The Interactions of Beta Particles with Matter. The Mass Attention Coefficient and Particles Producing Bremsstrahlung


Scientific Study, 2015
49 Pages

Excerpt

INTERACTIONS OF BETA PARTICLES WITH MATTER
Page 2
Experimental Interpretation of
interactions of beta particles with matter
The apparatus used in this experiment is the GM counter with its operating voltage set to
540volts.The block diagram of the experimental apparatus is as shown below;
Experimental setup:
Block Diagram of the experimental arrangement:
Counter
GM tube at a
constant
distance from
h
Beta Source
Absorbe

INTERACTIONS OF BETA PARTICLES WITH MATTER
Page 3
Experiment 1:
AIM:To find the mass-attenuation co-efficient of metals and compounds
using beta source Tl-204:
Formula: Mass attenuation co-efficient
(µ/) = 1.52 (Z
4/3
) (1/AE
1.485
) cm
2
gm
-1
Z = Atomic number
A = Mass number
E = End point energy of Thallium source
Experimental arrangement:
5.1.2: Experimental Procedure:
1. Connect the GM-tube to the digital counter/power supply and switch on.
2. Set the operating voltage to 540Volts.
3. Without the radioactive source present find the background count for 60 seconds .
4. Set up the apparatus as in the diagram(with the thinnest absorber in place)with the very
fragile and expensive front of the GM tube at a known constant distance from the
source.
5. Record the count received by the counter over a period of 60 seconds.
6. Repeat stages 3 to 4 with the increasing thickness of absorber.
7. Plot a graph of corrected count against absorber thickness.

INTERACTIONS OF BETA PARTICLES WITH MATTER
Page 4
8. Use graph to determine the half value thickness of the absorber (i.e.,the thickness of
absorber required to reduce the number of beta particles byhalf of its counts without
any absorber.This is known as the half-thickness
/
).
9. Also plot the graph of ln I
t
V/s corrected thickness. The slope of this straight line gives
the mass attenuation coefficient of the absorber used.
10.Repeat the procedure for different absorber materials.
5.1.3: Absorbers used ;
METAL ATOMIC
NUMBER (Z)
DENSITY
in()
gm/cm
3
1. Silver 47
10.49
2. Iron 26
7.87
3. Steel 29.16
7.8
4. Brass 29.40
8.470
5. Copper 29
8.96
6. Aluminum 13
2.7
Source used;
Thallium-204
End point energy, E= 0.764
Range of electrons;
R= 4.07 x (E
m
)
1.38
= 4.07 x (0.764)
1.38
= 2.81 kg m
-2
I ) Attenuation of beta particle from Tl-204 using Silver as target;

INTERACTIONS OF BETA PARTICLES WITH MATTER
Page 5
Back Ground Counts for 60 seconds:
I
II
III
23
17
25
Mean 21.66
Density of Ag = 10.49gm/cm
3
.
Thickness Corrected Counts for 60 seconds Corrected
Thickness counts
ln(I
t
)
In cm. in gm/cm
2
t
t '=t
I
II
III
Mean(I
0
) I
t
=I
0
-I
b
0 0 22562
22774
2254
22625
22603.34
10.025
0.004 0.0419 19190
19040
19023
19084 19062.34 9.855
0.008 0.0839 16411
16313
16482
16402 16380.34 9.703
0.012
0.1258
13796
14002
13808
13868
13846.34 9.535
0.016
0.164
11000
11000
11001
11000
10978.34 9.303
1.Graph of I
t
v/s t' ;
0.00
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.10
0.12
0.14
0.16
0.18
10000
12000
14000
16000
18000
20000
22000
24000
co
rrected c
o
un
ts
co rre cted thickn ess
I
0
= 22603.34
I
0
/2= 11301.67
0.693/0.159= 4.35
2. Graph ln(I
t
) v/s corrected thickness (t');

INTERACTIONS OF BETA PARTICLES WITH MATTER
Page 6
Mass Attenuation coefficient ;
m
= 4.35 cm
2
/gm (From graph 1)
m
= 4.13 cm
2
/gm (From graph 2)
Linear attenuation ;
= x
m
= 10.49 x 4.35 = 45.63 cm
-1
ii ) Attenuation of beta particle from Tl-204 using Iron as target;
Back Ground Counts for 60 seconds:
I
II
III
13
19
15
Mean 15.66
Density of Fe = 7.87 gm/cm
3
.
0.00
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.10
0.12
0.14
0.16
0.18
9.0
9.2
9.4
9.6
9.8
10.0
ln
I
t
corrected thickness
Slope (AB/BC)=4.12

INTERACTIONS OF BETA PARTICLES WITH MATTER
Page 7
Thickness Corrected Counts for 60 second Corrected
Thickness counts
ln(I
t
)
In cm. In gm/cm
2
t
t '= t
I
II
III
Mean(I
0
) I
t
=I
0
-I
b
0
0
20695 20962
20658
20771.6
20756 9.94
0.019
0.149
683
614
614
637
621.34 6.43
0.038
0.299
25
25
31
27
11.34 2.42
0.057
0.448
30
20
23
24.33
8.67 2.15
0.076 0.598 21
18 20 19.66 4 1.38
1.Graph of I
t
v/s t' ;
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
cor
rec
ted
co
un
ts
corrected thickness
I
0
=22756
I
0
/2=10378
(0.693/0.075)=9.24
2.Graph ln (I
t
) v/s corrected thickness (t');

INTERACTIONS OF BETA PARTICLES WITH MATTER
Page 8
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0
2
4
6
8
10
ln I
t
corrected thickness(t')
slope (AB/BC)= 11.02
Mass Attenuation coefficient ;
m
= 9.24 cm
2
/gm (From graph 1)
m
= 11.02 cm
2
/gm (From graph 2)
Linear attenuation;
= x
m
= 7.87 x 9.24
= 72.71 cm
-1
iii ) Attenuation of beta particle from Tl-204 using Steel as target;
Back Ground Counts for 60 seconds:
I
II
III
23
17
25
Mean 21.66
Density of Steel = 7.8 gm/cm
3
.

INTERACTIONS OF BETA PARTICLES WITH MATTER
Page 9
Thickness Corrected Counts for 60 second Corrected
Thickness counts ln(I
t
)
In cm. in gm/cm
2
t
t '= t
I
II
III
Mean(I
0
) I
t
=I
0
-I
b
0
0
22368
22261
22276
22301.66
22280 10.01
0.012
0.936
2253
2218
2228
2233
2211.34 7.70
0.028
0.2184
59
53
52
54.66
33 3.49
0.043
0.3354
25
30
23
26
4.34 1.467
0.055 0.429 24 22 32 26
4.34
1.467
1. Graph of I
t
v/s t' ;
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
corrected counts
corrected thickness
I
0
=22280
I
0
/2=11140
(0.693/0.05)=13.86
2.Graph of ln(I
t
) v/s corrected thickness (t');
0 .0
0 .1
0 .2
0 .3
0 .4
0 .5
0
2
4
6
8
1 0
ln (I
t
)
c o rr e c te d th ic k n e s s
s lo p e ( A B /B C ) = 1 8

INTERACTIONS OF BETA PARTICLES WITH MATTER
Page 10
Mass Attenuation coefficient ;
m
= 13.86 cm
2
/gm (From graph 1)
m
= 18 cm
2
/gm (From graph 2)
Linear attenuation;
= x
m
= 7.8 x 13.86
= 108.10 cm
-1
iv ) Attenuation of beta particle from Tl-204 using Brass as target;
Back Ground Counts for 60 seconds:
I
II
III
15
15
17
Mean 15.66
Density of Brass(Cu
3
Zn
2
) = 8.470 gm/cm
3
.
Thickness Corrected Counts for 60 second Corrected
Thickness counts
ln(I
t
)
In cm. in gm/cm
2
t
t '= t
I
II
III
Mean(I
0
) I
t
=I
0
-I
b
0
0
23130
23007 23166
23101
23085.34 10.04
0.005
0.042
10650
10730 10631
10670.33
10654.67 9.273
0.01
0.084
3923
3883
3890
3898.33
3882.67 8.264
0.015
0.124
1057
1084
1064
1068.33
1052.67 6.959
0.02
0.169
306
304
314
308
292.34 5.677
0.025
0.211
79
81
76
78.66
63
4.143

INTERACTIONS OF BETA PARTICLES WITH MATTER
Page 11
1.Graph of I
t
v/s t
'
;
0 .0 0
0 .0 5
0 .1 0
0 .1 5
0 .2 0
0 .2 5
0
5 0 0 0
1 0 0 0 0
1 5 0 0 0
2 0 0 0 0
2 5 0 0 0
co
rr
e
ct
ed co
unt
s
c o r r e c te d th ic k n e s s
I
0
= 2 2 5 0 0
I
0
/2 = 1 1 2 5 0
0 .6 9 3 /0 .0 4 = 1 7 .3 2 5
2.Graph of ln I
t
v/s corrected thickness (t');
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.25
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
ln I
t
corrected thickness
slope(AB/BC)=25.88
Mass Attenuation coefficient ;
m
= 17.325 cm
2
/gm (From graph 1)
m
= 25.88 cm
2
/gm (From graph 2)
Excerpt out of 49 pages

Details

Title
The Interactions of Beta Particles with Matter. The Mass Attention Coefficient and Particles Producing Bremsstrahlung
Author
Year
2015
Pages
49
Catalog Number
V308297
ISBN (eBook)
9783668081024
ISBN (Book)
9783668081031
File size
999 KB
Language
English
Notes
Co-Authors of this text are: Bhagyashree B. H., Chandrakala V. H., Kavita M. A., Prabhavati B. V., Shruti I. B., Arunkumar, Ashwini B., Chetana M. H. and Priyanka G. H.
Tags
interactions, beta, particles, matter, mass, attention, coefficient, producing, bremsstrahlung
Quote paper
Farheen Banu Dawadi et al. (Author), 2015, The Interactions of Beta Particles with Matter. The Mass Attention Coefficient and Particles Producing Bremsstrahlung, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/308297

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