Table of Content
List of Acronyms used
A. Child Maltreatment and Children’s well-being
B. Children with Disabilities
C. Child Trafficking
D. Orphan and Vulnerable Children (OVCs) and the situations of their families
E. Harmful Traditional Practice (HTP’s) and HIV/AIDS
6. Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations
6.1. Summary & Conclusions
Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten
Woreda which represent Districts are the third-level administrative divisions of Ethiopia. Woredas are typically collected together into zones, which form a region. They are composed of a number of Keble (wards) or neighborhood associations, which are the smallest unit of local government in Ethiopia.
This study is supported by Yechalale Improving the Quality of Education and Child Wellbeing Participatory Awareness Creation Media Project. And many thanks also to Save the Children International in providing the funding to do this assessment. For this rapid assessment, the Gondar Education Media Center (GEMC) program production staff members collected the entire interviews. So I would like to extend my gratitude to all GEMC program staff. Special thanks to Gondar University CBR project officers; to Mahiber Hiwot Metema woreda project officers, Lay Armachiho and Metema woreda Women's and Children Affairs Office staff members. I would like to drop a note of thanks to all those government and nongovernment workers who participated in giving the relevant information for the assessment.
On September 2015, GEMC program staff members collected data and conducted a rapid assessment of the Child Wellbeing and Protection needs of Children in Metema and Lay Armachiho woredas of North Gondar Zone. Through interviews with community focal persons and local officials the following matters were observed: Regarding Child Maltreatments, Disability issues, Child trafficking, Orphan and Vulnerable Children (OVC), Harmful Traditional Practice and HIV/AIDS, and Child Right issues.
Basically, in Metema and Lay Armachiho woreda it was observed the presence of several cases of physical abuse (i.e., punishment), psychological abuses and psycho-social problems, sexual abuses, labor abuses and lack of access to basic resources. However, the finding indicated the presence of some activities to prevent such child maltreatments. Such as reporting the child abuse incidences to responsible bodies; providing special privilege for OVCs to attend school without uniform; providing health treatment and counseling support for victim children; facilitate local adoptions for abandoned children; some form of networking and collaborations between stakeholders; CRC clubs in schools are actively involved in discussion about their right, identify victims for support and expose the abusers to relevant bodies; and lastly the presence of 3C’s in each kebele and at woreda level with full mandate to mobilize and coordinate awareness creation and support activities are good venues to address the issue.
In the two woredas the finding from interview of representatives of stakeholders the following matters were identified:-
- Limited awareness creation activities using electronic media, print, and face-to-face discussion.
- Religious leaders (both Christian and Muslim) lack awareness about child wellbeing and abuse issues. Because of this, they are less involved in a discussing the issues with the people during religious gatherings.
- Although the 3C’s in each kebeles and at woreda level are responsible for coordinating all the child protection activities they are less active.
- Lack of strong grassroots activities to stop people who knowingly or unknowingly violet rules and norms.
- Many parents in rural kebeles are not willing to send their children to school.
- Denial of the legally acceptable marriage age of women is 18 in many rural places. Another problem is the abduction of girl child for marriage.
- The trend shows that HIV exposure is increasing on grade 5 to 12 students.
- Lack of well-equipped shelter houses for abused and trafficked victim children. In addition to this, there is a shortage of budget to run the existing ones.
- Lack of enough facilities for special need education in schools; shortage of special unities and trained teachers.
- Misconceptions and stigma are problems that hinder disable children from school. Parents believe that disabled child has no future chance that it is their curse that brings the disability.
- Male child trafficked or those who come for labor work in Metema area; first, they exposed to child labor abuse. Second when the demand for labor decreased they run out of money and become street children and/or a thief then end up in prison. x Girl trafficked children are exposed to several problems like violent forced sex and rape; their properties and money snatched; they are forced to ask their parents send more money; they are exposed to STD & HIV; eventually exposed to unwanted pregnancy, illegal abortion, fistula; and eventually abandon their newborn child.
- After the trafficked girls returned from the unsuccessful migration attempt they get frustrated and ashamed of going back home empty handed. So they become commercial sex workers.
Based on the findings and conclusions discussed above, the following actions are recommended:
- Media intervention to educate the community is effective to address the hard to reach communities. Media should promote on child education; convince parents to send their children to school.
- Awareness creation to the general public, to government officials by setting agenda and mobilizing the community where the illegal migrant are coming. And also sensitization and briefings about living opportunities and dangers of illegal migration should be given for victims before they are returned back to their home villages.
- The grassroots activities should be strengthened. There should have to be certain control and monitoring of peoples who knowingly or unknowingly doing child abuse activities.
- Strengthen and promoting the 3C’s to be active in awareness creation, care and support for victims. They should promote domestic child adoption and reunion the runaway street children with their parents.
- More focus on HIV/AIDS awareness creation and prevention; OVC’s support and care; promote resource mobilization for abused and trafficked children shelter, food, facilities and transportation.
- Reinforcement of rules and regulations properly. Stop rent seeker and their intention related to child trafficking. Sniff around, collect evidence and give proper penalties for child abusers and trafficking criminals should be done by police and Justice Office. Identify, expose and appear in court as a witness, breaks the chain and penalize the traffickers. Control the outlet border areas using local force and kebele administration.
- Collaborative act between community, all stakeholders and mainstreaming the issue.
Create IGA activities for OVC’s and their families by collaborative actions of local NGO’s, CBO’s and mobilize fund from the community via telethon, bazaar and so on.
- Health sector should have to give medical care for victims and send evidence to the court.
- Design and incorporate child trafficking & illegal migration issues in education curriculum to teach school children
- Advisable to create one responsible office or core process to handle and coordinate all the interventions. This new organ with a sense of urgency and feeling of responsibility should perform all the activities.
- Find exemplary role models to share their experience with children as well as the community at large. Role models successful efforts, self-reliant and support others are good lessons for the community.
Children are central to any society because they are builders of the future generation. In developing courtiers like Ethiopia children constitute more than 50% of the population. According to ARBoLSA (2008), Amhara region in Ethiopia is characterized by fast population growth rate (2.7%) and child population, in which children below 18 years constitute about 53 % of the total population. The socio- economic situation of the region reflects the living standard of the population and children in general. Though 89% of the population of Amhara Region depends on agriculture, about 42% of the people live under the poverty line and are chronically food insecure in which more than two-fifth of children in the region are stunted and underweight. Due to several interlinked factors, these children’s are affected and highly exposed to severe maltreatment conditions.
Child maltreatment refers to the physical and emotional mistreatment, sexual abuse, neglect and negligent treatment of children, as well as to their commercial or other exploitation (Qirjako, Burazeri, Sethi, and Miho, 2013). Child abuse results in real or possible harm to the child’s health, survival, and development or dignity in the context of a relationship, responsibility, trust or power (WHO &ISPCAN, 2006). Exposure to close partner violence is also sometimes included as a form of child maltreatment. It occurs in many different settings. The perpetrators of child maltreatment may be parents and other family members; caregivers; friends; acquaintances; strangers; others in authority - such as teachers, soldiers, police officers and clergy; employers; healthcare workers; other children (Qirjako, et al., 2013).
A significant portion of children in Amhara region under family environment was abused by their care providers. Therefore, they were victims of insult (73%), physical punishment (48%), scolding (27.5%), ignoring (16.8%) and withholding food (9.6%). Moreover, they encountered female genital mutilation (42%), uvulectomy (more than 33%), removal of milk teeth and tattooing (about 17%), and early marriage (ARBoLSA,2008).
Social and economic factors have a significant impact on children’s and families’ well-being. Increasingly there is recognition of the complexity and interrelation of these issues and the need to understand the socio-economic context in which they emerge. In order to determine and develop effective solutions for preventing and responding to child protection challenges, it is necessary to consider and address their root causes, rather than simply dealing with their symptoms. Every family, community, and a nation has a child protection system in place that reflects the underlying cultural value base and diversity within that context. As such, a particular child protection system manifests a combination of cultural norms, standards of behavior, history, resources, and external influences that over time reflect the choices participants have made regarding their system.
For a wide variety of reasons, children are not always sufficiently protected. The understanding of childhood varies significantly around the world. There are different perceptions about what children need for their optimum development, what environments best provide for those needs, and what form and level of protection are appropriate for children at a specific age. Sometimes the risks are present within the family sphere when parents and other family members are either unwilling or unable to protect their children. Other times, the risks are found in the economic, social, and political externalities of the communities in which families live. At yet other times, the risks are situational, an artifact of the fact that children live in a world where emergencies— both natural and man-made—disrupt daily routines to such an extent that children are placed in harm’s way. Moreover, any or all of these risks may coincide. In each of these situations, it is possible to protect children, but doing so requires a deliberate, coordinated effort on the part of the involved actors regardless of whether the actors are families (including kin), communities, states, NGOs, international organizations, or those other stakeholders concerned with the best interests of children.
Yechalale media project implemented in Metema and Laye Armachiho selected kebeles focus on awareness creation and promotion of child protection issues in preventing and responding to violence, abuse, neglect and exploitation (VANE). To start the media activity it is essential to do a rapid assessment to know the situations of children in Lay Armachiho and Metema wredas.
This Rapid Assessment was conducted in two woredas of North Gondar Zone- Metema and Lay Armachiho woredas. North Gondar is one of the 11 zones of the Amhara Regional State. This zone has a total area of 55,734 Km square. It has 24 (3 towns and 21 rural woredas) Woredas with a total population of 3,096,874 out of these 1,569,205 are males and 1,527,668 are females. The total children population is 1,599,131(52% of total population) (As of 2009/2010 projection of Zonal Planning and Economic Development Department). The total population in the four project woredas is 714,516. The zone is bordering with the Sudan in the West, with Tigray Region in the North and North West. In the South it also shares border with South Gondar Zone and Lake Tana. Out of the total population, 88 % of them depend on crop production. Many people, especially youngsters of the three Woredas, earn livelihood from migratory labor. The general information of the two Woredas is indicated below:
Metemma is part of the Semien Gondar Zone, bordered on the south by Qwara, on the west by Sudan, on the north by Mirab Armachiho, on the northeast by Tach Armachiho, on the east by Chilga, and on the southeast by Takusa. It has 17 rural kebeles and the administrative center is Shehedi; other towns in Metemma include Metemma and Shinfa with sub municipalities.
Based on the 2007 national census conducted by the Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia (CSA), this woreda has a total population of 110,252, an increase of 100.78% over the 1994 census, of whom 58,748 are men and 51,504 women; 29,698 or 26.94% are urban inhabitants. With an area of 6,969.97 square kilometers, Metemma has a population density of 15.82, which is less than the Zone average of 63.76 persons per square kilometer. A total of 29,378 households were counted in this woreda, resulting in an average of 3.75 persons to a household, and 27,935 housing units. The majority of the inhabitants practiced Ethiopian Orthodox Christianity, with 83.4% reporting that as their religion, while 16.5% of the population said they were Muslim.
- Quote paper
- Getnet Eshetu (Author), 2015, A Rapid Assessment of the Needs of Children and Problems they Face. The case in Metema and Lay Armachiho woredas, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/333988