Information Systems and Decision Support Systems


Term Paper, 2016
9 Pages

Excerpt

Table of Contents

Summary

1. What are Information Systems
1.1. Definitions
1.2. Components of an Information System

2. What decision
2.1. What is a Decision Support System (DSS)
2.1.1. Structure of a Decision Support System (DSS)
2.2. Decision Support System Structure (DSS)

3. The Decision Support System features
3.1. Applications of Decision Support
3.1.1. Historical evolution
3.1.2. Comparative Endorsement Decision Support Systems
3.2. Factors affecting the inapplicability

4. Conclusions

Bibliographical references

This text was written by a non-native English speaker. Please excuse any errors or inconsistencies.

Summary

Information Systems developed to help users to achieve their goals. If we look at international level, the introduction of information technology and general information systems in everyday life, we will see that this admission has been made successfully by-produces the expected results in countries characterized by good organization of public life other, individual systems, banking system, health system, are well organized and staffed.

On the other hand, Decision Support Systems represent a combined approach of decision making from the Administration area with tools and IT techniques. A widely accepted definition describes the DSS as computer software which accepts as input data a large number of events and methods to convert comparisons, graphs and directions in some sense, that facilitate and expand the capabilities of what takes decisions.

Keywords: Information Systems, Information Systems Decision Making

1. What are Information Systems

1.1. Definitions

Information (Information) is any form of communication, which provides comprehensive and money-level- knowledge to the person who takes it. In other words, the information is data that are structured to be easily understandable and useful to people. Data are the raw material of each IT system and form the basis for the setting-miourgia information [11].

As a system can be defined a number of related elements which perform an activity, function or task. The systems are divided into open and closed. Open called the systems affected by the environment (or affect) and closed called those not affected by the environment, nor the influence. The information systems are open systems because process information from their environment, not process the information available to them [12].

The open and closed systems differ in their entropy. Entropy is the concept by which you measure the "disorder", whose maximum value reflects the total disarray and is equivalent to the termination of life or otherwise of evolution [9]. In open systems, the "order" and therefore its entropy remains constant, increases or decreases depending on the input (input) of the maintenance. In closed systems, the entropy never reduced because they are not maintenance input. In the area of ​​information systems, the term open system mainly refers to those systems that Bo-Rooney to work with software (software), and equipment (hardware) from various procure-ers, and the term closed to those which can operate software and equipmention from a single supplier. It is understood that the open systems are more flexible and the current trend is the dynamic movement from closed to open systems.

Information systems called a set of procedures, human resources and computer systems for collecting, recording, per-acquisition, processing, storage and analysis. These systems may include software, hardware and telecommunications arm [12].

Information systems are the means for the harmonious cooperation human dynamic, data, processes and information and communication technologies.They emerged as a bridge between the practical applications of computer science and business.

Any special information system is aimed at business support, management and decision making. In a broad sense, the term is used to refer not only to the information and communication technology (ICT), an organization use-it employs, but the way in which people interact with this technology to support business processes.

Therefore, the computer systems associated with the data annealed base management systems on the one hand and the business systems on the other. An information system is a system of communication format in which data is represented and treated as a form of social memory. An information system may also be considered as a semi-formal language which supports downloads from human-phase and action [10].

1.2. Components of an Information System

In order for someone to understand the information systems should understand the problem to solve their architectural and design elements and procedure-vices in the body that lead to these solutions. The term Information Systems is-shall be the following: People, Data, Information Technology, Hardware, Processes.

People consist of roles either Users (End Users, managers, owner recommended-it), operators Creators (Developers, analysts, database designer, network specialist, manager project)

Data-Procedures processed by PS They depend on the nature of the organization and the user requirements. Procedures are instructions for people belonging to PS Depending on the type of system state changes and the complexity of procedure-vices.

Technologies Informatics include:

- The system (operation system)
- The Applications (library, accounting, payroll)
- The Productivity (NW management tools, fourth generation languages ​​and CASE tools, word processors).

1.2.1. The basic components of a Computer Information System

One Computer Information System essentially uses the Computation-Maximum technology to perform some or all of the scheduled tasks. The main co-static computer-based information system:

- Hardware - these are the devices such as the display, processor, printer and keyboard, which cooperate to receive.
- Software - are programs that allow the material to process the data.
- Databases - is the concentration of related files or tables Flex IP-related data.
- Networks - is a coupling system that allows several computers to at-allocation of resources.
- Procedures - are the commands for the combination of the above components, to processing-down information, and to produce the preferred output [3].

2. What decision

Decision is choosing between two or more alternatives. According to this definition, the decision making is the process of selecting between two or more lactones alternator solutions. The need for the selection results from the distance between a current and a desired condition. The many options refer to ways in which the existing situation will be brought to the desired or undesired condition.

The M. Simon gives a more complete definition of decision-making. It argues that the decision making is a process which consists in finding opportunities for making a decision (current desired-state difference) to find possible courses of action (alternatives) and the choice between modes of action (decision) [9].

The stages for the decision-making process are the following:

- Determination of the problem / opportunity
- Identification of alternatives
- Analysis and evaluation of alternatives
- Select the best solution
- Implementation of the program
- Evaluation of the program

2.1. What is a Decision Support System (DSS)

As Decision Support System (DSS) is defined as an information system contend radicals taking semistructured and unstructured decisions, which can not be described algorithmically in the data and the processes required to obtain them. A DSS has the following characteristics:

- Assists decision-makers (but not replace) "by extending their capabilities» (extending their capabilities), namely:

- speeding up data
- accelerating data processing
- reinforcing conclusions
- enhancing memory that decides
- enhancing the knowledge of this taking the decision (eg by providing access to relevant knowledge others) [6].

2.1.1. Structure of a Decision Support System (DSS)

The main structure of these systems consists of a knowledge base, a mechanism universe-sion, illustrating a camera and a communication module with the user. The knowledge base is the most important component, since it contains all the relevant knowledge.

The explanation Engine allows the user to check the correctness of the reasoning which led to the solutions by providing analysis of logical relationships that lead to the before-enon solution.

The conclusions Mechanism, is able to combine the knowledge base data to synthesize the optimal solution. When communicating with the user of these systems, U-povalloun user a set of questions to gather information Anal--financed, so the conclusions mechanism uses the input data looking at knowledge base the knowledge on which will create more than an appropriate advice.

The user interface is a method in which using questions - answers or data from other systems, the user has available the appropriate advice accompanied by an analysis of the steps that led to it [21].

[...]

Excerpt out of 9 pages

Details

Title
Information Systems and Decision Support Systems
Author
Year
2016
Pages
9
Catalog Number
V322415
ISBN (eBook)
9783668261136
ISBN (Book)
9783668261143
File size
488 KB
Language
English
Notes
This text was written by a non-native English speaker. Please excuse any errors or inconsistencies.
Tags
Information Systems, Decision Making, Information Systems decision making
Quote paper
Ioannis Panges (Author), 2016, Information Systems and Decision Support Systems, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/322415

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