Comparative Analysis Of Amo Breed Of Broiler Birds Fed With Commercial And Self Formulated Feed

Scientific Study, 2015

30 Pages


Table of Contents




Chapter One
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Statement of the problem
1.3 Purpose of the Study
1.4 Objective of the study
1.5 Significance of the study
1.6 Research Question
1.7 Limitation of the study

Chapter Two Literature Review
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Live weight gain of birds as per the two type of feed used
2.3 Breed of broiler
2.3.1 White hybrids:
2.3.2 Colored hybrids:
2.3.3 Heritage poultry breeds:
2.4 Feeding and feed conversion
2.5 Housing of Broiler
2.6 Handling and Transport of Broilers
2.7 Definition Of The Terms

Chapter Three
3.1 Research Methodology
3.2 Description of the research work area
3.3 Sampling size and Sampling Techniques
3.4 Analytical tool and method of data analysis
3.5 Method of Data Collection

Chapter Four
4.1 Results and Discussions
4.1.1 Average Weekly Feed Consumption of the poultry birds
4.1.2 The weight gain of the poultry
4.1.3 The nutrient constituent of the self-formulated feed
4.1.4 Discussions of Findings

Chapter Five
5.1 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations



The successful achievement of an individual cannot be attributed to himself alone. There are always people who either directly contributes in making ones dream come true. In this view, we want to show our gratitude to everyone who is one way or the other helped us to realize our dreams.

Firstly, our profound gratitude goes to almighty God who through his divine protection and guidance has made it possible for us to complete our study.

Secondly, we wish to express our sincere and profound gratitude to our supervisor Malam Mannir Sani for the assistance and encouragement and also for the time he took in reading through and correcting the manuscript, giving useful suggestions where applicable during the course of this research.

Also, we extend our profound gratitude to the entire lecturers of Agricultural department consisting of the Dean Mr Hassan Wutrama and the former Dean Mr Dauda Gambo, the head of Department Mallam Sa’idu Lawal, Dr Oscar T. Ikwakam, Engr Abubakar Yusuf, Mr. Agwam Yusuf, Mallam Manir Sani, Mallam Rabiu Abdullahi, Mallam Rabiu Abdullahi K/Bai, Mallam Auwal Mohammed, Mallam Aminu Ibrahim, and Mallam Yahaya Haruna and Lastly Mrs Adesina Adekambi.

We lastly wish to appreciate our parents, our siblings and also our friend for their support and moral encouragement during the course of my study and research work


This study is aimed at comparing the effect of commercial and formulated feed on Amo breed of broilers. A comparative analysis of commercial and formulated feed on Amo breed of broiler was carried out.


This practical research work is dedicated to God almighty for his protection and also to our parents for their financial support, prayers and moral encouragement.

Chapter One

1.1 Introduction

The term “poultry” used in agriculture generally refers to all domesticated birds kept for eggs or meat production. These include chickens, (domesticated fowl) turkey, ducks, geese, pigeons, guinea fowl and other birds.

The most common of all these in Nigeria is the domestic fowl. Sometime the term “poultry” is considered synonymous with chickens (Igbokwe 2010).

The term poultry is a broad classification covering the species of all domesticated birds that are raised primarily for the production of meat and eggs for human consumption. The term applies to chickens, turkeys, ducks, swans, geese, guinea fowl and other birds.

However, among all these food producing birds, chickens are probably more than all the other birds and found throughout the world, (Feetham 1990).

Poultry production is one of the most important agricultural business practiced in Nigeria. But one of the challenges posed on the production of poultry is that the feed are mostly derived from crops such as maize, sorghum, and other grain crops. As a consequence, feed ingredients need to be acquired from distant supply area and may not be hundred percent (100%) sufficient in nutrients content and also very expensive (Nyoupayou 1990).

Researches have been undertaken since the 1930s on ways to improve feeds efficiency in broiler birds’ production. Comparative trials have been conducted on the use of commercially formulated feeds and the locally produced ones to find out the most efficient form of feed that yields high growth rate and reduce production costs . (Mc Donald, 1987).

The meat and eggs obtained from chickens are good source of protein and fatty substances. There are both religious injunctions social taboos associated with pigs, consequently, chickens provide an acceptable form of animal protein to most people throughout the world (Smith, 1990).

Broiler birds are fast growing and specifically raised for meat, hence they are referred to as table birds. If properly managed, the birds have the capability to put on weight at such a rate that they are ready for market between 8-9 weeks when the live weight is 1.50 kg – 2.00 kg . (Akinsammi, 1994).

1.2 Statement of the problem

High cost of commercially prepared or factory feeds emanating from the cost and processing of the ingredients has resulted in declining productivity and profitability for intensive broiler production system. This scenario has resulted in supply bottle necks forcing an upsurge in the price of broiler birds in Nigeria.

Given the central importance that feeds play in intensive broiler system, it becomes imperative to identify the best type of feed options for the farmers.

1.3 Purpose of the Study

The research is purposely designed to:

1. Make a comparative analysis between Amo breed of broiler birds fed with commercial feeds and Amo breed fed with self-formulated feeds in F.C.E Katsina

1.4 Objective of the study

The main objective of this research project is to:

1. To determine the differences in terms of weight gain among the breed of birds as per the two types of feeds used on them.
2. To identify the effects of each feed to the live weight gain of the breed.

1.5 Significance of the study

This project is designed to make a comparative analysis between commercial feed and self-formulated feeds on single breed of broiler birds A1 (Amo) and A2 (Amo), where breed A1 (Amo) fed with commercial feed and A2 (Amo) fed with self-formulated feeds. The research will be of benefit to anybody who wants to set up a broiler production business. The findings of the study will also serve as reference material to students carrying out researches in similar areas.

1.6 Research Question

In an attempt to compare the effectiveness of the two different feeds on broiler birds, the following questions are investigated:

i. What are the effects of commercial and self-formulated feeds on the weight of broiler birds?
ii. Which of the feeds impacted positively on the birds?

1.7 Limitation of the study

This study is limited to an investigation of the effect of the two types of feeds: commercial feeds and self-formulated feeds on the performance of Amo breed broiler birds in the department of Agricultural Science Education, F.C.E Katsina.

Chapter Two

Literature Review

2.1 Introduction

The term “poultry” applies to chickens, turkey, ducks, geese, guinea fowl, and other game birds e.t.c.

Lexicon universal encyclopedia posits poultry as a branch of classification covering the species of domesticated birds that are raised to provide food to man. Banerjes, G.C (1992).

Feed ingredients needs to be acquired from distance supply areas which may not give hundred percent (100%) sufficient such as nutrient to the birds and of course they are expensive (Nyoupayou 1990).

Among all food producing birds, chickens, are probably, more than another single kind of birds and they live throughout the world. (Feetham 1990).

Trials have been done using commercial and self-formulated feeds to find out the most efficient form of feeds that yield high growth rate and reduce production cost M.C Donald (1987).

The meat and eggs obtain from chickens are good source of protein and fatty substance and all the products produce from chickens provides an acceptable form of animal protein to most people through the world ( Smith 1990).

If properly managed, the birds have the capability to put on weight as such a rate that are ready for market between 8-9 weeks when the live weight is 1.50 kg – 2.00 kg (Akinsammi 1994).

Okere (1978), stated that, among all the farms animals, poultry can be a yield quicker return in a favorable condition and it is now believed that there is only a very few place on global where climatic condition makes the poultry flock impossible to be keeping.

He continued saying that poultry production in Nigeria can be established with minimum cost and apart from that they can be feed for themselves of free range without much care given to than or comprehensive management.

Okere (1993) also stated that poor feeders and drinkers result in wastage and contamination of feed. Contaminated feeds lead to spread diseases. The common example of this is coccidiosis.

Kesley (1980), said birds should be fed better from day old to about five weeks old. Finisher feeds ration should fed to the birds. The feed should be a high energy and protein ration formulation and hence promote rapid growth.

Rose el al (1986) covasa and forbes (1994), said about 70% of total farming cost in poultry production come from feed expenses. Many studies have been conducted to minimize this expenses. One way to minimize feed cost is to use raw material, from than at lower price just after harvest season. This potential should be used by poultry nutritionist to improve new feeding system or models. The ability of birds making their own diet has been used for this purpose in many studies.

The ability of domestic fowl to regulate their nutrient intake when allowed to choose between feeds containing high and low nutrients contents is well established. (Kauman et al 1978; Boorman 1999).

In the studies of two different feed having different nutrients content where specifically formulated or offered in plain form to birds.

However, there has been still a need to apply diet selection into the commercial environment with different application method (forbes 1995).

Broiler are birds main for meat production and that is the reason why carbohydrate and protein are been fed than so as to enable them put on flesh for maximum weight attainment (3 or 3.0 kg) not minimum weight (Henry 1986).

Any kinds of domestic animals not only birds, kept for rearing intensively (under intensive system) they need all necessary management to be given by the farmer to improve their proper growth and development and to be well productive. E.g poultry keeping. The broiler kept under the deep lither system or under battery cage system.

Under battery cage system, the birds are confined to individual cages these cages are built in house and adequate light and ventilation are provided to the birds. (Michael 1990).

Useful by product are obtain from poultry the feathers are used in stuffing pillows and mattress. The droppings contain more nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in appreciable quantity than in those of other farm animals (okere 1993).

2.2 Live weight gain of birds as per the two type of feed used

Live weight gain is refer to as the weight of a living animal used for example as a pricing basis in selling livestock for meat. Live weight gain is the weight of an animal while living. It is the weight of an animal before it has been slaughtered and prepared as a carcass.

(Akinsanmi, 1991) opined that broilers are fast growing chickens which are specifically bred for meat production, hence and referred to as table birds. If properly managed, the breed has the capacity to put on weight at such a rate that they are ready for sale between 8-10 weeks of age when the live weight is about 1500g – 2000g.

2.3 Breed of broiler

Growing broilers-young chickens with pliable skin and tender meat involves making several choices. Your first decision is whether to involve making several choices. Your first decision is whether to raise hybrid or heritage poultry breeds. The fundamental differences are the amount of time they need to grow and the flavor of the meat. The quicker your birds reach the target weight of about 6 pounds the cheaper they are to raise overall and the more delicate the meat. The longer they take, the more they will cost you (as is the case with heritage breeds), but the meat will be healthier and more flavorful (Stein, 1996).

2.3.1 White hybrids:

The most efficient hybrid broiler chickens are an industrial creation developed by combining white cronish and white Plymouth Rock genetics. The resulting hybrids-the type most commonly sold at the same rate and efficiently convert feed into meat, reaching target weight in just six to seven weeks. Their edible portion (excluding excess fat, intestines, feathers, heads, feet and blood) is approximately 75 percent of live weight (Ravindran, 2013).

2.3.2 Colored hybrids:

The broilers were developed for France’s famous label Rouge organic free-range chickens and adopted by some producers in the United States. Trade name includes Black Broiler, Color Yield, Colored Range Freedom Ranger, Kosher King, Redbro, Red Broiler, Red Meat Maker, Rosambro, and Silver Cross. Most strains have red plumage, but they also come in black, gray or barred, anything but white. Their colored feathers make them less visible to pluck cleanly so that the bare skin appears neat (Zhao et al, 2008).

Colored hybrid broiler chickens are usually raised on pasture and more slowly than white hybrids they take at least 11 weeks to reach target weight and the chicks do not necessarily grow at a uniform rate. They eat about 3 pound of feed per pound of weight gained because of their longer growth period and the calories they burn while foraging. Some people find the meat of colored hybrid to be more flavorful than that of faster growing white hybrids. The edible meat is approximately 70 percent of live weight (Zhao et al, 2008).

2.3.3 Heritage poultry breeds:

If you keep heritage chickens for eggs, you have the option of hatching eggs from your own flock, keeping the pullets as future layer and raising the surplus cockerels for meat.

All of these breeds are good forages and have a moderate to slow growth rate, reaching target weight in about 16 weeks. Compared with cornish hybrids, they have thinner breast and more dark meat. The higher foraging activity of heritage chickens results in meat that is lower in fat and farmer in texture. The meat has a richer chicken flavor because the birds are older when slaughtered (Zhao et al, 2008).

2.4 Feeding and feed conversion

The amount of feed that broiler chickens eat will depend upon the type of feed provided. Birds fed commercial-type diets will eat approximately twice as much feed as the amount of body weight gain.

As an example, birds processed for meat at 42 days of age may weigh 2.0kg(2000g) and have consumed 4.0kg(4000g) of feed. Chickens provided with a diet of lower nutrient density will require more feed to reach a similar weight (Shahidi et al, 1984).

Chickens are omnivores and modern broilers are given access to a special diet of high protein feed, usually delivered via an automated feeding system. This is combined with artificial lighting conditions to stimulate eating and growth and thus the desired body weight (Oluyemi and Robert 1979).

Diet is an important component of the environment under all climatic conditions. The potential of the bird cannot be attained if the environment, and notably the nutrition, is substandard (Oluyemi and Robert, 1979).

Generally, three types of feed are offered to broilers from day-old to marketing.

0.2 weeks - Broiler pre-starter mash

3-4 weeks - Broiler starter mash

5-6 weeks - Broiler finisher mash

2.5 Housing of Broiler

Broiler can be housed on deep-litter, splattered or wire floor or cages. However, cage, slat and wire floor rearing of broilers are not as popular as litter floor rearing, due to problems like breast blisters, leg weakness and higher initial investment (Taylor, 1995).

Broilers can also be reared on cages. Broiler cages are similar to that of grower cages. To prevent the breast blister, the bottom of the cage may be coated with some plastic materials. The floor space requirement in cages is 15% of the floor space needed in deep-litter (Taylor, 1995).

Broiler need good housing because of the following reasons:

- This is to protect birds against adverse weather condition
- It is also to protect birds against disease’s attack
- It assists to keep birds in age groups for proper management
- It protects birds from thieves
- It protects birds from attack by wild animals, dangerous reptiles like snakes and from hawks
- Housing enhances maximum productivity in birds
- Good housing helps to increase the efficiency of feeding and feed utilization
- It facilitates management and veterinary care.

2.6 Handling and Transport of Broilers

The effects of handling and transportation of broilers are presented and discussed with particular reference to measure of the welfare of the birds. Point in the handling and transport process where improvements are required.

The procedures used to handle, transport spent hens, and broilers result in welfare problems for the birds, which are often very severe. There is evidence for substantial emergency responses, such as adrenal cortex activity. There can also be birds dead on arrival at the slaughter house, bruising, and high incidences of bone breakage. Housing broiler in battery cages for long period’s results in bone fragility (Bayliss, 1990).

The greatest welfare problem is the normal rough handling which leads to poorer welfare than does a short vehicle journey. Better handling procedures are essential. Poor conditions on the journey also result in poor welfare.

Much research is needed using a wide range of indicators to assess welfare and to design housing systems, handling methods, and transport procedures which do not result in poor welfare (Bayliss, 1990).

2.7 Definition Of The Terms

- Broiler: chickens raised especially for meat purpose and marketed at about 2.0 kg live weigh.
- Feeders: are feeding materials e.g. rubber plats or plastic.
- Feeds: means the food given to poultry. {feeding containers}
- Drinkers: the material use for giving water to chickens, they also called waterier, {drinking containers}
- Friable materials: these are easily broken material used in raising poultry on the deep litter system example, saw dust.
- Feed ingredient: means each of the constituent materials making up a commercial feed or self-formulated feed.
- Ration: this is the quantity or the amount of feed given to bird a particular day/per one day.
- Deep litter system: this involves the floor of house covered straws dried grasses or wood and zinc roofing and must be concrete which absorbed the water associated with faces. And the birds are provided their needs in terms of water and feeds so also light and good ventilation.
- Mortality rate: this is the rate of death resulting from complete loss of life. The mortality rate of birds determine the amount number of birds dead.
- Broiler starter mash: is the feeds given to poultry birds {broiler} from four days to five weeks (4 days – 5 weeks) of age to point of disposal.
- Broiler finisher: is the feed poultry birds (broilers) from day old to five weeks of age.


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Comparative Analysis Of Amo Breed Of Broiler Birds Fed With Commercial And Self Formulated Feed
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Nickson Ochika et al. (Author), 2015, Comparative Analysis Of Amo Breed Of Broiler Birds Fed With Commercial And Self Formulated Feed, Munich, GRIN Verlag,


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