Internet of Things Using 5G Literature Review
5G is predicted to be a wireless network that w9ill offer delivery speed of 20 Gbps, provide exceptionally low latency at the same time connect billions of devices. Basing, on this many experts have asserted that the Internet of Things will have its backbone as the 5G since it will offer the connections between various disparate networks to form a single amalgamated structure that unites the short distance communications such as Bluetooth and RFID with the cellular technology and integrate small cells and diverse networks.  Besides this it is presumed that 5G will make use of new spectrum in the microwave bands and the high frequencies millimeter wave. 5G has therefore, been set to the question to find out if it will be able to meet all the demands of the Internet of Things. However, 5G has been considered appealing for IoT because of its potentiality to bring in the possibilities of segmenting out the low bandwidth devices and users that do not essentially require the high data speeds and great chunks of bandwidth so as to function.  As an alternative the 5G use incidences will only require a dependable connection that is interoperable with the related IoT networks and devices.
The advanced 5G infrastructure will offer both revolutions in the sector of information and communication technology as well as be a total evolution of the currently in use network generations. 5G network technologies will be set to adequately enhance new reliable, secure, delay-critical, and dependable services to everything and everyone like the cyberphysical systems and cognitive objects. The new technology for it to be adopted globally and embraced by the global market it must show the differences in services and experiences that are uniquely of significance to the market necessity.  Due to the high up-and-coming demands of the future mobile communication systems 4G has been foreseen not to be able to meet these demands, and this has been the lead to discussion and debates for the need of an advanced generation.
5G has interrelated different things in terms of drivers that will structure up its system’s uniqueness from the previous generations. The Internet of Things will be made available with 5G to link billions of devices, the essential things in the human daily life that will make it more enhanced than 4G in terms of economy and technicalities. 5G is targeted to change the appearance of IoT that will then influence on how humans have the view on the internet from human-to-human interface towards machine-to-machine platform. The interconnection between devices will make it easy in the processes of securing, monitoring, controlling, and assisting in various industrious sectors like smart homes, telemedicine, smart factory and other technological sectors, therefore, bringing the world under device control (machine-to-machine) control rather than the human control.
The new paradigm was developed to approach the 5G research challenges and this has to be enhanced by various enabling concepts, that is: fast and scalable random access, Densification of cells, 5G source coding concepts, and security. Fast and scalable random access is one of the key 5G’s models that are configured to manage the enormous numbers of the sporadic traffic causing devices for instance the smartphones’ a-applications, and the IoT that in most cases are inactive but due to the need of frequent update they access the network without human involvement.  Infrequent traffics will significantly escalate in the 5G market compared to the 4G which is not in position to manage the random and frequent access protocols. There is need to address two key challenges so as to power the success of the 5G concepts, that is, exceptional and unparalleled devices asynchronously make their entries into the network over a restricted resource; and these resources are responsible for carrying control signals and the device or users’ payload.  Measuring of the channels basing on their classical concepts leads to a massive waste of the available resources which to the worse extents fails to scale towards the demands of the IoT. However, just because the channel profiles, user access, and the message sizes are compressible to fit into a large receiver space, the sporadic traffic can be enhanced by the generation of a sparse signal processing line of attack framework. Apart from that, it has to be noted that the TI needs ultra-fast acquirement in the relations of 100 microseconds on the very physical layer to allow the 1ms round-trip time. Due to this the size of data will not determine the bandwidth required. Therefore, it is worth an argument that for every real-time connected device a necessary control signal overhead is essential to permit for quick channel approximation, demodulation, as well as equalization.  Given that, adding up to that, this traffic category should be also tremendously dependable, controlled signaling must differentiated from data that is inadequate and worth management by the sparse signal dispensation.
Apart from that another 5G concept is the densification of cells jointly with wireless network virtualization at the same time with cloud-enhanced baseband processing meant to elevate the energy and spectrum competence and manage the estimated traffic growth. This concept is grounded on the appliances of numerous light base classes with overlying coverage, actively working for only signal transformation to and from the digital sphere, interlinked via a high capacity connection to a cloud comprised of data centers. It is of great significance to emphasize that such kind of architecture is possible to be adequately identified in the mmWave frequency bands.  Given such a virtualization cellular network it is of great necessity to have the multiple network nodes coordinate the signal processes. However, basing on research it is still disregarded that the current cooperative structures are not able to scale according to the run time demands and the required control information.
Besides the two aforementioned 5G major concepts, 5G source coding is another significant concept. For the great numbers of the dispensed actuators and sensors will be completely different at the same time. Basing on the Shannon’s popular concept it demands that under given sufficient conditions source coding and channel coding can be carried out distinctively and successively without incurring any performance loss. The Shannon’s theorem remains limited for the fact that it never proving nor offering a sufficient approximation, despite the fact that it has great influence over the structure and outlook of communications systems in various given practical incidences.  Naturally, this leaves a gap to that demands understanding if and in which ways the Shannon’s separation concept holds true at the same time if it can be used as a guiding framework principle for the communication circumstances expected in 5G.
Security is another key concept of the 5G networks that significantly plays a central role in its performance. In the contemporary communication schemes there exists an architectural disparity between data error correction and data encryption. The encryption section is established on cryptographic standards and views fundamental in the communication channels as a supreme bit pipe. The error correction section is basically executed at the physical layer.  It appends redundancy into source bits so as to counter channel destruction or interference by the multiuser at the same time convert the noisy communication feed into a dependable bit pipe. Through periods differentiation based architecture has been considered as the long serving solution in various systems, a significant number of application has evolved in the past few years that involves the embedment of the encryption mechanisms in the physical layer termed as embedded security. This kind of security is a new research field that explores the physical unclonable and stochastic nature of the wireless feed comprised of noise and the hardware, for instance, for fingerprint and symmetric key generation. 5G is envisioned to ingrain this security into its system design from pure grounds and survey its tradeoffs and benefits in this given novelty designs to enhance scalable, swift security means executed without user interaction.
IoT has been on the forefront of technological information to create some hype in the past few years to the extent that non-techies have familiarised themselves with the term. IoT has been identified as all internets consuming about anything and everything, however, it has received significant enhancements over period and now maybe they say is coming to an end with the 5th generation.  There are numerous vertical segments that exist as IoTs such as in energy, healthcare, smart homes, industrial, security, automotives and other devices related with networking. Sensor-based devices have been generated in these fields to be used to gather data and information from various research environments and deliver to the centralized entities for management and analysis. It is practically impossible for an individual to attend to all these sensor-based devices to access and manage this information as well as their performance.  While the excitement about IoT gets hyperactive in the coming years there is expected promising progress. The progress will not be a general solution to give an answer to everything imaginable but the solution will granted in form of devices and services that takes care of particulate verticals. This has already started taking place in the home appliances where the kinds of Samsung, LG, and GE are already producing home appliances and devices that are integrated with Wi-Fi, therefore, enhancing remote control and monitoring.  The process of standardization to generate horizontal platforms meant for offering common service potentialities to IoT applications that entails things like billing, location management, security, and others have to restructure by each service or application. These proves that Google will not only know the content being looked at by an individual but also what they buy, what they eat, the frequency of cooking, the time taken in showers and other related information because of a unified information control system with the aid of IoTs. Most of these processes are still under plans yet to be executed or are still tabled for debates to reach a long serving solution.
The new 5G mobile technology is of great significance in the business sector too. In the US most business sectors may resolve to this kind of networking so as to see the operational cost reduce, at the same time increase employee connectedness and can respond to their work duties remotely. The invention of 5G networking technology will make it easy for services like video streaming and downloading because of the high-bandwidth.  However, the cost of this technology has not yet taken care of hence, it will undoubtedly be expensive and make many people prefer and resolve to use the 3G and 4G mobile technologies. Business has shown a great interest in the IoT , and everything like washing machines, smart meters, connected homes, smart roads, driverless cars and other sensor-enabled devices will be able to transmit data amongst themselves over the network at all times.  The advancement of Internet of Things that is guided by billions of new wireless connections is anticipated to enhance the consumer-lead economy, during the process of the business realization of new mechanisms to influence the novel ubiquitous network connections.
The anticipated budget in the US for supporting services spending is expected to escalate by the year 2020 from $69.5 billion of year 2015 to $263 billion.  The statistics illustrates how extensive wireless connections will require coping with the expected demand and 5G net is the anticipated network for aiding IoT perform and scale the demand based on plan.
Despite the fact everyone is enthusiastic about the evolution of the 5G network that is meant to boost the performance of IoTs they ought to understand that there are other factors that will limit its performance. Majorly security will be one of the drawbacks that the new system will have to face. Imagining of network connections where billions of devices and uses are connected all at once, does this not increase the insecurity levels of one’s information being easily retrieved and even hacking systems? Unlike this time the yet to be evolved IoT-5G enabled networks , the previous networks only allowed a given group of devices to access the internet at ago, and this in unrealized manner was enhancing the networking security. The increased traffic would reduce the speed at which one could be able to detect information in a given system, plan to hack, and retrieve the same information, and just before this happened one could be signaled about the attempt. The 5th generation besides offering a high speed connection and working network to be utilised by Internet of Things should also be understood that a highway is being structured for the online smugglers.
Therefore, in this project I focus on the issue of security that will come along with the 5G and Internet of Things unification. This security can be boosted through encryption of given sets of information to avoid reach by intruders, but this is not just enough thinking about providing an alternative of localizing the network operation and hiding its visibility to the outside world when necessary will be a prudent idea when it comes to privacy and its significant roles.
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- Quote paper
- Eliud Shiyonga (Author), 2016, Internet of Things Using 5G Infrastructure. A Literature Review, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/321869