Change Management and its Implications for HR Activities

Master's Thesis, 2015

86 Pages, Grade: 3.8


Table of content



List of tables

List of figures


1.1 Motivational reason for this study
1.2 Research Background:
1.3 Purpose of the Research
1.4 Research issue (HR implication)
1.5 Aims, Objectives, Research Questions and Hypothesis
1.6 Research objectives
1.7 Research questions
1.8 Methodology. (Qualitative research method)
1.9 Reason for chosen this method
1.10 Overall Structure of the dissertation

2 Theoretical Background
2.1 Why Change?
2.2 The Context Of Change (Hr Involvement)
2.3 Forces of Change
2.4 Internal environment
2.5 Performance gap:
2.6 Employee needs and values:
2.7 Change in top management:
2.8 Change in product life cycle of a commodity:
2.9 External environment
2.10 Business scenario:
2.11 Environmental factors:
2.12 Consumer Preference:
2.13 Extent of adoption
2.14 Importance of change management in an organization
2.15 Employee capacity to adapt to change:
2.16 Communication:
2.17 Workforce:
2.18 The Role of Leadership
2.19 Leadership behavior during change
2.20 Reactive Approach
2.21 Conscious Approach

3 Overview: Change and its scope of transformation
3.1 Resistance
3.2 Employee as human (Perception and mix-feelings)
3.3 Psychological Empowerment
3.4 Previous experience with change
3.5 Scope of transformation

4 Research design and methodology
4.1 Case study
4.2 FSDH (Brief history)
4.3 The research design and methodology
4.4 Sources of Data
4.5 Samples and Sampling Techniques
4.6 Data Collection
4.7 Questionnaires
4.8 Interview
4.9 Methods of Data Analysis

5 Qualitative data presentation, findings, analysis and critical discussion
5.1 Findings (Characteristics of Respondents)
5.2 Qualitative data presentation, analysis and interpretation
5.3 Interview Procedures / pattern
5.4 Results and Discussion from the interviews
5.5 Cause of Change in FSDH LTD
5.6 Discourses
5.7 Change initiative
5.8 Centre for attention of change
5.9 Ways of creating positive feelings amongst the employee
5.10 Problem encountered during the change
5.11 The HRM directorate (change objectives)
5.12 Human Resource Management officer: Team Leader
5.13 FSDH Change experience
5.14 Research Implication
5.15 The researcher's thoughts on change

6 Conclusions, Recommendations, and Limitations. Suggestions for Further Research
6.1 Conclusion
6.2 Recommendation
6.3 Change Management and HR Practices: Change Best Practices
6.4 Limitation of the Practice
6.5 Suggestion for future work


APPENDIX: Questionnaire


GOD over everything, the omnipresent and the most merciful, and compassionate. Words are bound, knowledge is limited and time is short to express his dignity. It is an infinite blessing that GOD has bestowed me great potential and ability with the support of the school to have contributed towards an already existing deep ocean of knowledge.

I pay homage to a great personality of the Institute; my dissertation coordinator (Asso. Prof. Fazeela Banu) who guided me throughout the dissertation; my source and spring of motivation in every sphere during the course of the dissertation.

At the very outset, I would like to show my warm hearties and deepest and sincerest sense of admiration to all my worthy lecturers of AMITY INSTITUTE OF HIGHER EDUCATION Mauritius Branch Campus, especially my programme coordinator (Dr. M. Kumar) for his inspiring guidance and constructive criticism.

I am highly thankful for the cooperation of Mr. Gabriel K Agboro, Mrs B. Bakare, Mr. Vincent Omoike, Mrs. Hamda Ambah, Mr. Ibrahim Dikko, Mr. Rilwan Belo-Osagie, and the whole staff members of FSDH MERCHANT BANK LTD, for their immense support as well as other needed support rendered during the conducted research survey. I might have not been able to complete my dissertation without their cooperation and kind behaviour. I am also grateful to all my sincere fellows and my family members who I had ever remembered for their continued encouragement, moral support, and invaluable succour as well as substantial cooperation during my critical moments.


The HRD/HRM is one of the most integral parts of any management. Following years of management reform, change management has recently become an imperativeness in today's management organization (Hendry and Pettigrew 1992). This research paper will draw on the findings of a master’s study to explore change management and its implications on HR practices. Similarly, the HR role developed and created an environment where change and new learnings, and or system are diffused and embraced throughout the organization. More so, in the context of change management, the pre-eminence between the HRD/HRM and the Management itself is no longer an absolute, rather it is two segments that uphold and form a non-spatial extent of success in the organization. It also shows that the HRD activities and programs reinforce the management systems and policies, and building the organisational capabilities required for successful change. This study therefore reveals the role of leadership and leadership behaviour during change mechanism; and the human capital impacts of a change effort on the workforce; and the susceptibility of resistance in organizational change. These are spectrum prominent to the research problem which was carefully explored in order to arrive at a solution that will give answers to the research questions.

KEY WORDS: Change mechanism, Perception and mixed feelings, Change in an organization / Organizational change, Discourses

List of tables

Table 1. This table represent the relative performance i.e., total numbers of each respondent from the various interview conducted

Table 2.The table represent the data response of ELIM University on the confining end questionnaire

Table 3.1. Cognitive dimension of change mechanism (Phase 1)

Table 3.2. Affective dimension of change mechanism (Phase 2)

Table 3.3. Conative dimension of change mechanism (Phase 3)

List of figures

Figure 1 This figure represent the results of the relative performance of each respondent from the various interview conducted

Figure 2 This figure represent the relative percent of the total performance in pie chart i.e., the percentage of respondent who have agree, disagree and or who have neutral response in the various interview conducted

Figure 3 This figure represent the results of the relative performance of each respondent from the confining end survey questionnaire conducted at First Security Discount House Limited (FSDH)

Figure 4 This figure represent the relative percent of the total performance in pie chart i.e., the percentage of respondent who have agree, disagree and or who have neutral response in the confining end survey questionnaire conducted at First Security Discount House Limited (FSDH)

Figure 5 This figure represent the results of the relative performance of each respondent from the confining end survey questionnaire conducted at ADEKO GROUP

Figure 6 This figure represent the relative percent of the total performance in pie chart i.e., the percentage of respondent who have agree, disagree and or who have neutral response in the confining end survey questionnaire conducted at ADEKO GROUP

Figure 7 This figure represent the results of the relative performance of each respondent from the confining end survey questionnaire conducted at ELIM University Mauritius

Figure 8 This figure represent the relative percent of the total performance in pie chart i.e., the percentage of respondent who have agree, disagree and or who have neutral response in the confining end survey questionnaire conducted at ELIM University Mauritius


Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten


1.1 Motivational reason for this study.

Change management has recently become an imperative in today's management organization. Once a change is announced, the first instance is usually a shocking reaction from the people and anxiousness to meet the change (Nilanjan Sengupta, et al 2012: 1); which therefore matures into several levels of reactions of the people such as anger, denial and acceptance which is very important for management to understand that, the people may pass through these levels of reactions in varying degree of responsiveness, in order for transition to take its course (from an old way of doing things to an entirely new system of operation). How management leaders manage this transition phase is very crucial and must be carefully treated. And as an aspiring manager, this has motivated me to choose this direction of my research problem to become a better personnel management and also to be a change champion.

In this chapter, the backgrounds and purpose of research, research issue, aim and objectives, and factors that contribute to change as well as the extent of adoption and other necessity

1.2 Research Background:

The word change according to (Van der Merwe 1991) is obtained from the Latin word which means "to better" and in the Oxford children’s Dictionary of Sansom and Reid (1994:195, Sansom, G (1998) change is define as to be become different... In a fast growing world of technology and increase in the dynamism of today’s business trend, many surviving organizations are constantly on the run to continually thrive in order to be recon with this change Handy 1980). Therefore, the ways and manner in which businesses across the globe conduct their business services and operations are often altered from time to time to meet the changing demand of the business trend, customers and stakeholders in order to reach its predetermined goal as the ultimate objective. This dynamism found in the business environment is as a result of the different uniqueness of organizations. Thus, propelling organizations to be more agile in their ways and manner in which they conduct business services and operation. This occasion therefore attracts change in order to be unique, competitive and relevant in the business environment. Change is a powerful tool; although it often alters existing organization to increase its efficiency and effectiveness of operations and services. It’s an adoption of a new idea and or behaviour by an organization Daft (1991). This new idea is what organizations which embrace change see as innovation to better their service system and operation. Whilst organizations who do not respond to this new idea remains stagnant and or saw trade off in the event of being insensitive to this new idea called change. According to John F. Kennedy, change is the law of life and those who look only at the past or the present are certain to miss the future. Therefore, organization will continue to adopt and adapt to this change in order to be competitive (Balogun and Hope Hailey, 2008). Whereas organizations that found themselves in a deep-pit of recession and or performance gap due to poor employee productivity in commensurate to profit output or an imbalance in a set of targets and actual results of an organizations' performance, may result into deep change as a path of self-understanding and realization for both employees and the organization in order to transform from being a victim into a new productive ways Quinn, R.E. (1996). In order for this change to be successful, organizations must put in place leaders who possess the quality of behaving in an effective manner that coordinates with the work of others in the organization. This is an essential skill which must be learned and utilized by leaders to achieve desired organizational outcomes. Scholars and management professors and analysts believe that one of the staple differences between successful and unsuccessful organizations is leadership (Bass, 1985; Bennis, 1989; Burns, 1978; Drucker, 2001; Finkelstein & Hambrick, 1996; Hersey & Blanchard, 1993; Katz, 1955; Kouzes & Posner, 2002; Sashkin & Sashkin, 2003; Spreitzer & Quinn, 2001). A good leadership behaviour is therefore required in the management in order to accomplish organizations’ predetermined goal. This is because leading organization to a successful change programme requires a leadership behaviour that embrace change. According to (Bennis, Benne, & Chin, 1984); (Burke, 2002); (DuBrin, 2005); (Kanter, Stein, & Jick, 1992); (Northouse, 2007) and (Yukl, 2002). Leading change is complex, this is because the entire change processes and activities are central of attraction for management; through which the organizational predetermined goal as the ultimate objective can be obtainable. Thus, it is a complex implementation of strategy that requires the involvement of management to coordinate, direct, organized and administered this change in order to accomplished the change goal; and by so doing, it renders a successful and a crucial path to organizations in a politicized environment (Ferris & Kacmar, 1992); (Porter, Allen, & Angle, 1981); (Pusser, 2004); (Salancik & Pfeffer, 1974); (Schriesheim & Neider, 2006) and (Vigoda, 2003). Although, more and more organizations are embracing change but withstanding, not only that management must put in place a leader that embrace change with the quality of behaving in an effective manner but also, be a leader that can influence others in the organization to accept and view this change as a worthwhile and a benefitting initiative to long for (Dubrin, 2005; Kotter, 2001; Yukl, 2002); in order to meet with the fast growing rate of technological advancement, the level of education and social trend of consumers’ behaviour (Salancik & Pfeffer, 1974); (Sashkin & Sashkin, 2003) and (Vigoda,2003). All these are reasons many organizations are expected to embrace and to implement change. However, statistics have revealed that few successful organisational change were considered to be the efforts of their leaders (Meaney and Pung, 2008) and (Beer and Nohria, 2000).

1.3 Purpose of the Research

The purpose of this research study is to investigate what could possibly be a determinant factor of change implications and consequences to HR practices in a change program. The process of change management is conducted to maintain performance and competitiveness through a well-defined and prescribed model and or framework Chirag Metre (2009: Aug. 27). Change can be a time of excitement for some while it can also be a time of disruption, obsolescence of skills and change in the equations in the social relationship amongst old and existing employees The Queensland Government, (1998). Daft (1995) and Nilanjan Sengupta, et al., (2012) also stated that this change mechanism often alters the existing organizations to increase its efficiency and effectiveness in order to obtain organizational goal, and yet effective organisational change seems to be rare (Meaney and Pung, 2008).

Scholars also argue that change management is for most part to be moderately successful, yet reports have shown that there are more failures than success in the change transformation Sirkin et al., (2005). Recently, statistics have also shown that only one off the numerous change management programme is successful (Meaney and Pung, 2008) and (Beer and Nohria, 2000). However, the implementation of a successful change is not an easy task, which is significant to the high rate of unsuccessful change. Scholars’ literature revealed that one major contributing factor is resistance to change by employees Ford et al., (2008). When change is made known to all, the people tend to follow their self-interest. Thus, the way in which people interpret the change is therefore reflected in their behaviour as well as in the language they speak (Barrett et al., 1995); (Boje, 1991); (Di Virgilio and Ludema, 2009) & (Garzone and Archibald, 2010). Employees’ resistance to change is very peculiar in the study of change management and it has become a recurring theme in the change management literature (Cummings and Worley, 2005; Senior and Swailes, 2010). This is because of the dynamism of change situation which varies and how it is defined. This depends on the theoretical perspective an organization chose to apply in the change process. Jos H. Pieterse and Caniels et al., (2012) in their study of professional discourses and resistance to change, came up with a two main perspective that can be identified with resistance to change management.

(1) Conventional change management literature; and
(2) Critical perspectives on change management.

Armenakis and Bedeian (1999), Pettigrew et al. (2001), and Beer and Nohria (2000) give an excellent discussion on the conventional change management perspective where they shared a core assumption that change is imperative. This assumption means that change can be successful if the right attention required is invested when stability is bad. In addition to this statement, (Sturdy and Grey, 2003) acknowledge the point that the models and approaches for managing change are framed in the interest of the management. Significantly, (Weick and Quinn, 1999) also suggested that change can be managed and controlled whereas the critical perspectives on change management on the other hand contrast the above assumptions. Whether change and stability depend on the perspectives and the position of the leader and or manager who is defining this change is the critical change management literature questions. For this instance, stability might be as a result of an unnoticed change (Kanter et al., 1992). Thus, because change is not idealized in some cases, as it is unlikely that all organisational members will be enthusiastic about the last or greatest in an indefinitely large series of change programme (Brown and Humphreys, 2003). The fundamental implication of change management is resistance. With the scholars contributions and various comments on how complex one can successfully manage change, one may therefore agree with the fact that resistance is a severe implication of change management which often recur as a theme in the change management literature (Cummings and Worley, 2005; Senior and Swailes, 2010). Furthermore, this research paper consider factors which contribute to the development of change or the forces of change.

1.4 Research issue (HR implication)

Not unexpectedly, as the organization began to experience the need for change; this deliberate event to reach a predetermined goal as the ultimate objective became a turbulent journey. The management expectations began to change. Francesca Andreescu (2003: May 23-24) highlighted that, business owners and managers wanted their Business Groups to compete on a level playing field, i.e., rethinking of the notions of ‘uniformity’ that permeated personnel activities organization-wide. But impatience often grows with the traditional model of administrative functions. What this implies is that, people are rational and will follow their self-interest once a change is revealed to them. This, brings along individual issues “a general human resistance to change” as it is a threat to job security, and also a cause of obsolescence of skills, modification of work relationships and loss of power Nilanjan et al (2012: 85). Therefore, the tendency of the HR functions to resist this innovation can be drawn from its expected contribution towards the change:

- Its object goals of delivering integrated HR strategies with a functional system that will build the organizations' capability, business and corporate performance in a long- term perspective;
- Ensuring that those necessary activities that will bring increase to the internal transformation of the business, that is, new structure and work process, managers’ roles and mind-sets towards individual task, competencies and leadership are well put-together.

These changes have implications on how HR managers can be change champions in the organization. The HR’s role as change champion comes from the HR Competency research performed over the years. In a previous study conducted by Dave Ulrich, Jon Y, et al., (2013) found out that in time recent years (2012), round of their study, they collected data from over 20,000 HR professionals and their associates from around the world. In total, they identified 140 competencies HR professionals could possess, they also had measures of individual HR effectiveness and business performance. Whereas on the other hand, Francesca Andreescu (2003, May 23-24) in her Ordnance Survey which focused on the administration of personnel processes and practices, and employee advocacy, contributed to the fact finding that personnel function is regarded as ‘the police’ of the organization, with personnel policies being vigorously enforced. I.E., small departmental heads and line managers are usually told by HR officers which policies work and which don’t, and most of these policies were not linked with what the business was actually doing. Thus, it became negligence of people management by line management. Similarly, the personnel function will perceive to be ineffective.

1.5 Aims, Objectives, Research Questions and Hypothesis

This study is focused on change management and its implication on human resource management practice. In attempt to understand the extent to which this antecedent may occur; there’s the need for proper evaluation of the importance and the implications of change management, with a clear objective in order to achieve a confirming result. These objectives are therefore listed below:

1.6 Research objectives

i) To understand reasons for the planned change.
ii) To preeminent the role of the management and the HRD/HRM in the change process.
iii) To know what extent the leadership role of the HRD/HRM played in the change process.
iv) To observe and analyse factors that may contribute to change in HR practices as a result of management change.
v) To evaluate the importance and the implications of change management.

1.7 Research questions

One major assumption derived from the study of change program reported is that, 97% of the change respondents indicated that they could no longer continue to succeed without some form of change program. Such organizations in this event may consent reluctantly to these forces of change and outcomes. According to Ryan (2000), organizations and work will change. They will change because everything around them is changing. They will change because they have to; and thus, since the first phase of the change process is to establish the sense of urgency, by ensuring that all party involved have internalized the need for this change programme. (French and Bell 1999, 122); (Kotter 1996, 35); (Turner 1999, 57), and (Lippitt et al., 1958, 131) also refer to the same issue with the notion of “problem awareness” i.e., this problem that is identified with the organisation must be translated into an urgent need for change. But, Ian Mitroff argues that slowness to adapt stems is not far from failure, but from success. In most industries, the rules for competing remains uncertain but the assumptions about customers, markets, and shareholders remains valid. This therefore bring about the principle research question of this study. Thus, “What triggers the variation, and why does change continue to remain competitive yet the rate of change failure is higher than its level of success in recent times, and how the HRM/HRD was able to manage the varying change implications?” Although there are several contributions from past and present studies by management professionals, scholars’ support and "management school of thought", yet, the need for this research is significant to the high rate of change failure, and on the basis of change management history.

This research study is therefore conducted to gauge the change implications on HR practices, and thereof contribute to HR practices and how HR leaders and its managers can be change champions in the organization, using change management practices and the best practices that existing studies have applied to support the latter. I expect to adopt a conceptual iteration; using confirming and disconfirming cases of sampling size in order to study the outcome "negatively or positively" related change in the business environment. In other-word, I would look for both confirming cases "cases that evidence the negative impact of change in the business environmental on HR practices/performance" and disconfirming cases (cases where there is no apparent negative association between the change in the business environmental and HR practices/performance". Also, a simple tabulation will be considered as analytical tool because of its dynamism; giving independence to more than one information. The research methodology will be qualitative, which in-depth research will be used to further describe a case study which will be discussed and investigated for asperity and pertinence.

1.8 Methodology. (Qualitative research method)

Research is a logical and a systematic way of seeking for new and useful information on a particular research topic, while research methodology is the systematic way of solving research problems. On the other hand, qualitative method is concerned with qualitative phenomenon involving quality, Chinnathambi, V. et al., (2013: Oct. 14). The phenomenon involving quality implies exploring the “why?” and “how?” of decision making when investigating a problem, to get the meaning, feeling and description of the situation. Therefore this method is relevant and have lend itself very well to drawing upon an inducive inventory suggestion.

1.9 Reason for chosen this method.

This type of research method involves describing in details specific situations using research tools like interviews, surveys, and Observation. More-so to clear distinction between “change” and “transition.” though, they both go side by side in any change process.

1.10 Overall Structure of the dissertation

The thesis is organized and well-structured in six chapters; where each chapter carefully discusses the necessities in details with clear justifications. The first chapter sets out the research background, purpose of the research, research issue such as HR implication, research question aims and objectives, methodology. (Qualitative research method), and as well as reasons for choosing the qualitative research method. Chapter two: In this chapter the Theoretical background, discourses and the context of change as well as the extent of adoption and other necessities will be discussed. Chapter three provides an overview of Change and its scope of transformation with detailed reviews of resistance to change, employees’ perception of change and other necessities. Chapter four. The fourth chapter describes the research design and methodology including sources of data, case study, samples and sampling techniques, data collection, method of data analysis and a brief history of "FSDH". The fifth chapter is about the following presentation: Qualitative data presentation, findings (Characteristics of Respondents), analysis and critical discussion. It also include Interview Procedures/pattern, results and Discussion from the interviews, discourses and research implications. While the final chapter present a drawn conclusion and recommendation as well as the limitations and suggestions for future research.

CHAPTER TWO 2 Theoretical Background

2.1 Why Change?

"Why change when you are stable?” This is a question many bureaucratic organizations and deep-cultured management ask learning organizations. Wherefore, change comes naturally, and those who embrace it often lead the change variation. Change doesn't just happen rather, it is driven by forces that are present in our environment. According to (Kurt Louis, 1958); (Kotter John and Cohen Dan, 2002); (Kanter Rosabeth Moss, 1991); (Kanter Rosabeth Moss, 1983) and (Queensland Government, 1998); change can originate from either internal or external sources through technological advancement, social trend, political and or economic pressures; it can also come from within the organisation as a management response to a range of issues such as modification of client needs, costs or a human resource or a performance issue. Let’s take a look at change literarily and from another angle different from the organization according to Edward R. Fisk (1988) and Kelvin Yu (1996: April); a change is an act of deviation from an agreed-plan; a well-designed system of operation or a well-defined scope and agenda. Whereas on the other hand, a change is any modification to the contractual direction provided to a contractor by the owner or a delegate. Therefore, this change in question can either affect a small aspect of our lives or as a whole, and the degree of responsiveness to this change depends on the level of pressure by it from internal or external forces. However, change is about adopting a new idea and or a new mind-set which will eventually result into new processes, policies, practices and behaviors; and this, irrespective of the way the change originates (Queensland Government, 1998); Daft (1991). Therefore the need for change either as an organization or individual, is certainly definitive in order for one to forge-ahead and to being a better factor in the environment one lives in. In fact, organizations embrace change as the need for more integrated ways of working (Rugman and Hodgetts, 2001) and the need to improve business performance (Balogun and Hope Hailey, 2008). Similarly, organizations typically refer to those considerations such as structural change programme based on the assumption. Change in organization is an empirical observation in an organizational entity of variations in shape, quality or state over time (Van de Ven and Poole, 1995). This is because most organizations are under the influence of environmental pressure and or forces (Ryan, 2000). According to (Barr, Stimpert and Huff, 1992); Child and Smith, 1987); (Leana and Barry, 2000), the general aim of change in an organization is as a result of adaptation to its environment and or an improvement in performance (Boeker, 1997) and (Keck and Tushman, 1993). In most instance, the internal forces of change prevails more as many organizations go through structural reform process in order to improve business operations, wherefore, change is deliberately introduced in the organization as a new way of thinking, acting and operating (Schalk, Campbell and Freese, 1998).

2.2 The Context Of Change (Hr Involvement).

The interest in the study of change management and its implication is increasing. The reason is that, the adaptive capacity of many organizations is also increasingly pressured. Since the acceptance of Human Resource Management gained its first break in North America Literature (Bredin K, 2008), many scholars have also emphasized on the importance of innovations and improvements in the Human Resource Management Practices in order to survive the future as well as the pressing competition and the shrinking economic pie of today Beer et al., (1984). HR managers across the globe are now expected to be change oriented in order to move their organizations forward. This is not a coincidence but a fact, because the adaptive or human capacity impact on the effort to work during change programme, manifest itself as being able to integrate, build and modify resources such as the restructuring processes, optimizing work processes, increasing managerial capabilities, and innovation in order to function efficiently and maintain competitive advantage (Van den M, Heuvel, 2013) and (Kor & Mesko, 2012). Another scholarly argument on the involvement of Human Resource Management (HRM) is that, it represents a new philosophy and a new epitome which is fundamentally different from traditional approach of personnel management (Kaufman, 2007). This makes it widely recognized as a vital means of developing the human capacity that all organizations need for successful change. This also implies that organisational effectiveness depends on the ability to integrate a variety of activities that are frequently cut-up, getting people to address a number of key performance criteria simultaneously, and linking operational and strategic activity (Hendry and Pettigrew 1992: 137) and (Francesca Andreescu 2003, May 23-24). The term strategic activities in the above sentence refer to those strategic choices that are somewhere connected and associated with the personnel management processes, and organization's performance (Boxall & Purcell, 2000). Since mid-80's, scholars, academics and management executives have also been debating on the importance of adopting strategic approach in the Human Resource Management (HRM) (Boxall & Purcell, 2000). This is also part of the development and contribution the Human Resource Management (HRM) in the context of change management; since implementing successful change programmes in organizations is quite problematic. Thus, it will ensure more success in change and lower the failure rates of change programmes. Furthermore, the desire for change in some cases could be future oriented in many organizations. This is also because, the future is a crucial important aspect of an organization's strategic orientation Henderson, J., Venkatramen, N., (1989).In some scholar’s argument and contribution to change, it is a long term strategy or long-term strategic orientation which involves creating lateral strategic goals and investing resources in planning for the future (Lee, Hui, Tinsley, & Niu, 2006), wherefore, this type of organizations "future oriented" will generally focus on the future thereby channelling their resources on the perspective be it long-term or short-term. According to (Pieterse Caniels and Homan, 2012), on their professional discourses and resistance to change paper, they suggested that, change management consists of a limited set of interventions, which are regarded as objective, measurable and linearly manageable programmes that can be realized in a relatively short time. This statement was based on the change thoughts of (Balogun and Hope Hailey, 2008); (Schilling and Steensma, 2001); (Ford et al., 2008) and (Rugman & Hodgetts, 2001). A long term perspective view is crucial to the organization, it will help to effectively realize the process of change from the beginning till the entire change programme. Researchers and practitioners have also acknowledged the need and importance of creating and sustaining future orientation; particularly long-term orientation in organizations which have received extensive attention in the management literature (Jacobs, 1991); (Laverty, 1996); (Johnson & Kaplan, 1987); (Marginson & McAulay, 2008); (Miller, 2002); (Porter, 1992) and (Stein, 1989). In the same vein, researchers, scholars and academic like- minded have also criticized the “short-termism” or what they called “myopia” (Laverty, 1996); (Marginson & McAulay, 2008); (Miller, 2002) and (Stein, 1989); disqualifying the attention and the negative effects of behaviors, the pursue and course of action, the best of short term brings to organizations, and as a suboptimality over the long run of the organization (Laverty, 1996, p. 826). From this criticism of short termism, we may say that it also contributed to the low success rates of change programs and are often attributed to resistance to change on the part of employees (Ford et al., 2008). With a short-term notice, change management may result to failure. This is because it’s a process in which an organization moves from a current situation to a desired future situation (Mack et al., 1998); and with processes that are driven by several strategic considerations (Schilling and Steensma, 2001), with the need for more integrated ways of working (Rugman and Hodgetts, 2001) and the need to improve business performance (Balogun and Hope Hailey, 2008). The implementing of change is not without difficulty and more often fails to reach its full accomplishment and the intended outcomes (Beer & Nohria, 2000) and (Kotter, 1995). And more so importantly, these failures have been attributed to a number of factors such as lack of individual behavior aligned with the change programme (Stanley et al., 2005); (Strebel, 1996). This argument make believe that organizations are contexts of change, which comprise of the individuals involvement to jointly manage and operate the designed system and processes that constitute the services and or products on offer (Robertson et al., 1993). Therefore, individual such as the HR managers and the employees; together can form the building blocks of a successful change programme. in other word, it is perceived as meaningful and enjoyable when individuals can shape their work and show innovative behavior to the change intended, it results to a better performance (Bakker & Bal, 2010); (Halbesleben & Wheeler, 2008) and (Hakanen, Perhoniemi et al., 2008). This suggestion is essentially important, especially during organizational change programme; when employees need to adapt psychologically and behaviorally to the change, which may influence adaptation of other employees (Greenhalgh, Robert, et al., 2004). Emphatically, organizations need employees' willingness and behavioral support in order to build a formidable adaptive human capacity.

2.3 Forces of Change

An organization is a system that exists in the context of both internal and external environment and its ability to interact, relate and maintain a cordial relationship with its environment in order to survive makes it an interdependent system. Now, any factor that hinders its source of revenue attraction becomes a force of change Nilanjan Sengupta, et al (2012) and Handy, (1980). Usually, this force can be internally or externally, which is significant to both environment.

2.4 Internal environment

There are various forces of change in this environment. These are forces that could hinder or facilitate the implementation of change. Organizations are exposed to the following factors

(1) Performance gap
(2) Employee needs and values
(3) Change in top management
(4) Change in product life cycle of a commodity

2.5 Performance gap:

This internal force may contribute to change or hinder change as a result of employees’ performances. For instance, if there is a gap between a set of target and actual results, and or a gap between productivity and profit output, they are all identified at the same time. This force can influence the development of change wherefore if it occurs at the top level, top managers may hinder this change as a result of fear of losing job position, title or obsolescence of skills. This often may occur in a bureaucratic organization with a structural inertial. In order for this gap to address the performance gap effectively, assessments should be conducted in organizations whereby these assessments can help the organisation to determine the desired workforce size, skills and competencies needed in the future to support the changed environment Queensland Government, (1998).

2.6 Employee needs and values:

Organizations may experience a massive turn over and or vertical growth in its annual income. This could amount into an attractive financial incentive of the employees whereby challenging assignments, opportunities and autonomy of work may also result to employees’ needs and values. Organizations may therefore pay attention to these forces in order to attract, reward and retain effective and efficient employees, else, this may facilitate change; as employees may leave for a rival organization. It is essential to identify the human capital impacts of a change effort on the workforce Queensland Government, (1998).

2.7 Change in top management:

This force often deals with the change in the idea to run the organization. In most cases, the board of directors decide which way or direction to take when such an initiative needs to be taken. This force is common and it is the major driven force that contributes to the development of change management in any organization. Once again, this may be hindered in a bureaucratic organization where there is a structural inertia; managers will protest against such change idea in order to protect their job title, position and job related activities that are in their benefits.

2.8 Change in product life cycle of a commodity:

Manufacturing companies monitor the trend of their product and often design a strategy that may cater for the life-span of such a product at a prescribed stage.

In the same way, the size of an organization also follow the same sequential order. In this manner of change, the life cycle theory proposes change process as a linear irreversible sequence of prescribed stages; which facilitate organizations’ movement from the point of departure towards an end which is prefigured in the present state. This theory can be applied to organizations with an understanding structural principle of redesigning the organization through the success of change Child (1984).

2.9 External environment.

There are numerous external forces which organizations are exposed to. Political and technological influence are the most cases inherent in this environment. Handy, C. B. (1995) and Handy, (1980); described the external environment when he threw more light on the rapid advancement of today’s technology; compared with the time past. He describe this rapid growth as a dramatic change advancement; particularly in the communication and computer technology industry. Apparently, technology is a major factor that exists in the external environment which has the capacity to influence change in an organization. This is because it has helped to revolutionize the workplace by creating new product and services. E.g., the cloud computer: a modern way of storing organizations’ data. E-marketing, and other system used to enhance HR practices.

2.10 Business scenario:

The business scenario is often influenced by the competitive activities and events carried out by the company’s rivals and or threats from a substitute product in the external environment. Usually, organizations’ needs and demands are therefore channelled in this direction of change in order to meet the expectations of stakeholders, customers and supplies.

2.11 Environmental factors:

Political influence is a pervasive features of organizational life (Cropanzano, Kacmar, & Bozeman, 1995); (Farrell & Petersen, 1982); (Madison et al., 1980). The business environment is owned by the government therefore, the influence of government in the environment is also a driving force that contributes a lot on the development of change management. For instance, political factors such as government policies, the economical factor such as the issue of inflation/deflation etc., and the legal factor of the environment. All these are drivers of change; whereby organizations are compelled to adhere at any given instances. During the era of Machiavelli as a political lord, political interference has been understood to become a part of the human conditions as well as a fundamental attribute that is relevant at all levels in the organization (Ferris & Kacmar, 1992); (Julius, Baldridge et al., 1999); (Kumar & Ghadially, 1989); (Pfeffer, 1992); (Porter, Allen & Angle, 1981).

2.12 Consumer Preference:

Customer is king, customer first; are slogans which have been used by many organizations in order to attract and increase their consumer/customer base. Why? This is because the position of the consumers in any organizational setting is very crucial and must be kept secured. Without the consumers/customers, the existence of any organization is defined short. Thus, their preference changes as a result of change in consumer taste, lifestyle and social trend. Therefore, organizations need to meet this changing preferences in order to retain their consumer/customer base. This factor may not often result into a complex change of organizations’ strategy but, it does contribute to the development of change.

2.13 Extent of adoption

If the adoption of change continue to remain competitive according to (Balogun and Hope Hailey, 2008), so does the extent of adoption. But when change happens, it is the best of times (for stockholders), and the worst of times (for employees): DiFonzo N. and Bordia P et al., (1994). According to (Damanpour, 1987); (Hunsaker & Coombs, 1988): Change is a positive term; when it is applied, it results into restructuring, reorganization, merging, consolidation, layoff, new technology, culture change, in which employees are often negative about at some point. This is because change often presents itself as a pain release medicine to organizations under the weather. But employees may also perceive it as a bitter pill to swallow. Therefore, the adoption process will be stressful thereby reducing employee morale and production, which may result to an unsuccessful change program. It is therefore crystal clear that change is difficult to manage however, there are proven evidence that effective communication ameliorate the difficulties associated with change likewise ineffective communication exacerbate the difficulties associated with change. This was argued by (Richardson & Denton, 1996). (Covin & Kilmann, 1990) when they carried out over 1,000 survey on managers, researchers, and consultants and found out that communication and a far-flung employee participation were crucial to a successful change program. Whereas change that failed has been communicated ineffectively and poorly in organizations under the weather of "large-scale terminations, facility relocations, or mergers" (Burlew, Pederson, & Bradley, 1994). Thus, the language in which an organization chose to communicate its change program is important. This is because it is an essential part of both individuals and collective sense-making processes when managing change. This process involves talks, conversations, use of language and other forms of expressions; of one's beliefs, impressions and social belonging (Garzone and Archibald, 2010) and (Biber et al., 2007). In fact most functionally oriented organizations and professionals develop their own professional language based on education and experience in order to further interact effectively with their peers as well as colleagues in the organization.

2.14 Importance of change management in an organization

According to Queensland Government, (1998), change management is the process of taking a planned and structural approach to help align an organisation with its change programme. We have read from all indications that the importance of change management is crucial. This is because change is about everything that has life span but many of its prey often respond subversively to its impact and importance in different behaviors. This is not a coincidence, rather, these are the forces of change in the business environment. Therefore, in order to successfully manage change, the following are suggested to ameliorate the difficulties in change management.

(1) Employees’ capacity to adapt to change.
(2) Communication.
(3) Workforce.

2.15 Employee capacity to adapt to change:

A successful change is determined employees' level of adaptation to effectively and efficiently survive in the new environment. Similarly, according to Daft (1991), change alters existing organization to adopt a new idea and or behaviour. The underlying basis of change management is that people’s capacity to change can be influenced by how change is presented to them Queensland Government, (1998).

2.16 Communication:

Communication ameliorates the difficulties associated with change whereas ineffective communication exacerbate the difficulties associated with change (Richardson & Denton, 1996). The employees’ capacity to adapt to change can also be shrank if communication is ineffective. Thus, there may be issue of misunderstanding or resistance; thereby causing barriers and ongoing issues Queensland Government, (1998). The principle behind this is that, if people understand the benefits of change, they are more likely to participate in the change and see that it is successfully carried out.

2.17 Workforce:

It is essential to identify the human capital impacts of a change effort on the workforce Queensland Government, (1998). Organizations that successfully manage change typically develop a workforce plan that are specifically designed to steer their organisation toward achieving its change vision. A workforce planning is essential to ensure that the organisation has an adequate skilled workforce to support its post-change needs. The plan should also address the issue of redirecting resources in situations where the change creates a gap in the skills and needs of the organisation Queensland Government, (1998).

In its most simple and effective form, change management involves working with an organization’s stakeholder groups to help them understand what the change means for them, helping them make and sustain the transition and working to overcome any challenges involved. From a management perspective it involves the organisational and behavioral adjustments that need to be made to accommodate and sustain change. Therefore, reaching the predetermined goal as the organization’s objective is not the primary importance for change to be successful rather, effective management which involves ensuring employees’ capacity to adapt to change programmes, effective communication so that employees can understand the change benefits and a solid identification of the human capacity impacts of a change effort on the workforce in the new environment. If all this are carefully applied it means a lesser disruption of organizational change. However, there are many different models and theories on change management, and it is a topic subject to more than its fair share of management crazes and ways. These numerous theories and models include the linear, step by step methods exemplified by Kurt Lewin’s classic three-phase model of change unfreeze, move or change, and refreeze, John Kotter’s popular 8 step change model, the 7-S of McKinsey model, and the ADKAR model. Other approaches such as Rosabeth Moss Kanter’s theories and change theories based on derivatives of the Kübler- Ross model focus on the cultural and people aspects of change. Although each theories and models has its own merits and demerits but, no framework is "best" in all situations; rather, it is not so much the actual model or theory that is important, but more that the approach that is chosen is relevant to the circumstances. As a matter of fact, the best change approaches appear to use and adapt aspects of various models to suit the culture of the organisation and the context of the change. Fundamentally, the basic goal of all change management is to secure buy-in to the change, and to align individual behaviour and skills with the change (Kurt Lewis, 1958) and (Kurt Lewis, 1951); (Kanter Rosabeth Moss, 1983) and (Kanter Rosabeth Moss, 1991); (Kotter John, 1998) and (Kotter John and Cohen Dan, 2002) and (Queensland Government, 1998).

2.18 The Role of Leadership

In order for organizations to successfully implement change, it is of optimum importance that the organization requires not only leadership but a competent leader who will understand, formulate and implement the best suitable change strategy for the organization. This decisive action as part of a competent leadership role is not only for the effectiveness of the organization but also for its very survival (Bass, 1990) and (Burke & Cooper, 2006). (Sansom 1998) also acknowledge that the leadership of an organization on the contrary, is an ability of management to possess and protect the organization's benefits by realizing employees need and organizational targets; bringing these entities together to work in an enabling environment will encourage the commitment organizations need to achieve its change objectives. Similarly, the role of leadership in organizational change or change management is demanded and engages the entire parties involve in the change programmes with its vision to create a trusting and enabling environment to give equal rights and potential of its employees (Barney et al., 2009) and (Kouzes and Posner, 2007). The role of leadership generally is required to effectively direct and coordinate the affairs of the organization. According to (Conger, 1992, p18), these are individuals who implement rules and establish effectively to direct the working groups of individuals in order to gain their membership commitment and also motivate these group of individuals to achieve the predetermined objective. With that be said, it is obvious that the leadership has a central role in the change and transformation process of an organization by helping members of the organization and working group of individuals to face the difficulties with change processes; in order to reach the predetermined goal of the organizational in a worthy way. Barney et al., (2009) also added that leaders must embrace employees’ trust as well as friendliness rather than hierarchical approach of dealing with employees in order to create enabling environment for change programmes. The presence of the leadership also help employees thrive in the new frontier; because change can sometimes bring a chaotic and confusing work environment (Barger et al., 1995). Therefore, the success of change management lies on the hands of a competent leader; according to Anderson and Anderson (2001), a successful change program dependent on the leadership’s ability to establish and observe a conscious awareness for change.

2.19 Leadership behavior during change

Their behavior is very important as well during this process of transformation. Bearing in mind that this change process can be difficult to implement, Barger et al., (1995) describes it as chaotic and confusing. Therefore, employees tend to behave in a very rational or irrational way and it is the responsibility of the leader to address this type of employee issue when it arise. Therefore, leaders tend to also display a reactive and or conscious manner of approach depending on the issue; the more leaders learn more about the necessary changes, the more they move from one approach to another (Anderson and Anderson 2001).

2.20 Reactive Approach

This is most commonly used by the leadership in organizations' because of its unintentional characteristics and as a leader, one tend to react mechanically in a way to prevent or control the issue. This approach also depends on the leadership and management style of the organization. Usually when this kind of circumstantial events occurs, some leaders do not carefully analyse the situation which therefore result in lack of understanding because of the way the situation has been approached; when it would have been better to approach it differently. This approach have also contributed to the failure of change program Abraham (2000). This is because they have a strong denial mechanism (Anderson and Anderson, 2001). Furthermore, Anderson also stated that reactive leaders pay more attention to the surface of the problem and tend to be seldom when addressing the main source of the problem.

2.21 Conscious Approach

Although this approach does not often draw the attention of leaders but, it is the most desirable approach. According to Anderson and Anderson, (2001), leaders who are involved in innovative change implementation through their level of exposure to Human and transformation process; tend to recognize both personnel and organizations' challenges; thereby choosing a more effective approach such as this one. Therefore, change leaders must acknowledge the fact that some of the employees’ cynicism is as a result of the organization's prior knowledge applied Abraham, R. (2000). This approach may address the problem faced by leaders who are still accepting change; whereas experienced leaders have learned not to speak until they are sure with facts (Mann, 2000).

CHAPTER THREE 3 Overview: Change and its scope of transformation

3.1 Resistance

Resistance is no longer new in the discourses of change or the study of change management. This is to measure the fact that on its own it brings chaos and that the event leads to subversive employee resistance. Many studies by different authors, researchers, scholars and academic like-minds have also proven that the significant failure of change is not without resistance (Lawrence, 1954); (Maurer, 1996); (Strebel, 1994) and (Waddell and Sohal, 1998) among others, lay emphasis on why the failure of change in most change mechanism is highly competitive, something which can be related to resistance in change programs. In the initial stage of resistance it introduces costs and delay (Ansoff, 1990); which must be taken into consideration and if it’s not well treated, it becomes het in the process and further leads to failure that may be difficult to address (Lorenzo, 2000). This resistance may occur at different levels of the organization because it can be an implication of change if it is not well managed. Although there are few studies in the implications of change management to HR practices. This is because of the dynamic nature of change, the industry, and the change process Van de (Ven A.H. and M.S. Poole. 1995) and (Nilanjan Sengupta, et al (2012: 5,


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Change Management and its Implications for HR Activities
Amity University  (A.I.H.E. Mauritius)
MBA International business
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“It's indeed with a great pleasure to recommend AVERY JEROME AGBORO with this letter. I know him well enough for 2 years both as a student in our Institute where i taught him "International Human Resource Management" and also supervised his Dissertation. As his supervisor for his final year Dissertation, I had the impetus to discover his research knowledge and intellectual ability to perform any given task; in which delivers his task at the right time. This i concur after observing and evaluating his overall academic performances throughout his academic years with us. (...)”
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Avery Jerome Agboro (Author), 2015, Change Management and its Implications for HR Activities, Munich, GRIN Verlag,


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