Decolorization of Two Azo and Two Anthra- Quinone Dyes from the Dye Effluent using Tunic of Allium cepa derived activated carbon. The Response Surface Methodology


Research Paper (postgraduate), 2016
42 Pages, Grade: A

Excerpt

CONTENTS

1. INTRODUCTION

2. MATERIAL AND METHODS
Dye Effluent Collection:
Collection of Adsorbents :
Response Surface Methodology
Surface Characterization of Adsorbent:

3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Characterization of Activated Carbon derived from Tunic of Allium Cepa
Optimization using Response Surface Methodology (RSM): Optimization of the selected parameters using CCD and BBD.
Interpretation of residual graphs:
Interaction effects of Adsorption variables:

4. CONCLUSION

5. REFERENCES

1. INTRODUCTION

Water Has the high importance in industrial ad domestic areas, Where Industries consume a lot of water and releases highly toxic effluents which are really harmful to the environment containing the toxic metals like Cr, Cd, Pd, Ti, Zn and many harmful dyes etc. Textile effluent dyes are targeted I the present work which exist in two forms (i) True Color (ii) Apparent color. There are various dyes used in the textile industries among which majority of dye stuffs are majorly based on azodyes which are used to dye cotton fabric and anthra- quinone dyes.

Azo Dyes: Determination of azo dyes are categorized by the presence of (-N=N-) azo group as chromophore. Azo dyes are generally found in synthetic dye classes. Previously azo dyes were applied to cotton which involves the reactions with chemical components which reacts to form the dye into the fiber or on the surface. Primuline red and Para red fall into this group of azo dyes introduces in 1880’s.Azo dyes are mostly used in cotton fabric.

Anthra- quinone dyes: Determination of anthra- quinone dyes are characterized by carbonyl group (>C=O) as chromophore. Other names of anthra- quinone are anthrachinon, dioxoanthracene and different trade names like Corbit and Hoelite. The dyes like Saffranin, indigo carmine, Alizarin, Red S, Crystal violet were chosen here from the textile effluent for the removal.

The source materials used here are natural powders namely Tunic of Allium cepa and its activated carbon.

The aim of the present study is to optimize and model the removal of Two Azo and Two Anthra- Quinone Dyes from the dye effluent using Tunic of Allium cepa derived activated carbon using RSM. The relationship between dye removal efficiency and three main independent parameters including Temperature, Solution pH and Adsorbent Dosage were evaluated by applying central composite design (CCD) and Box–Behnken design (BBD).

2. MATERIAL AND METHODS

Dye Effluent Collection:

Dye effluent was used for the entire research work. Dye effluent was collected from the Small scale dye industry in Pondhuru, Srikakulam district, in Andhra Pradesh. India. The discharged dye waste water was collected. The effluent was just screened to removed lighter materials on the effluent and used it for the research work.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig 2.1 - Sample of dye effluent

Photograph taken from Environmental Pollution Control Engineering Laboratory, Department of chemical Engineering, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam.

Collection of Adsorbents :

Natural waste Tunic of Allium cepa (TAC) (enveloping or covering membrane of Onion), The above natural waste and their activated form derived from natural wasteare used. The Tunic waste abundantly occurs in Vishakhapatnam, abundantly available in place, Srikakulam dist, Andhra Pradesh.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig-2.2 Tunic of Allium cepa

Photograph taken from Environmental Pollution Control Engineering Laboratory, Department of chemical Engineering, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam

The above mentioned two adsorbents were taken according to their abundant availability. The Natural adsorbents were cleaned with double distilled water, dried in an oven at 1000C powdered.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig -2.3 Powdered natural and activated Tunic of Allium cepa

Photograph taken from Environmental Pollution Control Engineering Laboratory, Department of chemical Engineering, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam

In this research work, dye effluent was treated with the Adsorption process. The present experimentation is carried out in batch-wise on Adsorption of Safranine absorbance maximum (λmax)=530nm, Indigo Carmine absorbance maximum (λmax)=560 nm, Alizarin red S absorbance maximum (λmax)=540nm and Crystal Violet absorbance maximum (λmax)=590nm from Dye effluent onto Adsorbent– Activated Carbon derived from Tunic of Allium Cepa powder.

Response Surface Methodology

Process parameters have a great effect upon the extent of dye removal. Thus, optimization of process parameters is crucial for attaining high degree of dye removal. Response surface methodology is a time saving and precise alternative to classical optimization methods. The main objective is to optimize the response surface that is shaped under the influence of process parameters.

To study the influence of temperature, pH, and adsorbent dosage on the percentage a Central Composite Design (CCD) and BOX BEHNKEN DESIGN(BBD) is used to optimize the levels of these variables. Twenty six experiments were required and all of them were done in duplicate. All the experiments were conducted in continuous stirring process. The second degree polynomial equation was fitted to the experimental data using the statistical package STATISTICA 6.0 (Stat Soft Inc.) to estimate the response of the dependent variable:

Surface Characterization of Adsorbent:

Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) is used in the surface analysis of Activated Carbon derived from Tunic of Allium Cepa. The IR spectra were obtained using a Fourier Transform IR spectrometer. The infrared spectral analysis was done to determine the functional groups responsible for the adsorption of dyes.

3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

3.1 Characterization of Activated Carbon derived from Tunic of Allium Cepa

3.1.1 (a) - FTIR spectrum of untreated Activated Carbon derived from Tunic of Allium Cepa powder

3.1.1 (b,c,d,e,f) - FTIR spectrum of treated Activated Carbon derived from Tunic of Allium Cepa powder

3.1.2. - Optimization of Response Surface Methodology

Characterization of Activated Carbon derived from Tunic of Allium Cepa

i - Fourier TransformInfra Red(FTIR) spectrum of untreated Activated Carbon derived from Tunic of Allium Cepa powder

The FTIR is an important tool to identify characteristic functional groups of the Adsorbent, which are capable of adsorbing dye ions.

The FTIR spectroscopy provides structural and compositional information on the functional groups presented in the sample. The functional groups present in the Activated Carbon derived from Tunic of Allium Cepa adsorbent were investigated by FTIR spectra within the range of 500 – 4000 cm-1 wave number. Fig-3.1.1 (a), (b), (c), (d) and (e) shows IR spectra of Activated Carbon derived from Tunic of Allium Cepa adsorbent and Safranine, Indigo Caramine, Alizarin Red S and Crystal Violet loaded Activated Carbon derived from Tunic of Allium Cepa adsorbent. The band positions in the FTIR spectra of the Activated Carbon derived from Tunic of Allium cepa adsorbent before and after Safranine, Indigo Caramine, Alizarin Red S and Crystal Violet adso[Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten]ption are pre[Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten]ented in Table. 3.1.1.

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Details

Title
Decolorization of Two Azo and Two Anthra- Quinone Dyes from the Dye Effluent using Tunic of Allium cepa derived activated carbon. The Response Surface Methodology
College
Andhra University  (College of Engineering)
Course
Chemical Engineering
Grade
A
Authors
Year
2016
Pages
42
Catalog Number
V318617
ISBN (eBook)
9783668193987
ISBN (Book)
9783668193994
File size
884 KB
Language
English
Tags
decolorization, anthra-, quinone, dyes, effluent, tunic, allium, response, surface, methodology
Quote paper
Dr. Meena Vangalapati (Author)Dr. M. Sumalatha (Author)Dr. L. Rama Devi (Author), 2016, Decolorization of Two Azo and Two Anthra- Quinone Dyes from the Dye Effluent using Tunic of Allium cepa derived activated carbon. The Response Surface Methodology, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/318617

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Title: Decolorization of Two Azo and Two Anthra- Quinone Dyes from the Dye Effluent using Tunic of Allium cepa derived activated carbon.  The Response Surface Methodology


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