Analysis of UAE Open Government Data Usability within Mobile Application Development


Master's Thesis, 2014
67 Pages, Grade: A-

Excerpt

Table of Contents

1 Introduction
1.1 Background
1.2 Research Problem
1.3 Research Questions and Objectives
1.4 Motivation and Importance of the Research
1.5 Organization of the Dissertation

2 Literature Review
2.1 Open Government Data
2.2 Open Government Data Internationally and in the UAE
2.2.1 The US OGD Portal
2.2.2 The UK OGD Portal
2.2.3 The UAE OGD Portal
2.3 Smartphones and Mobile Applications
2.4 Benefits of Mobile Applications for Open Government Data
2.5 The Status of Mobile Applications in the Context of Open Government Data
2.6 Factors that Support the Usability of Open Government Data within Mobile Application Development
2.6.1 Data Completeness
2.6.2 Data Accessibility
2.6.3 Data Utility
2.6.4 Data Format
2.6.5 Conclusions on Factors Supporting Usability

3 Research Methodology
3.1 Overview of the Assessment
3.2 Assessment Instrument
3.2.1 Section 1: Data Completeness
3.2.2 Section 2: Data Accessibility
3.2.3 Section 3: Data Utility
3.2.4 Section 4: Data Format
3.3 Dataset Sample and Selection
3.4 Pilot Study and Timeframe
3.5 Data Collection Method

4 Results
4.1 Data Completeness
4.2 Data Accessibility
4.2.1 Registration Required to Access the OGD Datasets
4.2.2 Terms and Conditions for Accessing and Reusing the OGD Datasets
4.2.3 The Application Programming Interface (API)
4.3 Data Utility
4.3.1 Location-Based Information
4.3.2 Consistency of Data Identifiers
4.3.3 Availability of Metadata
4.4 Data Format

5 Discussion
5.1 Major Findings
5.2 Recommendations and Guidelines to Improve UAE Open Government Data

6 Conclusions
6.1 Research Problem and Objectives
6.2 Limitations of the Research
6.3 Directions for Future Research

7 References

8 APPENDIX A: Assessment Instrument Web Application

9 APPENDIX B: List of Assessed UAE OGD Datasets

List of Figures

Figure 1-1. OGD Portal Usability and Data Availability Worldwide Benchmarking

Figure 2-1. The US OGD Portal

Figure 2-2. Sample of Metadata on the US OGD Portal

Figure 2-3. The UK OGD Portal

Figure 2-4. The UAE OGD Portal Bayanat.ae

Figure 2-5. The UAE MOI OGD Portal

Figure 2-6. The GCAA OGD Portal

Figure 2-7. The US OGD Portal Applications Page

Figure 2-8. AIRNow Application for iPhone

Figure 2-9. The UK OGD Portal Apps Page

Figure 2-10. Bobbies Application for Android

Figure 2-11. The Canadian OGD Portal Apps Gallery

Figure 2-12. Ready. Set. Home Application

Figure 3-1. The Research Assessment Process

Figure 3-2. Number of Datasets Available in UAE OGD Entities

Figure 3-3. Number of Assessed Datasets in UAE OGD Entities

Figure 4-1. Completed Datasets in UAE OGD

Figure 4-2. OGD Dataset Completeness Rate per Entity in UAE

Figure 4-3. How Many Incomplete Datasets are Using Suitable Descriptor for Missing Values

Figure 4-4. Percentage of UAE OGD Datasets that are Available without Registration

Figure 4-5. The Availability of Terms and Conditions for Accessing and Reusing the OGD Datasets in UAE

Figure 4-6. Percentage of OGD Datasets that are Available through API

Figure 4-7. Percentage of Applicable OGD Datasets that Publish Location-Based Information in GPS Format

Figure 4-8. Percentage of OGD Datasets that Use the Same Data Identifiers

Figure 4-9. Percentage of UAE OGD Datasets for which Sufficient Metadata is Available

Figure 4-10. Percentage of Used Data Formats in OGD Datasets

Figure 4-11. Percentage of XML Datasets that do not Contain Unnecessary Elements

Figure 8-1. List of entities and the assessment counts

Figure 8-2. List of assessments with their details

Figure 8-3. New assessment page

List of Tables

Table 2.1. List of Common Data Formats

Table 2.2. OGD Usability Factors within Mobile Application Development

Table 3.1. Data Completeness Items

Table 3.2. Data Accessibility Items

Table 3.3. Data Utility Items

Table 3.4. List of the Main Elements of Sufficient Metadata

Table 3.5. Data Format Items

Table 3.6. Dataset Sampling Details

Table 9.1 List of Assessed UAE OGD Datasets

Abbreviations

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Abstract

The civil society for a number of years has been pressing the government to produce machine readable presentations of the collected data. One of the greatest Open Government Data (OGD) goal was to aid developers come up with mobile application that can improve citizen’s live and in turn also enhance the country’s economy. Mobile applications forms a powerful channel to serve and reach businesses and citizens, hence the study aims at analyzing and evaluating the present UAE OGD usability for developing mobile applications that can be used to aid UAE through identification of current OGD weaknesses and the needed solution. The aim of this study was to determine the status of the UAE OGD usability within the mobile application development by reviewing the usability factors to develop mobile application and assess the OGD datasets.

An assessment instrument was designed by the researcher based on the reviewed usability factors, to assess the UAE OGD datasets. From the study it was clear that major factors in mobile application development usability by OGD are data completeness, data format and support for developers by offering Application Programming Interface (API) and guides, majority of datasets were found to be complete an indication that UAE OGD has a strong point in data completeness. However, the current UAE OGD does not encourage the developers to build mobile applications because lack of data format support and missing of API and guides. Guidelines to improve the current UAE OGD have been proposed based on the results.

Key words: Open Government Data, Open Data, Smartphone Mobile Applications, Mobile Application Development, Usability Factors, OGD, OD

1 Introduction

1.1 Background

Starting in the 1980s, then US President Ronald Reagan began the process of opening the Global Positioning System (GPS) for civilian and commercial access; this process was completed under President Bill Clinton (Yam, 2013). Access to the GPS system established an incredible array of innovations by American entrepreneurs, from navigation systems to precision crop farming and location-based apps (Yam, 2013). Today, the GPS systems and applications that people use in their daily lives are evident in smartphones, cars, cameras, and houses; in many of these applications, GPS is an essential feature. In 2012, the civilian and commercial access to the GPS system added $90 billion annual value to the US economy (Yam, 2013). GPS provides one of the best examples of how open data in general and open government data (OGD) in particular could lead to potential economic growth in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and throughout the world.

For several years, civil society has been putting pressure on government to make its data available in machine-readable formats (Janssen, 2012). The key role of OGD is to make government-collected data available in machine-readable formats and under open licensing conditions that allow any further commercial or non-commercial use of data (Janssen & Darbishire, 2012). The amount of data collected by government entities is very huge, and these data represent a valuable resource. OGD enables the creation of new innovative products, services, visualizations, and mash-up applications that provide citizens with insight into the activities of their governments by utilizing the data published by these governments (Janssen & Darbishire, 2012). Moreover, OGD gives the citizens tools to make their daily lives easier and to interact with their local or national authorities (Janssen & Darbishire, 2012). Thus, OGD can be an important instrument for the citizen to exercise his or her freedom of information (Janssen & Darbishire, 2012).

GPS data were initially used by military entities, but once the data became available to all people, huge opportunities were created for entrepreneurs to generate innovative solutions and applications that can help people, business, and government in everyday tasks. However, until now, many data have been kept closed in government databases and warehouses, and governments do not want to share these data for many reasons, including technical challenges, transparently issues, accountability issues, and so on.

OGD is a new global trend, and the UAE is part of this. It started mainly in the UK and US, and has attracted increasing attention in many other countries (Janssen, 2012). In the UAE, the adoption of OGD by federal entities is in line with the country’s 2011-2013 strategy (Emirates eGovernment, 2011). One of the key usages of OGD is to build smartphone applications that transform raw OGD data into consumable services to obtain the highest value of OGD (Fitzpatrick, 2012).

1.2 Research Problem

As described previously, OGD is a new trend globally, and the UAE is part of this trend. One of the key goals is to enable developers to develop mobile applications based on OGD that can enhance citizens’ lives, which will in turn help to improve the country’s economy. In addition, mobile applications have become a powerful channel to reach and serve the citizens and businesses. However, as shown in Figure 1.1, the UAE ranks low in terms of OGD portal usability and data availability. Moreover, there is no evidence of any applications developed based on UAE OGD, while the UK and US have more than 600 applications developed based on their OGD. This means that the UAE is missing some value that OGD can add to citizens, businesses, and the economy in this country. In addition, no previous research has targeted UAE OGD usability in terms of its support for developing mobile applications.

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Figure 1-1. OGD Portal Usability and Data Availability Worldwide Benchmarking (Source: Tinholt, 2013)

The purpose of this research was to analyze and evaluate the current UAE OGD usability for building mobile applications. The research assessed the UAE OGD datasets’ usability against different criteria and factors that are important in building smartphone applications. The recommendations have been established and they can be used by the decision makers in UAE to enhance the UAE OGD usability within mobile application development.

1.3 Research Questions and Objectives

The main questions that the research will try to answer are as follows:

- What is the status of UAE OGD usability within the mobile applications development?
- How can UAE OGD usability within mobile application development be improved?

To answer the main research questions, the following sub-questions have been set:

- What is the status of OGD in the UAE and internationally? (linked to main question 1)
- Why are mobile applications important for OGD? (linked to main question 1)
- How is OGD being used within mobile application development in the UAE and internationally? (linked to main question 1)
- What are the OGD usability factors that are important in developing mobile applications for OGD? (linked to main question 1 and result used to answer question 2)
- Is the current UAE OGD useable for developing mobile applications? (linked to main question 1)

1.4 Motivation and Importance of the Research

Since OGD is a new trend, no research has been found that targets the UAE OGD usability in the context of mobile application development. The present research is important for the UAE government, since OGD is part of the UAE strategy. The research outcome could assist the UAE government by identifying weaknesses in the current OGD implementation and determining how to improve it. In addition, OGD can bring potential economic benefits to the UAE, so it is important to facilitate its improvement.

UAE citizens can also benefit indirectly from this research because once OGD is improved, the number of mobile applications that target and help citizens will increase. For example, consider mobile applications that can tell the citizens the number of successful and failed operations and surgeries at particular clinics and hospital: These allow people to make better decisions related to their health and put pressure on health providers to enhance their services.

Entrepreneurs and software developers can also create business by utilizing OGD in their solutions, services, and software. From small shops to large enterprises, companies can enhance their internal and external operations if they are able to obtain instant, automated data from the government. For example, if UAE OGD were to provide data concerning the number of people in a certain area with an acceptable time delay, restaurants would be able to use the data to manage their capacity and inventory, while taxis could move to the required locations based on the number of people, thereby increasing revenue and decreasing cost.

1.5 Organization of the Dissertation

The dissertation is structured as follows: Chapter 2: Literature Review presents a review of existing research, literature, articles, and OGD initiatives. In addition, it presents a review of the smartphone and mobile applications that are valuable for OGD. Moreover, the chapter explores and discusses the factors that are important for OGD to support mobile application development.

Chapter 3: Research Methodology presents an overview of the research assessment. It describes the assessment instrument and how the reviewed factors are used. In addition, it presents how the data were collected, assessed, and analyzed.

Chapter 4: Results presents the results and analysis of the research assessment of the UAE OGD datasets based on the developed instrument. It outlines the results for each factor from the assessment instrument.

Chapter 5: Discussion presents the discussion of the research assessment. Moreover, it delineates the proposed recommendations and guidelines that can be used by decision makers to improve the current implementation of UAE OGD to enhance support for mobile application development.

Chapter 6: Conclusions presents the conclusions and limitations of the research, as well as directions for future research. It presents an overview of how the research objectives have been achieved and summarizes the proposed solutions to the research problem.

2 Literature Review

This chapter presents a review of existing research, literature, articles, and OGD initiatives. It presents a review of the smartphone and mobile application values to the OGD. Moreover, this chapter explores and discusses the factors that are important to support mobile application development based on OGD.

Section 2.1 provides an overview of OGD, and its values. Section 2.2 presents OGD portal features and services from the US, UK, and UAE. Section 2.3 provides an overview of smartphones and mobile applications, while section 2.4 discusses the values of the mobile applications for OGD. Section 2.5 explores different mobile applications from the US, UK, and Canada that have been developed based on their OGD datasets. Finally, section 2.6 presents and discusses the factors that are important for the development of mobile applications based on OGD.

2.1 Open Government Data

Data represent a very valuable resource; when data are related directly to citizens, country, government, environment, society, and safety in the proper time, media, and format, they become a main enabler for improving citizens’ lives. According to Janssen (2012), for several years, civil society had been putting pressure on government to make its data available in machine-readable formats. Russell (2013) argues that governments across the globe move rapidly to share data openly for citizens and businesses, thereby granting access to information that can be leveraged for a wide range of commercial and civic uses.

The term open data refers to data published in an open format for anyone for free to use, reuse, and redistribute (Open Knowledge Foundation, n.d.). The term open government data refers to data and information produced by the government or government controlled agencies which is made for public consumption (Fitzpatrick, 2012). Fitzpatrick (2012) says that terms OGD and open data (OD) are used interchangeably by the researchers. Moreover, the term open government data (OGD) started to be used when governments around the world began to move toward providing their collected data for anyone to use for free, whether individuals or businesses. OGD was mainly initiated in the UK and US, followed by adoption by many other countries around the world (Janssen, 2012). The OGD movement includes transparency, democracy, and economic drivers. It has increasingly gathered attention in many other countries and international organizations, including the World Bank and the Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD; Janssen, 2012). The UAE federal government’s adoption of open data is in line with its 2011-2013 strategy (Emirates eGovernment, 2011). The most important milestones in OGD history are the launching of the US OGD portal Data.gov in May 2009 and the UK OGD portal Data.gov.uk in January 2010 (Janssen, 2012).

Janssen (2012) claims that OGD enables new products and services to be developed and allows new business models to be created based on it. In addition, according to Bonina (2013), OGD offers different potentials to improve public service delivery, transparency, and the efficiency of internal operations. Janssen (2012) states that OGD is mostly technology-driven, and has created new opportunities that many governments are never able to achieve, such as creating new apps and visualization of the data. According to Bonina (2013), open data bring promising opportunities to generate innovation and economic benefits for a wide range of actors in the economy. Startup companies may find revenue from providing analyzed data; individual developers can produce software applications for mobile and internet-based devices; customers can benefit from better services; and journalists, educators, and researchers may use open data in their work (Bonina, 2013). Many of the OGD datasets will not reach the users directly; instead, the developers will transform them to present them to the end users to obtain the most value according to different user experience (Open Knowledge Foundation, 2012).

As described above, one of the important roles of OGD is to enable developers to create applications that will translate data from a raw format into meaningful information and useful services. Janssen (2012) argues that the recent focus of national governments and public authorities on OGD may distract their attention from providing accessible information to the public in favor of creating data portals for developers, resulting in a new possible source of information power for developers. According to Fitzpatrick (2012), many governments are promoting the reuse of governmental data through the transformation of the raw underlying data into consumable services. Moreover, he argues that the utilization of OGD within mobile applications represents a significant opportunity for business and application developers to transform raw OGD into a consumable product.

Figure 1.1 illustrates the worldwide benchmarking of OGD portal usability and data availability from end user experience. The US, UK, Canada, Australia and France are the leaders in OGD; their portals are highly usable and the amount of available data is high. On the other hand, the UAE exhibits very low OGD portal usability, and is below the medium in terms of data availability.

2.2 Open Government Data Internationally and in the UAE

The OGD initiative has been rapidly adopted throughout the world, and there are more than 100 active OGD initiatives on a global (Davies & Bawa, 2012). The US, Canada, and the UK are the leaders in OGD (Tinholt, 2013).

2.2.1 The US OGD Portal

The US OGD portal Data.gov launched on 2009 (Fitzpatrick, 2012). The portal contains more than 100,000 datasets from different categories.

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Figure 2-1. The US OGD Portal

(Source: Data.gov)

The US OGD portal contains datasets from different categories, including agriculture, climate education, energy, health, law, business, public safety, and so on. In each category, there are hundreds of datasets available for download in multiple formats, including but not limited to HTML, JSON, and XML. The datasets in the portal contain both statistical data and updated (semi-real-time) data. Moreover, Data.gov does not contain only pages to download the datasets, but also provides different sets of tools and services that support OGD in different respects.

The portal offers search and filter options that let the user find the required datasets by searching by dataset name or description; it then filters the datasets by their types, categories, formats, and so on. In addition, the portal provides a comprehensive metadata description and documentation for each dataset (see Figure 2.2). While Data.gov provides metadata within the page as content to be read by humans, it also provides a link to the metadata in JSON format; this can be read by computer programs without human intervention or any sort of cleaning task, since JSON is a structured data format. In addition, the portal offers the ability to share the dataset link to social media services from the dataset page itself, which might increase the utilization of the dataset.

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Figure 2-2. Sample of Metadata on the US OGD Portal (Source: Data.gov)

The application section in the Data.gov portal provides list of hundreds of applications that have been developed based on the portal OGD datasets.

Some of the most important features of Data.gov are the developers section and the application programming interface (API). The developers section contains comprehensive guides, documentation, tools, and content that application developer can utilize to access US OGD datasets and build applications based on them. Moreover, it provides open source projects that help government agencies to publish their data in machine-readable format and assist developers to consume the data from their APIs. In addition, it lists more than 100 APIs that can be accessed immediately by developers to consume the data within their applications for free for commercial and personal uses.

In terms of data licensing and accessing conditions, Data.gov provides clear terms and conditions for utilizing the datasets in commercial and non-commercial applications. It offers federal datasets to be used for free without any copyright or legal restrictions, while the non-federal datasets have separate licensing, and the license for each dataset is clearly indicated in the metadata for that dataset.

2.2.2 The UK OGD Portal

The UK OGD portal Data.gov.uk was launched in January 2010 (UK Transparency Board, n.d.). The main objective in creating the portal was to enable developers to create new visualizations and applications based on the OGD datasets (UK Transparency Board, n.d.). The UK government encourages government entities to publish their data in reusable formats for free (UK Transparency Board, n.d.).

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Figure 2-3. The UK OGD Portal (Source: Data.gov.uk)

The Data.gov.uk portal clearly indicates that datasets are under Open Government License that enables the developers to build commercial applications for free without any restrictions.

The portal contains more than 18,000 datasets, and similar to US OGD portal, these can be filtered by name, description, file format, and so on. The portal contains up-to-date statistical and nonstatistical data. Moreover, it provides datasets in various formats, including structured, semi- structured, and unstructured formats such as XML, CSV, PDF, and HTML.

Each dataset includes metadata that give a full description and information about the dataset. Unlike the US OGD portal, the metadata in the UK is not available in structured formats such as JSON or XML.

The Data.gov.uk portal also offers API access to its datasets for developers to use for free with comprehensive documentation and guides. The type of API is REST and the data format is JSON.

2.2.3 The UAE OGD Portal

The UAE OGD portal Bayanat.ae contains list of open data portal for different entities. The UAE OGD portal does not contain any datasets or search features, but does provide links to open data portals of federal entities’ websites, such as the Ministry of the Interior (MOI) and Ministry of Education (see Figure 2.4). Each listed federal entity hosts its own open data portal on its website. Moreover, the layout of the open data portal and the services and options it provides vary from entity to entity. For example, the MOI provides only one page that lists the OGD datasets with no options to filter or search (see Figure 2.5). On the other hand, the General Civil Aviation Authority (GCAA) provides the ability to search for OGD datasets and filter them by name and format. Moreover, the MOI OGD portal provides datasets in PDF format only, while the GCAA OGD portal provides the data in three formats, namely Word, Excel, and PDF.

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Figure 2-4. The UAE OGD Portal Bayanat.ae (Source: Bayanat.ae)

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Figure 2-5. The UAE MOI OGD Portal (Source: Moi.gov.ae)

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Figure 2-6. The GCAA OGD Portal (Source: GCAA.gov.ae)

Unlike the US and UK OGD portals, the UAE OGD portals do not contain developer sections that host required tools and documents to build applications based on the datasets. Moreover, they do not track any applications that have been developed based on the OGD datasets.

2.3 Smartphones and Mobile Applications

The mobile phone industry has developed dramatically in the last few years. The mobile phone is no longer a device used only to make calls or send SMS or even to browse very basic WAP sites, with very limited services and functionalities. Today’s mobile devices, specifically smartphones, have a wide range of functionalities. The smartphone contains advanced hardware such as GPS, quad-core CPUs, gyroscopes, accelerometers, digital compasses, dual cameras, cellular network chipsets for 2G, 3G, and 4G (LTE), and the latest specification for wireless networks (WiFi) IEEE 802.11ac. In addition, they contain large amount of RAM and storage capacity, and high-resolution touchscreens. In terms of software, smartphone devices such iOS, Android, Windows Phone, and Blackberry have access to application stores with thousands of applications that can be easily downloaded and installed.

Around the globe, the mobile channel is growing rapidly, and people in every country are buying more advanced mobile devices, while companies are launching smartphone applications by the thousands (Compuware, n.d.). Moreover, businesses and consumers are using their smartphones for everyday activities like checking the weather, shopping, or sending and receiving financial information (Compuware, n.d.). In addition, customers say that mobile applications are a must-have (Compuware, n.d.).

Mobile applications are a global phenomenon with large consumer appeal (Compuware, n.d.). The Apple App Store reached 25 billion downloads of applications as of the first quarter of 2012 (Apple, 2012). In addition, the Android application store Google Play reached 25 billion downloads of applications as of the fourth quarter 2012 (Rosenberg, 2012). According to a study by Compuware (n.d.), over 85% of users prefer using mobile applications over mobile websites because they are more convenient, faster, easier to browse, and provide a better user experience.

2.4 Benefits of Mobile Applications for Open Government Data

Publishing raw OGD datasets on a portal is not enough to deliver most of the values of the OGD to all parties, including citizens and businesses. No one expects ordinary citizens to open large raw datasets to search for bus schedules or traffic information every day; moreover, a computer is needed to open these large datasets. The information is only valuable if it reaches the right people, in the right presentation, at the right time. The mobile application is one of the most important media transforming the underlying OGD raw data into consumable services (Fitzpatrick, 2012).

According to a report of the UAE Telecommunications Regulatory Authority (TRA, 2012), the number of active mobile subscriptions reached 13.8 million in 2012, which is equal to a penetration rate of 168%. In addition, 51% of registered handsets in the UAE were smartphones on the last quarter of 2013, which means that almost half of UAE mobile subscribers use smartphones (TRA, 2014). Moreover, UAE smartphone users and fixed internet users visited application websites and stores a total of 2.3 billion times in the last quarter of 2013 (TRA, 2014). These numbers are huge and lead to one conclusion: Smartphones and their applications have a great impact on citizens and businesses in the UAE in terms of delivering services, information, social activities, and so on. As mentioned above, according to Fitzpatrick (2012), to be able to get the most value from OGD, it is necessary to develop mobile applications that provide the user with better service by translating the raw underlying OGD data into consumable services and information.

2.5 The Status of Mobile Applications in the Context of Open Government Data

Many of mobile applications have been developed by civic and business developers across the globe in the last few years based on OGD datasets. The OGD portals for the US, UK, and Canada keep track of many applications developed based on their datasets and provide options to search for applications according to different criteria.

The US OGD portal Data.gov provides an “Applications” page that lists many of the web and mobile applications that have been developed based on the OGD datasets (see Figure 2.7). Users can search a list of more than 300 applications on the portal.

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Figure 2-7. The US OGD Portal Applications Page (Source: Data.gov)

One of the mobile applications that has been developed based on US OGD datasets is called AIRNow (see Figure 2.8). This application is available for free for iPhone and Android smartphones, and helps US citizens to protect their health when planning their day based on air-quality information (US Environmental Protection Agency, n.d.). This application provides real-time information on air quality for many locations in the US. The user can type a US Zip code or provide his or her current location by utilizing the location services on the phone to obtain real-time details on air quality for that location.

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Figure 2-8. AIRNow Application for iPhone (Source: Apple App Store)

The UK OGD portal Data.gov.uk provides an “Apps” page that lists many web and mobile applications that have been developed based on the UK OGD datasets (see Figure 2.9). There are over 300 applications available on the portal.

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Figure 2-9. The UK OGD Portal Apps Page (Source: Data.gov.uk)

Bobbies is a mobile application developed based on the UK OGD dataset and available for Android smartphones (see Figure 2.10). This application allows the user to access all of the crime data published by the UK police, updated on a monthly basis (UK Transparency Board, 2012).

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Figure 2-10. Bobbies Application for Android (Source: Google Play Store)

[...]

Excerpt out of 67 pages

Details

Title
Analysis of UAE Open Government Data Usability within Mobile Application Development
Course
Master of Applied Science in Information Systems Management
Grade
A-
Author
Year
2014
Pages
67
Catalog Number
V315213
ISBN (eBook)
9783668192386
ISBN (Book)
9783668192393
File size
2244 KB
Language
English
Tags
Open Government Data, Open Data, Smartphone Mobile Applications, Mobile Application Development, Usability Factors, OGD, OD, Mobile Apps, Government Data, Big Data, Open Access, Government API
Quote paper
Essa Al Blooshi (Author), 2014, Analysis of UAE Open Government Data Usability within Mobile Application Development, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/315213

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