Africa is expected to grow by 56% in the same period (UNPD, 2006).

Urbanization is integrally connected to economic development, social development and environmental protection: the three pillars of sustainable development. This reality led the UN to conclude that unplanned urbanization, like rapid human population growth, is a serious threat to sustainable development (UN DESA, 2014). Therefore, all urban settlements need proper planning.

However, sustainable urban planning for future urban growth and development requires the explicit consideration of the needs of the poor, gender analysis, attention to youth and the needs of the elderly will become ever more important as population structures continue to change with time (UNFPA, 2007).

1.2. Statement of the Problem

Experience from various urban planning projects has shown that very few members of the public wish to participate in urban planning projects (Kjaersdam, 1988). This is in spite of the many advantages associated with public participation in planning. For example, the greater the number of public participants: the more likely it is that the plan will reflect their needs and concerns accurately, the higher the chances that the plan will be implemented, and the harder it becomes for public officials to ignore the plan (Al-Kodmany, Public Participation: Technology and Democracy, 2000).

Take the example of the recently launched NIUPLAN master plan. NIUPLAN is said to be a product of rigorous consultations between multiple stakeholders including members of the general public (JICA, 2014). However, based on the poor attendance records obtained and summarized in Appendix 4 (a) and (b), it becomes apparent that, despite all the invitations sent out by the NCC as outlined in Appendix 5, very few members of the public participated in its formulation process.

But why do few people participate in urban planning projects? Could it be that the public is often unaware of such planning activities? Are they informed but choose not to participate because they have problems accessing meeting venues? Or does one’s financial status influence his/her participation in urban planning projects?

1.3. Purpose of the Study

The study sought to establish some of the factors influencing public participation in urban planning: a case of Nairobi Central Ward.

1.4. Objectives of the Study

The objectives of the study were to:

1. Find out the extent to which public awareness influences participation in urban planning projects.
2. Establish the degree of accessibility within Nairobi city and how this influences public participation in urban planning projects.
3. Ascertain the extent to which people’s financial situations influence their participation in urban planning projects.

1.5. Research Questions

Questions that helped guide the study were:

1. How does public awareness influence participation in urban planning projects?
2. To what extent does the degree of accessibility influence public participation in urban planning projects?
3. How does financial situation influence public participation in urban planning?

1.6. Research Hypotheses

The study sought to test whether the following hypotheses were true or not:

H01 There is no relationship between public awareness and participation in urban planning projects.

H02 There is no relationship between the degree of accessibility and public participation in urban planning projects.

H03 There is no relationship between people’s financial situation and their participation in urban planning projects.

1.7. Significance of the Study

This study is important to urban development planners. A key principle to sustainable urban development is implementing urban plans that are sensitive to the needs of the people. By exploring some of the factors that might influence public participation in urban planning projects, urban planners can come up with remedial approaches which would ensure that their future planning activities are more inclusive, pro-poor and hence sustainable.

1.8. Delimitation of the Study

The study focused on public awareness, degree of accessibility, and financial situation as the only factors influencing public participation in urban planning projects. The research was carried out in Nairobi Central Ward as shown in Figure 2 under the Appendix section.

1.9. Limitations of the Study

The limitations of the study included: the high cost of undertaking the study and the short time frame within which the study was to be completed. To overcome these limitations, the research was conducted within Nairobi Central Ward (NCW) and with the selected sample being divided equally into three clusters: City Square; Muthurwa; and Nairobi Central sub-locations found in NCW.

1.10. Assumptions of the Study

The study assumed that research respondents would be available and that they would readily respond to the research questions. The study also assumed that all secondary data used was accurate and reliable.

1.11. Definitions of Significant Terms in the Study

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

1.12. Organization of the Study

This study is organized into five chapters: Introduction; Literature Review; Methodology of the Study; Data Analysis, Presentation and Interpretation; and Summary of Findings, Discussions, Conclusions and Recommendations. Chapter one discusses the background to the study and the problem for the research study. An overview of the purpose, objectives, research questions and hypotheses is provided together with the scope, limitations and assumptions to be made in the study. The Literature Review in Chapter two describes public participation in urban planning projects, public awareness and participation in urban planning projects, ease of access and participation in urban planning projects, and financial situation and participation in urban planning projects formed be the basis of the study. The knowledge gap emerging from the reviewed literature, theoretical, and conceptual framework for the study are provided at the end of Chapter two. Chapter three presents the methodological approach to be used for the study by presenting the: research design; target population; sample size and sampling procedure; data collection instruments; validity of the instruments; reliability of the instruments; data collection procedure; data analysis techniques; operational definition of variables; and ethical considerations. The data analysis; interpretation; and presentation techniques are described in Chapter four. Chapter five (summary of findings; discussions; conclusions; and recommendations) form the last part of the study.

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1. Introduction

The literature to be reviewed is divided into the following parts: public awareness and urban planning projects; degree of accessibility within the city and urban planning projects, financial situation and urban planning projects, theoretical framework, conceptual framework, and a summary of reviewed literature.

2.2. Public participation in urban planning projects

Cities have been in existence for over 5,000 years but it wasn’t until the Industrial Revolution that people began moving into urban centers at exponential rates. Most urbanization theories tend to link urbanization to industrialization but this notion may not hold true when it comes to some developing economies. It has been proven that urbanization can also be linked to: income per capita growth; large quantities of food imports and tradable goods production; and the abundance of natural resources (Gollin, Jedwab, & Vollrath, 2013). There are several other factors that cause urbanization but the underlying fact is that most urban settlements in developing economies are socially, economically and environmentally challenged. Urban cities in developing countries are characterized by: congestion and sprawl; poor infrastructure; high levels of crime and violence; environmental and health challenges; broken sewerage and limited solid waste management facilities among other sore sites (Cohen, 2006).

Well planned cities have a number of advantages: a city increases its number of jobs by 15% by simply being well planned; it encourages social cohesion by building houses that cater for all income classes within the same neighborhoods; the practice of mixed land use makes them more compact which cuts the need for long commutes; social exchange is cultivated by allocating at least 30% of their land to public recreational facilities like parks; they release less air pollutants by encouraging the use of clean transportation like bicycles and electric trains; and they are greener, healthier and more resilient to the adverse effects of climate change and global recessions (Janicki, 2014).

Urban planning goes as far back as the ancient Egyptian civilization. It was regarded as a profession around the year 1900 when theorists began developing planning models to mitigate the negative effects of the industrial age. The planning process involved consultations between visionaries, engineers and local councilors. Today, this web of stakeholders has expanded to include politicians, members of the public and academicians among other stakeholders. The urban planning process involves coming up with a plan to guide development activities of a given urban settlement (Fainstein, 2014).

The urban planning process and profession has changed considerably over the years with the focus today being on its sustainability. In fact, experienced urban planners held a series of discussions in 2006 on issues regarding urban planning and sustainable development. These planners published a list of 10 principles to sustainable urbanization in a paper titled, “Reinventing Planning: A New Governance Paradigm for Managing Human Settlements.” This paper is what set out the thinking behind the Declaration of Principles and Best Practices for Sustainable Urbanization (World Planners Congress, 2006). The ten principles of sustainable urbanization include: promoting sustainable development; integrated planning; linking plans with budgets; involving partners and stakeholders; subsidiarity; market responsiveness; access to land; appropriate planning tools; pro-poor and inclusiveness; and embrace cultural diversity (Farmer, et al., 2006).

Kenya, and Nairobi to be specific, has had several urban plans: first was the 1898 Plan of Nairobi, followed by the 1926 Plan for a Settler Capital. The 1948 Master Plan for a Colonial Capital steered development activities within the city from then on and ten years into independence (Makworo & Mireri, 2011). All these plans had an underlying racial segregation theme in them.

After independence, Nairobi witnessed a proliferation of people from rural areas. Ten years later, the post-independence government launched the 1973 Nairobi Metropolitan Growth Strategy. Though the plan was ambitious, it neglected the interests of the urban majority and advanced segregation along economic and class lines. The 1984-1988 Nairobi City Commission Development Plan outlined the development needs of the housing; health and environment; sewerage; social services; transport and other sectors yet little came of its implementation. In 1993, the Nairobi City Council invited stakeholders, professionals and ordinary citizens to the Nairobi City Convention to participate in forging the kind of city they would like to have. However, most of their ideas were disregarded during the planning process (Owuor & Mbatia, 2008).

Realistic and sustainable urban plans must be all inclusive: providing equal opportunities for all inhabitants of a city to participate in its development and implementation. Excluding any class or group within an urban settlement erodes a people’s sense of social cohesion which in turn compromises on the survival of the city (Farmer, et al., 2006). Social exclusion can be contained by encouraging the participation of all members of the public in the planning and implementation of projects (Barnes, 2005).

Public participation is involving people who will be affected by a decision in the decision making process. It “might involve public meetings, surveys, open houses, workshops, polling, citizen’s advisory committees and other forms of direct involvement with the public.” (IAP2, 2007). Public participation is at the center of sustainable urban planning and development which aims at improving the social, economic and environmental quality of urban settlements and the living and working conditions of everyone, especially the marginalized (Agenda 21, 1992). “Such improvement should be based on technical cooperation activities, partnerships among the public, private and community sectors and participation in the decision-making process by community and special interest groups such as women, indigenous people, the elderly and the disabled” (Agenda 21, 1992, p. 46).

There are varied opinions on what a good public planning process should be and, “this has inspired the search for principles that characterize good public participation processes” (Webler, Tuler, & Krueger, 2001, p. 435). Even so, a decent public planning process should capture the diversity of public views (Bastidas, 2004).

There are several factors which affect the willingness of citizens to voluntarily participate in consultative forums. These factors are either innate or influenced by the community and the reputation established by the inviting institution. Some of these factors include: costs/benefits analysis, affective and reactive emotions, perceived trust in institutions, sense of community, and personal curiosity (Mannarini, Fedi, & Trippetti, 2009).

Encouraging citizen participation in planning and development activities is beneficial to any urban settlement. For example, participation gives citizens a greater say in the decisions that affect their daily lives. Public participation improves the quality of construction and the management of local infrastructure projects (Mansuri & Rao, 2013). Involving the community in planning also enhances citizen commitment; increases user satisfaction; creates realistic expectations of outcomes; and aids in building mutual trust within the community and between the community and other stakeholders (Al-Kodmany, 1999).

When people are barred from participating in community development projects then it is said that they have been marginalized. Marginalization is a condition of social exclusion in which some people are barred from fully or partially accessing universal goods and services (Barnes, 2005). These basic privileges include: natural resources; basic human rights; public goods and services; and the ability to participate in socioeconomic, cultural or political activities. Failing to share these privileges dilutes a people’s quality of life and a society’s sense of cohesion (Levitas, et al., 2007).

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Details

Title
Factors Influencing Public Participation in Urban Planning Projects. A Case of Nairobi Central Ward
College
University of Nairobi  (School of Continuing and Distance Education)
Course
Masters of Arts in Project Planning and Management (MAPPM)
Grade
1
Author
Year
2015
Pages
65
Catalog Number
V307523
ISBN (eBook)
9783668075269
ISBN (Book)
9783668075276
File size
744 KB
Language
English
Tags
participation, urban planning, awareness, ease of access, financial situation, project management, sustainable urban development
Quote paper
B W Namano (Author), 2015, Factors Influencing Public Participation in Urban Planning Projects. A Case of Nairobi Central Ward, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/307523

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