Brand Management consistent with Sustainability


Bachelor Thesis, 2015

68 Pages, Grade: 1,7

Alexander Veliki (Author)


Excerpt

I Table of contents

I Table of contents

II List of tables and illustrations

III List of abbreviations
1 Introduction
1.1 Research problem, aim and questions
1.2 Proceeding and structure of the work
2 Theoretical basics of brand management
2.1 Diversity of the term brand
2.2 Objectives of brand management
2.3 Key aspects of brand management
2.3.1 Brand value
2.3.2 Brand identity
2.3.3 Brand image
2.3.4 Correlation between brand identity and brand image
3 Principles of sustainability
3.1 Historical development of the term sustainability
3.2. Demarcation of related concepts: CSR, CC and CS
3.2.1 Corporate Social Responsibility
3.2.2 Corporate Citizenship
3.2.3 Corporate Sustainability
3.3 Weak sustainability versus strong sustainability
3.4 Triple Bottom Line concept
4 Integration of sustainability in brand management
4.1 Customer perspective of sustainability
IV
4.2 Success factors of sustainable branding
4.2.1 Sustainable brand identity
4.2.2 Communication and transparency
4.2.3 Credibility
4.2.4 Incorporation of sustainability into business management
4.3 Risks for sustainable branding
4.4 Innovations as support of sustainability
5 Sustainable brand management in practice
5.1 Sustainability in the automotive industry
5.1.1 Sustainable mobility
5.1.2 Communication with stakeholders
5.1.3 Innovations in sustainable automotive sector
5.2 Sustainability in the textile industry
5.2.1 Characteristics of textile industry
5.2.2 Supply chain
5.2.3 Sustainability in mass production brands
5.2.4 Challenges of sustainable branding for eco brands
6 Future development
7 Conclusion

IV Bibliography VIII

V Internet sources XVI

VI List of other sources XXI

II List of tables and illustrations

Chart 1: Structure of the bachelor thesis

Chart 2: Objectives of brand management

Chart 3: Correlation between brand identity and brand image

Chart 4: Contribution of CC, CSR and CS to sustainability

Chart 5: TBL concept of sustainability

Chart 6: Purchasing decision for ethically correct products

Chart 7: Integration of sustainability in brand identity components

Chart 8: Follow the story behind this product

Chart 9: Diversification strategy of the German automotive industry

III List of abbreviations

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1 Introduction

Brands represent a significant factor in business success, therefore brand management has long become a key issue for corporate management. The relevance of brand management is reflected by the global importance of brands for consumers, which creates economic value for the company. Accordingly, an increasing number of new brands are registred or expanded every year.1 Even in food retailing it has become normal to find wellknown brands, such as Chiquita bananas, what seemed to be impossible 30 years ago. Meanwhile, many international and global brands from different sectors has effectively developed (Apple, IBM, McDonald...).2 Currently, a remarkable development towards the idea of sustainability can be observed in brand management.3 Constant new reports about financial crises, natural disasters and product scandals have increased population’s awareness of the vulnerability of environment and social systems and led the sustainability issue to a global trend.4 Brands reflect quality, emotions and trust, and make up a substantial share of the company’s overall value. Similar factors play an important role also in the sustainability aspect. Responsible brands have usually high-quality products, enjoy the trust of their customers and are often the preferred suppliers and employers. Especially brands with a high value and reputation get involved in the topic of sustainability.5 It has long been considered that strong brands have an even bigger value for companies than buildings and assets. Therefore, an essential function for brand management is to build such a strong customer loyality that lead the buyers to refuse alternative brands, despite the low prices of competitors. Nowadays, building a strong brand seems doomed to failure if companies do not assume responsibility.6

1.1 Research problem, aim and questions

The concept of sustainability is not new, the origins of this principle can be traced back to the Middle Ages. What is new is the growing pressure on companies from stakeholders to contribute to sustainable development.7 However, it is unclear if everybody has a good understanding of what is meant with this principle. Nevertheless, it is used from various companies to make their brands more attractive for consumers. It seems, as it could become an important differentiating characteristic for competition. The main focus of the discussion about the trend to sustainability in brand management is how sustainability aspects can be integrated in brand management and if sustainable branding is only a short-lived trend or a long-term mission to ensure success.8

Therefore the following questions need to be examinated:

- What is meant by the concept of sustainability? Is it only a current phenomenon or a worthwhile necessity to differentiate on a long-term vision from competing brands?

- Which opportunities and risks can be associated with the sustainability concept for a brand?
- How has this concept been implemented in practice? How do customers evaluate the aspect of sustainability in brands?
- How can this influence the success of a brand?
- Which industries can profit from this new orientation?
- How is the trend and future development of this topic?

1.2 Proceeding and structure of the work

Before adressing the actual topic it is important to first illustrate the starting situation and give a general framework. After the introduction, the second chapter deals with the diversity of the term brand and development of objectives of brand management. Based thereon the importance of brand value and the correlation of brand identity with brand image for the success of brand management are presented. After this overview in the third chapter the fundamentals and relevance of sustainability are illustrated. Starting from the historical development, it goes further with the definition of related concepts, in order to ensure clarity in the variety of terms used in literature and practice. Furthermore, the fundamental concept of triple bottom line, representing the three dimensions of sustainability, is explained, together with the opposite approaches to sustainability: weak and strong sustainability. The acquired insights are joined in chapter four, where the integration of sustainability in brand management is discussed. Here, the focus is on three concepts: customer perspective of sustainability, the importance of recognizing both success factors and risks of sustainable brand management and the significance of innovations for sustainable brands. The fifth chapter illustrates the implementing of sustainability brands in practice. This is analysed on the basis of well-known brands from the automotive and garment industry, which have already implemented sustainability in brand management. The future development of the topic and a final overview of the most important findings of this thesis are presented in the final section of the work (chapter 6 and 7).

For a better understanding, chart 1 below shows a graphical representation of the structure of this thesis:

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Chart 1: Structure of the bachelor thesis Source: Own design

2 Theoretical basics of brand management

Brand and brand management are very common and important themes in the world of marketing, but also in every day life.9 Almost every product has a brand, as an own commercial brand or the brand of the producer.10 Therefore, every company or product is a brand.11 The increasing relevance of brands can also be related to the disappearing relationship between supplier and customer, due to industrialized production. Thus, the client cannot get the information of a product direct from the manufacturer.12 Whereby brands are not a new invention. Already in antiquity, manufacturers marked their goods with a sign, in order to identify in international trade the origin and authenticity of highest manufacturing quality from the Roman Empire.13 Also in the Middle Ages the application of a mark symbolized the genuineness and also a specific value.14 One of the oldest trademarks are the swords of Meissen porcelain. At present, it is not always clear what is exactly meant when specialists are talking about brands. The confusing multitude of terms that emerged led to the fact that there is no standard definition.15 Due to the development over time and the different background of specialists the conceptuality of the term has changed.16 Hereinafter, the most important and common ways to specify will be reported, as well as an overview of the principal aspects of brand and brand management.

2.1 Diversity of the term brand

The classical conception of the word brand was characterised by Mellerowicz, who created in 1963 a scientifically based definition oriented only to the object.17 According to him brand is a physical mark that gives information to the consumers about the origin, such as manufacturer or provider, of a finished product.18 Nowadays this concept is overtaken as also producer goods, services or even ideas (e.g. Greenpeace) can reach brand status.19 The legal approach interprets brand as an object of protection.20 According to the Trademark Act (MarkenG) §3 any brand name such as personal name, images, alphabetic characters and even the form or package of a good can be protected, in order to differentiate the product or service of one firm from the others.21 However, a view of origin and impact of brands is missing here. From the provider’s view it is seen as a bunch of supplier’s instruments and marketing elements, a closed sale concept.22 In the literature, the most commonly used definition is the one given by the AMA (American Marketing Association): A brand is „a name, term, sign, symbol, or design, or a combination of them intended to identify the goods or services of one seller or a group of sellers and to differentiate them from those of competition“.23 However, a brand is not only defined by its functional characteristics, but also by emotions and experiences related to it.24 Berekoven considers indeed the consumers view, what means the effect and success on buyers.25 Consequently, a brand is generated when consumers relate a positive esteem to the product or service26 and again this create an unmistakable image in the customer’s mind that enables them to identify the product and distinguish it from that of competitors.27 Therefore, brands satisfy psychological wishes. This intangible value on one side induces consumers to expect a higher quality of products, on the other hand represents an important asset for the company behind the brands, which is difficult to measure.28 Finally, the definition of brand can be simply reduced to the formulation of David Ogilvy in 1951:„the consumer’s idea of a product“29. Indeed, it is not just about external characteristics, but it is about the only feature perceived by the customers. Feature capable of arousing emotions, experiences and thoughts related to the brand, that will influence long-term preferences of buyers and therefore turnovers and prices for these products.30

2.2 Objectives of brand management

Brands are one of the most important value drivers of companies. These build up positive associations by clients and with their help products can be implemented and enforced on the market. Thus, it will demand considerable expenditure for improvement and development of products, as well as communication with clients over a long period. These expenditures can be considered as a long-term investments in the brand. Therefore, a consistent brand management is required for ensuring that products and corporate brands are marketed to particular target groups and engraved in their minds.31 With slogans like „Vorsprung durch Technik“32 (Progress through Technology) or „Freude am Fahren“33 (Pleasure of Driving) a lot of people associate a logo or a personal experience. It is a sort of quality promise, able to awake emotions, satisfy latent needs and wishes and thus create identifications and ties over the years.34 Brand management is hence a systematic process to establish differentiating preferences, as well as ecologically and social oriented associations for the relevant stakeholders of the company.35 The fundamental aim of brand management is to influence the business’ success, in order to ensure a long-term existence of the company. This involves increasing sales of the brand and thus raising the company’s value.36 The objectives are differentiated between behaviour-scientifical, economical and global objectives, which are correlated to each other37, as can be seen in chart 1.

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Chart 2: Objectives of brand management

Source: Own design, based on Esch, F.-R., et al (2005) p.42; Zentes, J., et al (2014) p.6

Therefore, brand management is a significant component of corporate management, the primary goal of which is to increase corporate value and to improve positively business success. In order to achieve this economical effects it is necessary first to influence the stakeholders, with the creation of brand awareness and building a unique brand reputation. These are core components of the behaviour-oriented dimension. The basics for brand loyalty are the effects of triggering preferences, which are reflected within brand image.38 Behaviour-oriented and economical methods helps creating a brand equity. However, economical objectives can be achieved only with realisation of psychografic goals. Such goals are called performance drivers, from which turnovers, sales volumes or market shares result. The behaviour-oriented brand value, which can also be denominated as brand strength, provides information about drivers of brand success. This enables to go to the root of improvement activities, where a value is created.39

2.3 Key aspects of brand management

The primary goal of a value-based brand policy is a long-term increase in brand value. Thus, investments in brands are needed, in order to successfully design a brand, that create a brand value. A decisive factor for brand equity is how brands are perceived from consumers and other stakeholders. The perception refers to brand awareness, the knowledge of the brand and the familiarity with it, as well as brand image, the strength, uniqueness and preference of brand associations.40 The starting point of creation of brand awareness and brand image is the conception of brand identity.41 The most important aspects for the success of a brand (brand value, brand identity and brand image) will be illustrated in the following chapters.

2.3.1 Brand value

Building up and preserving a strong brand are the principal objectives of a brand manager. Brand equity represents the key controlling parameter for this.42 This is the value associated with a brand name (e.g. Mc Donald) or a logo (e.g. golden arches). The measurement of this parameter is difficult in reality, as it correspond to the difference of value of a less established product.43 However, from a consumer-oriented perspective it can be defined as the result of customer reactions on marketing measures of a specific brand against another brand, on the basis of brand ideas memorized in their minds.44

Therefore, the value of a brand is not within the company, but in consumers’ minds.45 Brands are very different according to their strength and market value: some are not well known, others have a high degree of recognition and some have a high brand preference among consumers, achieving a long-lasting brand loyality. The higher brand loyality, awareness level of the brand name, evaluation of quality standards, associations correlated to the brand and brand personality are, the higher a brand can be evaluated. A strong brand represents a high value, as it can provide significant competitive advantages. As a matter of fact, the high awareness level and customer loyality of a strong brand lead to less effort to promote and so lower advertising costs. Moreover, purchasers expect to find this brand in all shops, so that the manufacturer has a better negotiating position with the trader.46 In practice, a good example to show the importance of brand equity is from 2008, when the Indian car manufacturer Tata took over the traditional British brands Jaguar and Land Rover. The reason of this transaction was not the increasing in market shares, but rather gaining access to well established brands in world-class automotive sector. However, a bad thought out application of successful brands for further products can be more damaging. The aim is to achieve an image transfer of positively known products to new products , which are offered under the same brand. Even if many brands have been successfull with this strategy, there are also cases of failures. An example is the company Melitta, known for producing coffee filters, which started to supply more and more products such as coffee, tablewear and household wraps. When they started to provide also garbage bags under the same brand, there was a collision between the image of stinking garbage and the image of culinary pleasure, that was rather combined with the coffee producer brand.47

2.3.2 Brand identity

Another important factor for a strong brand is brand identity. Brand identity represents the basis of brand management, as it embodies the strategic orientation of the company on the fundamental orientation of the brand.48 Corporate philosophy and corporate vision constitute the framework for developing brand identity. Thus, brand identity describes the brand characteristics according to the strategic view in the company. It forms the basis for the establishment of a brand significance among consumers and sets out what the brand wants to simbolise.49 However, a credible presentation of the brand is only possible if there is a high correspondence between corporate philosophy, corporate vision and brand identity.50

2.3.3 Brand image

Another core aspect of brand management is the building of a brand image. This can be defined as the perception of a brand, represented by brand associations in consumers minds.51 The aim is that the target group associates with the brand and thus with the products offered under the brand name, benefit and quality expectations, as well as emotions. A prerequisite for the creation of the brand image is the popularity of the brand. It is indeed very complex and time-consuming to develop both and this is the reason why it does not always work in practice. Examples where this works are strong marks, such as Mercedes and Sony, with durable sales success on a high price level. Whereas brands like Lada, Alltourd or River-Cola still have not achieved that.52 The brand associations correlated to the brand image include not only cognitive components, but also affective and intentional ones. If all associations are compressed to a monodimensional value, this can be operationalised to a total utility value of the brand.53 Thus, brand image is the result of individual, subjective perception and decryption of all signals transmitted from the brand. It refers to the subjectively perceived suitability of the brand, to attend individual needs.54

2.3.4 Correlation between brand identity and brand image

Identity-based brand management provides an approach to effect-based perspective of a brand. As the name suggests, this perspective is determined by the idea that brand management is based on brand identity, instead of only referring to it.55 With regard to the observation perspective, the unilateral focus on brand consciousness of consumers is extended to a distinction between brand identity, as self-perception of the brand seen from the relevant internal target group (managers, owners, employees…) and brand image, as external view of the brand perceived from the external target group and the public (clients, suppliers, public authorities, consumer associations…).56 The internal brand perspective and the external perception are correlated to each other, as it can be seen in chart 2.

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Chart 3: Correlation between brand identity and brand image

Source: Own design, based on Burmann, C., et al (2005b), p.52-53.

While brand identity can be directly affected and anchored within the company, brand image is a subjective and only indirectly controllable perception of different target groups, formed with time lag over a long period as reaction to brand management activities.57 The determination of brand identity serves as basis for brand positioning. Basic goal of brand positioning is to reconvert brand identity into a market position, that will be considered from the consumers as favourable, compared to competitors. Aim is to anchor the key elements of brand identity in the minds of customers. Brand recognition and brand image are key indicators to show how successfull the brand identity has been implemented through the positioning on the market.58 Brand image and brand identity are permanent on an exchange process, that can lead to a changing of the image and identity of a brand.59 It is therefore possible, that stakeholders have an image of the brand, which does not correspond to the self-conception of the brand. As a matter of fact, different stakeholders have different requirements, interests and expectations from a brand. Thus, from the point of view of stakeholders it is important that the brand assumes satisfactorily its designated role.60 Ideally, the self-perception of the brand should be brought in line with the external perception.61 The sooner the external perception of the brand corresponds to the internal perspective, the higher will be its credit and impact. Moreover, the better this junction is done, the more realistic and stronger will be the brand.62 For this reason, it can be spoken of a strong brand identity only when the communicated identity values are perceived from the customers as it was planned.63

3 Principles of sustainability

Sustainability is a term that is often used nowadays in advertisements, company reports and corporate philosophies in various branches of business. It has become a trend to think not only about the present time but to invest in the future living environment.64 This is due to economic and political discussions over recent years about ecological alterations such as climate change but also the lack of public trust caused by globalisation and economic crisis. All this force companies to include besides growth objectives also an ecological, social and ethical dimension.65

3.1 Historical development of the term sustainability

Sustainability, or rather sustainable development, is not a completely new trend emerged in our time, but it has origins as early as the Middle Ages. Already in 1713 H.

C. von Carlowitz published his book about forestry science, in which it was determined that only as many trees could be cut down as will grow back in the forest, due to an overexploitation of forests.66 With this approach he set the first idea of sustainability that we are still discussing nowadays. The debate on sustainability topics, in particular economic growth related to resources availability, has been increased in 1972 with the Club of Rome’s report ”Limits to Growth”.67 The report refers to the possible consequences of population growth, industrialization, environmental pollution and the demand for non-regenerative resources, until the mid-21st century, evoking opposite reactions.68 Critics of this report say that technical progress and environmental policy are given too little consideration.69 However, the World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED), called also Brundtland commission, gave the first fundamental definition of the concept many years later.70 In its report ‘Our Common Future’ of 1987 it was specified: “Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”.71 Hence, sustainability has become the central idea of the environmental policy of the European Union (EU). There was not only the thinking about the new generation of one state, but the integration of environmental problems of industrialized countries with debt issues of developing countries.72 The Brundtland Report received a broad international support. This can be explained by the low concrete terms of the report, which open plenty of scope for interpretation. International conflicting interests can justify the low degree of concretization. However, through problem analysis and basic requirements, this report has at least the merit of initiating a worldwide discussion towards meeting the challenges of sustainable development.73 The term was finally globally spread in 1992 during the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio de Janeiro.74 There, among other things, a declaration of sustainable development, on a political and economical level (Agenda 21), was generated.75 In this, the 178 participating countries are requested to develop a strategy aiming an industrially effective, ecologically compatible and socially equitable development among industrialized and developing countries.76 In Germany, indeed, a national sustainability model was generated. Hence, in subsequent years various commitees, follow-up conferences and political discussions were conducted. Sustainability has become not only an issue of environmental or development policy, but a concept of modern civilization. What has been lacking up to now is the juridification and operationalisation.77 As a matter of fact, the countries have integrated sustainability concepts in their political models, but it is not clear who will control their commitments and how this can be done.78 However, the concept of sustainable development has prevailed as a regulatory idea. Even until today it is interpreted as a concept comprising the integration of the three dimensions ecology, economy and social, which are considered of equal rank.79 This approach, called Triple Bottom Line, will be further specified, hereinafter, in chapter 3.4.

3.2. Demarcation of related concepts: CSR, CC and CS

Sustainability is commonly used as a synonymous for other concepts, related as well to this idea of connecting financial, social and environmental issues.80 The most widely known are Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), Corporate Citizenship (CC) and Corporate Sustainability (CS). These will be explained in more detail below.

3.2.1 Corporate Social Responsibility

One of the most used terms in the context of sustainability is CSR. The core idea is that companies should not only concentrate the business strategies in individual interests, but also cope these to the collectivity interest.81 The European Commission defines in 2001 CSR as “a concept whereby companies integrate social and environmental concerns in their business operations and in their interactions with stakeholders on a voluntary basis”.82 In practice, this involves a responsible corporate behavior along the supply chain.83 Therefore, a company should not be only striving towards economic success, but should bring this in accordance with ecological, and especially social concerns. Indisputable is the voluntary nature of CSR which goes beyond legal requirements.84 It remains uncertain how the social and ecological responsibility can be implemented in the different corporate divisions. The risk is that CSR will only be used for marketing purposes, with no positive social effects.85 According to a communication of the European Commission in 2006 the social responsibility of companies is an important issue for sustainable development. In business practice, there are normally only few differences between CSR and sustainability reports, as there is also in these one a focus on ecological and social perspective, whereas economical aspects are annexed in a scarce excerpt of the management report.86 However, a significance difference to the sustainability concept is that CSR focuses basically on relationships with contemporary stakeholders, not considering future contacts.87

3.2.2 Corporate Citizenship

CC is the social commitment of a company, that goes beyond the scope of its busines activities, normally in its own interest. The corporate strategy is focused on responsible behaviour, where the company is actively committed to ecological, social and cultural issues.88 There is a tendency for contributions to public welfare and to provide solutions to problems in the surrounding area.89 This involves for example the creation of nonprofit corporate giving, social sponsoring, donations... Business activities within CC take place also on a voluntary basis and are normally locally restricted. The selfperception of the company is communicated both internally and externally. Internally, CC affects the business culture and reinforces the identification of the employees with the company, externally, improves corporate reputation.90

3.2.3 Corporate Sustainability

Another concept deriving from sustainable development is CS. CS implies a corporate management, focused on the optimization of social, ecological and economic sustainability challenges in the company.91 Necessary actions, both strategic and operative, are taken in order to involve these concepts in the fundamental business principles, so that they become part of added value.92 CSR can thus be interpreted as a subsection of CS, as it considers normally only 2 dimensions, the ecological and social one. On the other hand, CS considers the economic efficiency of the company as well. Moreover, in the categorization of chart 3 it is also clear that CC is in turn part of CSR. Together these concepts are settled at the company’s level and are subsections of the sustainability issue.93

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Chart 4: Contribution of CC, CSR and CS to sustainability Source: Own design, based on Loew, T. et al (2004), p.72.

This analysis of the previously considered sustainable approaches shows the need for the realisation of processes and activities within the company, in order to transfer the contributions to sustainability to a macroeconomic level. For the implementation of sustainability concerns in the company is responsible a sustainability management. The tool sustainability accounting, consisting of sustainability controlling and sustainability reporting, helps him to achieve this.94 However, this paper does not go into further details regarding this topic.

3.3 Weak sustainability versus strong sustainability

As illustrate in chapter 3.1 during the 20th century it was discussed how the present generation should operate with non-renewable resources, with regard to the future generation.95 This raises the question of how a just intra- and intergenerational distribution of possibilities for satisfying basic human needs can be achieved. The main dissension is, whether the current generation is obliged to preserve nature with its resources in favour of later generations, or if it is correct to use resources until a depletion of these, if in exchange a replacement or substitute will be provided.96 That led to different views of the sustainability concept: weak and strong sustainability. In case of weak sustainability the consumption of natural capital can be compensated by investments in capital goods.

[...]


1 Cf. Burmann, C., et al (2012), p.1.

2 Cf. Kuß, A., et al (2013), p.205.

3 Cf. Meffert, H., et al (2010), p.28.

4 Cf. Spitzley, D, et al (2015), p.132.

5 Cf. Schmidpeter, R. (2014), p.V.

6 Cf. Kotler, P., et al (2011), p.611.

7 Cf. Zentes, J. et al (2014), p.1.

8 Cf. Meffert, H., et al (2010), p.28.

9 Cf. Esch, F.-R. (2012), p.4.

10 Cf. Kotler, P., et al (2011), p.13.

11 Cf. Halek, P. (2009), p.28.

12 Cf. Kuß, A., et al (2013), p.205.

13 Cf. Sattler, H., et al (2013), pp.24-25.

14 Cf. Baumgarth, C. (2014), p.4.

15 Cf. Esch, F.-R. (2012), p.4.

16 Cf. Baumgarth, C. (2014), p.1.

17 Cf. Herrmann, A., et al (2005), p. 181.

18 Cf. Mellerowicz, K. (1963), p. 39.

19 Cf. Esch, F.-R. (2012), p.18; Kotler, P., et al (2007), p. 510.

20 Cf. Baumgarth, C. (2014), p.3.

21 Cf. MarkenG (2013), §3 (1).

22 Cf. Baumgarth, C. (2014), p.4.

23 Burmann, C., et al (2005a), p.5.

24 Cf. Esch, F.-R., et al (2005a), p.11.

25 Cf. Berekoven, 1978 p.43, cited from Esch, F.-R. (2012) p.22.

26 Cf. Nieschlag, R., et al (2002), p.244.

27 Cf. Esch, F.-R. (2012), p.22.

28 Cf. Kotler, P., et al (2011), p.601.

29 Burmann, C., et al (2005a), p.5.

30 Cf. Kuß, A., et al (2013), p.207.

31 Cf. Kotler, P., et al (2007), p.509.

32 Advertising slogan of Audi AG.

33 Advertising slogan of BMW AG.

34 Cf. Kirchhof, A.-K., et al (2014), p.1.

35 Cf. Binckebanck, L., et al (2013), p.414.

36 Cf. Zentes, J., et al (2014), p.6.

37 Cf. Esch, F.-R., et al (2005a) p.42.

38 Cf. Esch, F.-R., et al (2005a) p.42, cited from Zentes, J., et al (2014), p.6.

39 Cf. Rauch, C. (2012) p. 32, cited from Zentes, J., et al (2014), p.6.

40 Cf. Sattler, H, et al (2013), p.23.

41 Cf. Sattler, H, et al (2013), p.48.

42 Cf. Esch, F.-R. (2012), p.57.

43 Cf. Schneider, W. (2013), p.52.

44 Cf. Keller, K.L. (1993) cited from Esch, F.-R. (2012), p.57; Baumgarth C. (2014), p.228.

45 Cf. Esch, F.-R. (2012), p.60.

46 Cf. Kotler, P., et al (2011), pp.611-612.

47 Cf. Kuß, A., et al (2013), p.213.

48 Cf. Esch, F.-R., et al (2005b), p.106.

49 Cf. Keller, K.L. (2008), pp.59-60.

50 Cf. Burmann, C., et al (2003), p.11 cited from Sattler, H., et al (2013), p.50.

51 Cf. Keller, K.L. (1993), p.3, cited from Sattler, H., et al (2013), p.67.

52 Cf. Kuß, A., et al (2013), p.213.

53 Cf. Sattler, H., et al (2013), p.67.

54 Cf. Meffert, H., et al (2012), p.364.

55 Cf. Oloko, S. (2011), pp. 200-201.

56 Cf. Esch, F.R. (2012), p.81.

57 Cf. Meffert, H., et al (2012), p.360.

58 Cf. Esch, F.R. (2012), p.90-91, cited from Sattler, H., et al (2013), p.48.

59 Cf. Burmann, C., et al (2005b), p.49.

60 Cf. Halek, P. (2009), pp.115-116.

61 Cf. Rauch, C. (2012), p.13, cited from Zentes, J., et al (2014), p.7.

62 Cf. Halek, P. (2009), pp.115-116.

63 Cf. Sattler, H, et al (2013), pp.49-50.

64 Cf. Rabe von Pappenheim, J. (2009), p.13.

65 Cf. Meffert, H., et al (2014a), p. 22.

66 Cf. von Carlowitz, H.C. (1732), cited from Greiling, D. et al. (2010), p.42.

67 Cf. Grunwald, A., et al (2012), p.21.

68 Cf. Frank, K., et al (2014), p.11.

69 Cf. Hauff, M, et al (2014), p.6.

70 Cf. Jonker, J., et al (2011), p.145; Frank, K., et al (2014), p.12.

71 WCED (1987), cited from Hardtke, A., (2010), p.17.

72 Cf. Jonker, J., et al (2011), p.146.

73 Cf. Hauff, M., et al (2014), p.10.

74 Cf. Greiling, D. et al. (2010), p.42.

75 Cf. Rabe von Pappenheim, J. (2009), p.14.

76 Cf. Bundesregierung (2002), pp.1-2; Hauff, M., et al (2014), p.11.

77 Cf. Pufé, I. (2012), p.15.

78 Cf. Frank, K., et al (2014), p.12.

79 Cf. Blank, J.E. (2001), pp.374-376, cited from Hauff, M., et al (2014), p.12.

80 Cf. Beal, B. D. (2014), p.12.

81 Cf. Beal, B. D. (2014), pp.1-2.

82 Europäische Kommission (2001), p.7.

83 Cf. Kirchhof, A.-K., et al (2014), p.2.

84 Cf. Hardtke, A. (2010), p.18.

85 Cf. Schaltegger, S., et al (2007), p.94.

86 Cf. Loew, T. et al (2004), p.70, cited from Kirstein, S. (2009), p.56.

87 Cf. Hardtke, A. (2010), pp.17-18.

88 Cf. Schaltegger, S., et al (2007), p.89.

89 Cf. Hardtke, A. (2010), p.19.

90 Cf. Schaltegger, S., et al (2007), p.89.

91 Cf. Loew, T. et al (2004), p.73.

92 Cf. Schaltegger, S. (2012), p.168.

93 Cf. Loew, T. et al (2004), pp.70-72.

94 Cf. Fischer, T. M., et al (2009), pp.271-272, cited from Frank, K., et al (2014), p.31.

95 Cf. Hauff, M., et al (2014), p.44.

96 Cf. Klauer, B., et al (2013), p.49.

Excerpt out of 68 pages

Details

Title
Brand Management consistent with Sustainability
Grade
1,7
Author
Year
2015
Pages
68
Catalog Number
V336867
ISBN (eBook)
9783668316812
ISBN (Book)
9783668316829
File size
1509 KB
Language
English
Notes
Aus der Thesis wurde ein Interview gelöscht. Dies war zum Zeitpunkt des Interviews so vereinbart worden.
Tags
Marke, Markenmanagement, Nachhaltigkeit, sustainability, nachhaltige Markenbildung
Quote paper
Alexander Veliki (Author), 2015, Brand Management consistent with Sustainability, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/336867

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