Cyber Security and Foreign Policy

Actors and institutions in Germany with a special focus on the BAKS

Seminar Paper, 2016
21 Pages, Grade: 1,3


Table of contents

Table of contents ... I

List of Abbreviations ... II

1. Introduction ... 4

2. Theoretical introduction of the subject: CYBER SECURITY ... 6

2.1 Cyber Security: Historical development within policy ... 6

2.2 Cyber Security: Institutions and Actors of „domestic security“ in Germany ... 8

2.3 Cyber Security: Topic for an European and International Level ... 10

2.3.1. Cyber Security: Foreign Policy Issues – Think Tanks ... 11

3. Theoretical background of the topic: THINK TANKS ... 12

3.1 Definition: Think Tank ... 12

3.2 Think Tanks and Cyber Security ... 13

3.3 Federal Academy for Security Policy (BAKS) ... 13


4.1 Organisation and Self - Image ... 14

4.2 Institutional Framework and Public Discourse ... 15

4.3 BAKS – Think Tank? ... 15

4.4 BAKS within Cyber Security ... 16

5. Conclusion ... 17

Appendix ... III

Bibliography ...

I. Introduction

CYBER SECURITY – with this keyword arises a complex system of structures, methods and threats – but is this just old wine in new wineskins?

Or are these topics really issues in politics, the public discussions and policy analysis of Think Tanks? According to the data of the “ARD DeutschlandTREND” from January 2016 the following areas are the essential ones for the German citizens in policy 2016: “Topics of refugees, integration and asylum are the most important ones (73 %), followed by topics of employment (10%) and economy (8%).” (Infratest, 2016:5). The theme of security in general only plays a subordinate role for 4% of the interviewed people. (Infratest, 2016:5).

This topic (cyberwar, cybercrime) is however a threat which can cause immense damage. According to an analysis of the “national situation 2014” in Germany of the “Bundeskriminalamt” (BKA) 49.925 registered numbers of crime can be summarized under “cybercrime” (BKA Cybercrime, 2014:4); but the unreported data lies undoubtedly much higher. Moreover a study of Europol in 2009 estimated the damage of cybercrime with one trillion US Dollar (Schönbohm, 2011:14).

On the other side almost 1.000.000 people in Germany work in the sector of the information and telecommunications industry (ITK). (Bitcom, 2015)

The main driver for the choice of the seminar paper´s subject (Cyber Security) is the growing influence of IT- related issues and incidents (for example the cyber-attack to the “Bundestag” in 2015) in contemporary politics in a variety of fields. This topic should form the basis to deal with the issue as an integral component of Think Tanks and furthermore going on, that this matter is a topic of foreign policy. Within this approach, the focus and analysis will be placed on the BAKS (Federal Academy for Security Policy) and their role inside “Cyber Security”, the interdependencies and moreover how a current topic triggers changes in institutional and organisational aspects of Think Tanks.

Definitions are very important in political science. Therefore a comprehensive definition is of vital importance for the understanding. Chapter 2 briefly presents the theoretical introduction of the subject of Cyber Security. After a (historical) development of this particular area with the main schools of thought “cyber security” should be integrated as a topic of “domestic security”. Moreover this chapter should give a general overview of institutions and actors in Germany and form “cyber security as a Foreign Policy Issue”.

Chapter 3 focuses on the theoretical background of the topic “Think Tanks” and defines the terminology in this field. This discourse includes an integration of the aspects “Cyber Security and Think Tanks”.

The fourth chapter forms the core with connecting the previously discussed points and concepts. This chapter functions as the glue between the topic "Cyber Security” and “Think Tanks” and discusses the specific role and the institutional framework of the BAKS and gives an integration into the context of Think Tanks.

The final chapter as a conclusion consists of two parts: the elaboration of the importance of the subject (especially as a topic in policy analysis and advice) with trends and developments and the additional need for a common cross-sectoral approach.

2. Theoretical introduction of the subject: CYBER SECURITY

All digital data consist of 1´s and 0´s.

There are no differences if it is a complex software tool, a simple text file or a video. This is only possible, because the network “Internet” according to Kleinwächter is a “decentralized network of networks”, connected by a joint protocol suite, the Transfer Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) (Kleinwächter, 2005: 209).

The Havard Professor Lawrence Lessig used the word “cyber (space)” as a socio - cultural construct. “Cyberspace is not one place. It is many places´. (Lessig, 2006:84). Within the internet it is a place where people (users) can come together and interact with each other. “The internet is the technology, while cyberspace refers to social interactions that form while using this technology.” (Goldsmith and Wu, 2008: 149-155 and Goldsmith, 2003)

This knowledge should be adequate to understand the nature of cyber-attacks and their implications.

2.1. Cyber Security: Historical development within policy

[Figures are not displayed in this preview]

Figure 1: Innovation jumps and milestones in the development of the Cyberspace in only 30 years (The State of IT Security, 2015: 5)

The complex nature of information technology is also evident in the current discussion and is located between conflicting priorities of innovation, globalisation and complexity: (The State of IT Security, 2015: 5)

In contrast to the complex situation of the cyberspace nowadays, the origin of the invention of the technology which offers a decentralized communication infrastructure has been developed in the aftermath of the Second World War (Chadwick, 2006:40-47) in a bipolar “world design”.

The main theoretical understanding and the background of the concept of “Cybersecurity” is still influenced by the 1980s and 1990s interpretation of the “Information society” (Toffler 1984; Toffler, Toffler 1995; Castells 2000; Castells 2004 u.a.). But the (historic) studies of safety in the “cyber context” lost their predominant role as a question of military security in a bipolar world design with the first studies of the securitisation theory. (Buzan, Weaver, de Wilde 1998:30)

According to the Cyber Glossary the term “Cyber Security” can be described as a

Strategy, policy, and standards regarding the security of and operations in cyberspace, and encompass[ing] the full range of threat reduction, vulnerability reduction, deterrence, international engagement, incident response, resiliency, and recovery policies and activities, including computer network operations, information assurance, law enforcement, diplomacy, military, and intelligence missions as they relate to the security and stability of the global information and communications infrastructure”

(Cyber Glossary, 2016)

Thus the definition shows, that the understanding of Cyber Security as a concept is therefore linked with the overall theory of security in order to fight against cybercrime.

Furthermore Cyber security should ensure the maintaining of the network and to combat against the three “(cyber) crime categories”:

- Traditional forms of crime (i.a. money laundering)
- Publication of illegal content (i.a. child sexual abuse material)
- Crimes unique to electronic networks (i.a. attacks of networks)

in the field of (often used equivalent) “cybercrime/computer crime/computer related crime”. (EuroLex, 2007:2

According to the commission of the European Parliament cybercrime is defined as:

all criminal acts commited using electronic communications networks and information’s systems or against such networks and systems.”

(EuroLex, 2007:2)

The security of the internet is a key challenge for democracy in the policy field as well as of the internal security of a state.

“A secure Internet is essential to the protection of individual liberties, the right to informational self- determination and democracy as a whole.” (Bendiek, 2012:15)

Excerpt out of 21 pages


Cyber Security and Foreign Policy
Actors and institutions in Germany with a special focus on the BAKS
Catholic University Eichstätt-Ingolstadt
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This text was written by a non-native English speaker. Please excuse any errors or inconsistencies.
Cyber Security, internet security, online security, BKA, cybercrime, Think Tanks
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Andrea-Julia Reichl (Author), 2016, Cyber Security and Foreign Policy, Munich, GRIN Verlag,


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