Role of the Resource Center to Develop Performance of the Teacher


Master's Thesis, 2016
60 Pages, Grade: 1

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Role of the Resource Center to Develop Performance of the Teacher
- Netra Bahadur Karki
ii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
This thesis entitled "Role of the Resource Center to Develop Performance of the
Teacher" is prepared for the partial fulfillment of the requirements for second year of
the Master's Degree in Educational Planning and Management. The paper is related to
the activities carried out and the problems being faced by the resource centers. The
thesis is prepared based on the data and information received from the resource
centers, resource persons, principals and teachers of the study area'. I would like to
extend sincere gratitude to the Department of Educational Planning and Management,
Sukuna Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University for providing this opportunity.
I would like to convey special gratitude and appreciation to my thesis guide
Assistance Campus Chief Lecturer Laxmi Kumar Shrestha for his guidance and
suggestions. Similarly, my honest thanks goes to the Head of the Department of
Educational Planning and Management Lecturer Keshav Raj Bhattarai, Lecturer
Khagendra Luitel, and Resource Person Lectures Prem Prasad Bhattarai for their
continuous support and assistance. The resource persons, principals and the teachers
of the schools of the study area deserve my appreciation for their assistance in the data
collection process.
Finally, I would like to extend my sincere gratitude to my family and colleagues for
their contribution to form the favourable environment in preparing this thesis. Mr.
Krishna Prasad Ojha, Hiuchuli Offset Press, Biratchok equally deserves my earnest
appreciation for his help in typing and collecting data as an enumerator.
14 March, 2016
Netra Bahadur Karki
Researcher

Role of the Resource Center to Develop Performance of the Teacher
- Netra Bahadur Karki
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ABSTRACT
The aim of the thesis entitled "Role of the Resource Center to Develop
Performance of the Teacher" is to study the roles played by the resource centers in
enhancing the performance of the teachers. For this, three resource persons, eighteen
Headmasters and thirty-two teachers are included in the questionnaire for the data
collection. The Resource Centers were selected through purposive sampling and the
teachers were selected through random sampling technique. During the research,
George Elton Mayo's Human Relation Theory, Mary Parker Follett's Principles of
Coordination and Abraham Harold Maslow's Theory of Motivation were utilized as
the theoretical framework. The collected data were analyzed, described and presented
with the help of tabulation, pie charts and percentage.
In this study, it was revealed that the inspection service could not reach to all the
schools. The teachers and the resource persons discuss very less on the subject matter.
Good human relation between the resource person and the teachers could not be
maintained as per the Human Relation Theory of Mayo. Teachers could not be
coordinated and motivated for their profession as per the Principles of Coordination of
Follett. The Resource Centers have been conducting the professional development
trainings, curriculum sensitization, trainings on the construction and use of teaching
aids etc. for developing performance of the teachers. Presently, the Resource Centers
have been facing problems like lack of financing, lack of trainings for the Resource
Persons, lack of subject wise Resource Persons, lack of assistant personnel and so on.
The Resource Centers need to be financially supported for the smooth operation. The
Resource Persons should carry out regular inspection and supervision and they need
trainings. There should not be any political interference in the educational sector and
there is need clear legal provisions including the system of prize and punishment, and
assistant personnel in the Resource Centers. The school inspection report should be
implemented and all the stakeholders must be united to create conducive educational
environment for the effective operation of the Resource Centers that can assist the
teachers to enhance their performance.

Role of the Resource Center to Develop Performance of the Teacher
- Netra Bahadur Karki
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TABLE OF CONTENT
LIST OF TABLES ... vi
LIST OF FIGURES ... vii
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ... viii
CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION ... 1
1.1
Background ... 1
1.2
Statement of the Problem ... 3
1.3
Significance of the Study ... 3
1.4
Objectives of the Study ... 4
1.5
Research Questions ... 4
1.6
Limitation of the Study ... 5
1.7
Definition of the Terms ... 5
CHAPTER II: LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK ... 6
2.1
Literature Review ... 6
2.2
Theoretical Framework of the Study ... 7
2.2.1
Principles of Coordination ... 8
2.2.2
Human Relation Theory ... 8
2.2.3
Theory of Motivation ... 8
2.3
Educational Significance of the Literature Review ... 9
CHAPTER III: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ...10
3.1
Research Design ...10
3.2
Data Collection Process ...10
3.2.1
Study Population and Sampling Technique ...10
3.2.2
Sample Size ...11
3.3
Research Tools ...11
3.4
Source of Data ...12
3.4.1
Primary Source of Data ...12
3.4.2
Secondary Source of Data ...12
3.5
Data Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation ...12
CHAPTER IV: DATA ANALYSIS ...13
4.1
Role Played by the Resource Centers to Develop Performance of the Teachers ...13
4.1.1
School Inspection ...14
4.1.2
Inspection Conducted in an Academic Year ...16
4.1.3
Behaviour of the Resource Persons during School Inspection ...17
4.1.4
Additional Programs ...18
4.1.5
Extracurricular Activities ...19
4.1.6
Mobilization of the Community ...21

Role of the Resource Center to Develop Performance of the Teacher
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4.2
Activities to Be Carried out By the Resource Centers in Order to Develop
Performance of the Teachers ...21
4.2.1
Class Observation ...25
4.2.2
Discussion between RPs and Teachers after Class Observation ...26
4.2.3
Assistance for Constructing Instructional Plans ...28
4.3
Problems Being Faced by the Resource Centers ...29
4.3.1
Measures to Solve the Problems of the Resource Centers ...33
CHAPTER V: FINDING, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION ...37
5.1
Finding ...37
5.2
Conclusion ...38
5.3
Recommendation ...39
5.3.1
Policy Recommendation ...39
5.3.2
Operational Recommendation ...39
5.3.3
Research Recommendation ...39
REFERENCES ...40
APPENDICES ...42

Role of the Resource Center to Develop Performance of the Teacher
- Netra Bahadur Karki
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LIST OF TABLES
Tables
Page
1 Study Population and Sampling Technique
11
2 Activities Conducted in the Resource Centers to Develop
Performance of the Teachers
14
3 School Inspection
15
4 Inspection Conducted within an Academic Year
16
5 Behaviour of the Resource Persons during School Inspection
18
6 Additional Programs
19
7 Extracurricular Activities
20
8 Community Mobilization Activities
21
9 Activities to Be Carried out by the Resource Centers
22
10 Class Observation
25
11 Discussion between Resource Persons and Teachers after Class
Observation
27
12 Assistance for Constructing Instructional Plans
28
13 Problems of the Resource Centers
30
14 Measures to Solve the Problems of the Resource Centers
34

Role of the Resource Center to Develop Performance of the Teacher
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LIST OF FIGURES
Figures
Page
1
School Inspection
15
2
Inspection Conducted within an Academic Year
17
3
Class Observation
26
4
Discussion between Resource Persons and Teachers
27
5
Assistance for Constructing Instructional Plans
29

Role of the Resource Center to Develop Performance of the Teacher
- Netra Bahadur Karki
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LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
BPEP
Basic and Primary Education Plan
BS
Bikram Sambat
DEO
District Education Office
GoN
Government of Nepal
HM
Headmaster
HSS
Higher Secondary School
LSS
Lower Secondary School
PS
Primary School
RC
Resource Center
RCMC
Resource Center Management Committee
RP
Resource Person
SS
Secondary School

Role of the Resource Center to Develop Performance of the Teacher
- Netra Bahadur Karki
CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
1.1
Background
Assorted aspect of human are being refined and changed day by day with the genesis
of human civilization. Human life style has been changed due to the amazing use of
science and technology. The first priority and interest of the state is to guarantee the
people's right and access to education, which has been constantly raised issue. The
access to education was limited to the higher-class male even before some decades in
Nepal. In the present context, the voice of 'Right to education for all' is strongly raised
whether it is for women, deprived, differently able, and geographically deprived or
anyone else. The education summit held in Jomtien, Thailand in 1990 has declared the
world wide slogan "Education For All" which guarantees the access to education for
all (Sharma, 2004).
Teachers' appointment in the schools is not enough for the effective instructional
learning. Assisting schools through inspection supervision and care is additionally
important. Institutional school inspection in Nepal commenced in 1998 BS with the
establishment of the office of the chief inspector of School. The aim of the inspection
at that time was to monitor whether the school are being operated as per the legal
provision or not and it was limited to the administrative control. The school inspection
system started by the first school inspector Surya Prasad Dhungel in 1998 BS is
frequently changing. There were three types of inspectors in 2028 BS. Seti project was
implemented in 2057 BS. This project initiated the reformative supervision system
with the objective of improving the standard of educational and instructional process.
The concept of new supervision system was developed where a school among a group
of 9-10 schools was chosen as a Resource Center (RC). The RC started tasks like in-
service training, assisting informal education, supply of materials, conduct teachers
meeting and other related tasks (Sharma, 2004).
RC is a dynamic unit as per the 'Basic and Primary Education Plan (BPEP)' that is
established to improve the educational standard. The service center helps the student,

Role of the Resource Center to Develop Performance of the Teacher
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educational community and as a whole the school in the process of educational
improvement. Now, 1331 RCs in 75 districts are
being operated in Nepal. The
responsibility of each RC lies on the Resource Person (RP). The Manual on the
Operation of Resource Center (1993) has listed some tasks of the RC: utilizations of
the resources of the school cluster for the educational development; organizing
trainings, workshops and seminars to develop the performance of the teachers and
headmasters; educational awareness within the schools and the society; minimizing
the differences among school; development and use of the teaching aids; coordination
of educational activities, distribution of the resources available with the school
groups; implementation of the new developed curriculum; continuity of the
professional growth and development of the teacher; center of intellectual interaction.
The Seti Project for rural development started with the perspective of development
and sensitizing of the rural society and putting the social service interventions on the
direct public contact. The responsibility of the RCs was institutional in this project
and RCs fulfilled the duties without affecting the instructional activities of the
resource school (Dhakal, 2004).
The school inspection system by the RPs stared in 2042 BS with the implementation
of Primary Education Project. The project divided the schools of district in certain
RCs. The project was implemented first in the six districts: Jhapa, Dhankuta, Tanahu,
Kaski, Dang and Surkhet. The project was implemented in all 75 districts within five
years. After implementation of the Basic and Primary Education Project (BPEP) in
2049 BS, RC system was approved and the arrangement of temporary posting of
teachers as the RP was enforced. In this way, there are two types of school inspectors.
The school inspection was started by these persons (Kafle, Shrestha, & Sinha, 2005).
Various reports, government, NGOs and public have pointed out the lack of effective
school inspection. Different scholars have indicated that the school inspectors are not
capable of identifying the problems of the working area (Ministry of Education,
Government of Nepal, 1998). The teachers are widely criticized for not fulfilling their
roles and responsibilities though the education rules and regulation of the GoN has
clearly defined the roles and responsibilities of the teachers. In this backdrop, it is
important to study on the issues like: what have RCs done to develop teachers'

Role of the Resource Center to Develop Performance of the Teacher
- Netra Bahadur Karki
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performance, the status of the school inspection, whether the RPs are able to improve
the instructional learning or not, what are the prevailing problems of the RCs, what is
the role of the RCs to develop the performance of the teachers and so on.
1.2
Statement of the Problem
The main responsibility of the teachers is to implement the instructional programs
with effective teaching learning activities to achieve educational objective. Teachers
are the backbone of the education system. Teachers need to be professional and
studious in order to make the students capable and skillful, and to achieve the
objectives of the curriculum. RCs are established for this purpose. Solving the
educational problems of the teachers for their self-direction towards the instructional
activities in close relation with the teacher is the main task of the RCs.
The RC should mobilize the headmaster, teachers, management committee and
community. The RCs need to direct, suggest and coordinate all the stakeholders. The
GoN has invested huge resources for establishing and operating the RCs. A variety of
difficulties has been being faced because of not indentifying the roles of the RCs, the
problems being faced and the best solutions to solve these problems. This study was
focused to identity the problems of the RCs and find out the solutions in order to
develop the teachers' performance.
1.3
Significance of the Study
Nepal has stepped ahead in the educational development in recent decades.
Particularly, the schools from the private side were established after the
implementation of the education policy, 1996 BS. The inspection system started in
1998 BS by Surya Prasad Dhungel is refined and developed to recent from. The
structure, responsibility and accountability have been changed time to time. Three
different inspectors for Primary, Lower Secondary and Secondary Level were
appointed in 2028 BS but two types of inspectors - Primary and Secondary - were
appointed since 2030 BS (Koirala & Shrestha, 2008).

Role of the Resource Center to Develop Performance of the Teacher
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The school inspection system has been changed after the establishment of democracy
in 2046 BS in the history of Nepalese educational administration. The RCs were
established and operated in all parts of the country. Resource Center Management
Committee (RCMC) is arranged for the effective operation of each RC. RP is given
the responsibility to operate the center. This way, the RC is responsible to conduct
school level institutional programs. It deemed necessary to study the roles being
played by the RCs to develop the teachers' performance. It is believed that the
findings of this study will be helpful for the researches, educational planner, RPs,
Headmasters (HMs) and the teachers for further research, planning and execution.
1.4
Objectives of the Study
The objectives of the study were as follows:
1.4.1 To analyses the roles played by the RCs to develop the teachers' performance.
1.4.2 To study the tasks a RC should do to develop the performance of the teachers.
1.4.3 To find out the problems being faced by the RCs.
1.4.4 To find out the measures to solve the problems of the RCs in order to develop
the teachers' performance.
1.5
Research Questions
The study was focused to answers the following questions:
1.5.1 What have the RCs done to develop the performance of the teacher?
1.5.2 Are the activities of the RCs helpful to develop the teachers' performance?
1.5.3 What are the problem being faced by the RCs?
1.5.4 What are the measures to solve the problems of the RCs in order to develop
the teachers' performance?

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1.6
Limitation of the Study
This study is limited to three RCs out of eighteen in Morang district considering the
limited resources and time. The study is confined within three Higher Secondary
Schools (HSSs), three Secondary Schools (SSs), three Lower Secondary Schools
(LSSs) and nine Primary Schools (PSs). This study is primarily based on the data
collected via questionnaires form sampled RPs, HMs and teachers. The findings of
this study may only be generalized in the similar circumstances.
1.7
Definition of the Terms
Resource Center (RC):
A dynamic unit established to develop the educational
standard of the cluster school.
Resource Person (RP):
An individual who assists in educational and academic
activities as an expert.
Seti Project:
A project implemented in Seti zone of Nepal to achieve
certain objective within a determined span of time.
Plan:
Detail framework prepared to conduct and implement a
set of special activities.
Regulations:
A collection of rules.
Administrative Task:
Educational administration related activities in order to
develop educational development of the school.
Headmaster (HM):
The principal teacher who is responsible for the
institutional and administrative matters.
Public School:
A school that receives government aid.

Role of the Resource Center to Develop Performance of the Teacher
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CHAPTER II
LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
2.1
Literature Review
Various literatures are published on the history, development and present status of
Nepalese education following studies and researches. However, there are very few
literatures on the roles played by the resource centers to develop teachers'
performance. The available literatures are reviewed in the succeeding paragraphs.
School inspector shall record the details of every teacher's instructional activities
every year and the schools should receive the government aid based on the inspectors
report ("National Education System Plan," 1971). Dhakal (2004) has emphasized on
the need of improvement in the inspection system. Inspection system is not effective,
it is just administration oriented. The school inspectors lack instructional perspective,
experiences, qualification and skills. The inspectors remain in the district headquarters
rather than in the area of responsibility (Kafle, 2009).
Bhattarai (2004)
states that the individual process of supervision is more effective
than the group one and the processes are better utilized in public schools than in the
private. Instructional planning in less utilized in both private and public schools and
the money, time, materials etc. are the common limitations. The stakeholders get very
less cooperation from the government institutions. HM should be involved in the
instructional supervision and there is need of real coordination between HMs and the
inspectors (Wagle & Karki, 2007).
Ministry of Education, Government of Nepal (1998) argues that the RPs should be
experienced ones among available in the district. Selection of the RPs should be done
thorough competitive process. Recommended selection will have implications to the
working environment. There exist many wrong practices in the school due to the lack
of proper and enough supervision (K.C., 2006). This has resulted one side in the
decreased educational achievement and on the other side performance of the teachers
could not be enhanced. For the improvement, politicization in the schools should be

Role of the Resource Center to Develop Performance of the Teacher
- Netra Bahadur Karki
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stopped, rules and regulations should be practically implemented and all stakeholders
should be aware of the roles, responsibilities and authorities (Thapa, Shrestha, &
Sigdel, 2001).
Regional Education Directorate (2004) suggests that the present status of the RCs
should be analyzed for the educational reformation. The report has pointed out some
causes of ineffectiveness of the RCs which involve geographical remoteness, lack of
assistant personnel in the RCs, lack of communication and coordination, political
interference in the RP selection process, lack of prize and punishment system, lack of
coordination between District Education Office (DEO) and RCs, establishing RCs
without mapping, lack of training and facilities for the RPs and so on.
For the improvement of the teaching learning, the roles of the RPs should be studied,
the weaknesses should be identified and the changes in the activities should be
analyzed (Pokharel, 2006). The main problems of the RPs are: they lack of trainings,
lack of subject wise RPs, non-evaluation of the RPs' performance, involvement in the
administrative business etc. The biggest challenge in the school inspection system is
that the inspectors behave as a boss rather than a good friend of a teacher (Pokharel,
2006). Inspectors should assist all the stokeholds. Inspectors need to have the idea that
they should start the work with those who are committed for the reformation, change
and transformation (Secondary Education Mirror, 2009). An inspector must have
quality to deal with all types of the teachers. It is generally thought that the new, weak
and less experienced teachers are the targeted population for the service but all types
of teachers definitely have some rooms for improvement. Effective inspection service
and training helps to develop the teachers' performance that ultimately prepares a
committed instructional environment for the transformation.
2.2
Theoretical Framework of the Study
Previous researches, studies, suggestions, recommendations and literatures are always
precious for any study. For the effective and practical outcome of the research on the
role of the RCs to develop the teacher's performance, the study is based on Abraham
Harold Maslow's Theory of Motivation, George Elton Mayo's Human Relation
Theory and Mary Parker Follett's Principles of Coordination.

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2.2.1 Principles of Coordination
Mary Parker Follett (1868-1933) is the founder of the Theory of Coordination. She
was born in the American city of Boston and taught in the prestigious universities like
Cambridge and Harvard. According to the Theory of Coordination, production can be
increased by developing the human relation between workers and the managers. This
is possible only when the feelings and the interests of the individuals are well
understood. Performance development is possible when misunderstandings and
disputes are psychologically settled. Team spirit can achieve the best result. Her
famous theories of coordination are: Coordination by direct contact, Coordination in
early stages, Coordination as the reciprocal relating of all factors in a situation and
Coordination as a continuing process.
2.2.2 Human Relation Theory
George Elton Mayo (1880-1949) is the profounder of the Human Relation Theory.
This theory advocates that good human relation among the personnel within an
organization makes the performances better and standard, but oppositely the bad
relation slows down the performances and there will be low standard of activities. The
personnel should be motivated by identifying the weaknesses for the high productivity
of an organization. Leadership development should be based on the capacity.
Necessary initiatives to enhance the capacity of the personnel are required and social
qualities are to be developed.
2.2.3 Theory of Motivation
Abraham Harold Maslow (1908-1970) has founded the Theory of Motivation in 1943.
Human beings are motivated by the hierarchy of need. An individual tries best to
fulfill the needs. The psychological shortage for the satisfactory is the need and one is
stimulated to fulfill those needs. Maslow descried the pattern of human need with the
terms "Physiological, Safety, Belongingness, Love, Esteem, Self-actualization and
self-transcendence needs". The human needs move through this hierarchy of needs
that motivate the individual for the activities. Teachers' needs flow in the similar

Role of the Resource Center to Develop Performance of the Teacher
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hierarchy where professional one comes later than the physiological, social and
esteem ones. Motivation is the prerequisite for the development of the teachers'
performance.
2.3
Educational Significance of the Literature Review
According to Follett's Principles of Coordination, performance development is
possible only with the establishment of good human relation through psychological
settlement of the disputes within an organization. Team spirit is the root of the
success. Coordination from the initial stage is necessary that can be done through
direct contact. Coordination should move forward as a continuous process. This
theory has been utilized as reference source to study the relation and coordination
among RPs, schools and teachers.
Mayo's Human Relation Theory advocates that good human relation among the
personnel in an organization provide better, smooth and standard performance. This
study has used the theory as a reference source in order to find out the human relation
among RPs, HMs and teachers, and its impact on the development of teacher's
performance. Maslow's hierarchy of need states that human desires and needs are
unlimited but their priority differs. Human beings are always motivated and
stimulated to fulfill the needs. The level of motivation makes the process of fulfilling
need easier or difficult. This paper has tried to study the role of the RCs in motivating
the teachers to enhance their performance level.
This chapter of review of the literature has helped to form the theoretical framework
for this research on the role of the Resource Center to develop the performance of the
teachers. These invaluable works of the various authors are indebted for this study.

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CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1
Research Design
This study is descriptive and analytical one. This paper is based on the data received
from RCs and schools, and data acquired through questionnaires. Both the qualitative
and quantitative data from primary and secondary both sources are utilized in this
study to study the role of the RCs to develop the performance of the teacher.
3.2
Data Collection Process
The following population, sample, sampling techniques and sources of data are
utilized in this study:
3.2.1 Study Population and Sampling Technique
Three RCs - Sukana, Banigama and Bahuni - being operated in Morang district, 40
Schools, 40 HMs and 200 teachers from these RCs are the study population for this
study.

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Table 1
Study Population and Sampling Technique
Study
Total Population
Sample
Population
Sampling Technique
RCs
18
3
Purposive Sampling
School
40
18
Systematic
Random
Sampling
HMs
40
18
Systematic
Random
Sampling
Teacher
200
32
Random Sampling
Three among eighteen RCs in Morang district were purposively chosen based on the
distance for this study. The schools were selected trough systematic random sampling
and the teachers' selection was done through random sampling. One HSS, one SS, one
LSS and three PSs from each of the RCs were chosen via raffling. One RP from each
RC, all the HMs from all eighteen schools and teachers (female and male both) from
all those schools were chosen through random sampling.
3.2.2 Sample Size
The sample size consists of three RCs, three RPs, three HSSs, three SSs, three LSSs,
nine PSs, eighteen HMs and thirty-two teachers.
3.3
Research Tools
The data were collected from the records of the schools and the RCs. The three
different questionnaires for RPs, HMs and teachers were used as the data collection
tools.

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3.4
Source of Data
The primary and secondary sources of the data were utilized for the study as follows:
3.4.1 Primary Source of Data
The primary sources were very important source of data for this study. The researcher
went to the RCs for the data collection thought questionnaire and an enumerator was
used to collect data from the HMs and the teachers via questionnaires.
3.4.2 Secondary Source of Data
The data about the annual activities of the RCs were collected from the office files.
3.5
Data Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation
The data are presented though to tabulation, pie charts and percentage. The data were
analyzed and described with the help of both qualitative and quantitative data. The
data were analyzed on the basis of the Mary Parker Follett's Principles of
Coordination, George Elton Mayo's Human Relation Theory and Abraham Harold
Maslow's Theory of Motivation.

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CHAPTER IV
DATA ANALYSIS
This title was chosen for the research because it was necessary to study "What have
the RCs done to develop the teachers' performance?, What should be done?, What are
the problems being faced by the RCs?, and What are the possible measures to solve
those problems?". In Nepalese context, various studies and the report of the National
Education Commission, 2049 BS have revealed that the educational standard in
gradually declining, discipline level in the schools is also going down, learning
achievement of the students is decreasing, and there are very few programs to enhance
the performance the teachers. The RCs are established as the main junctions to
address these issues. The data collected from the record of the RCs and the data
collected through the questionnaires are presented and analyzed in the succeeding
subheadings.
4.1
Role Played by the Resource Centers to Develop Performance of the
Teachers
The objectives of establishing RCs are to develop professionalism of the teacher,
student evaluation, improve school management, increase educational awareness,
community mobilization and conduct all instructional activities. Here, the role of the
RCs to develop the professional capacity of the teachers and status of these activities
are tried to study. The activities conducted in the RCs to develop the teacher's
performance are displayed in the table 2 below:

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Table 2
Activities Conducted in the Resource Centers to Develop
Performance of the Teachers
S.N.
Activities Conducted
Number of RC Percentage
1.
Professional development training for
teachers
3
100
2.
Workshop in curriculum and sensitization
3
100
3.
Training on construction and use of
teaching aids
2
66.66
4.
Exhibition of teaching learning aids
2
66.66
5.
Training on local language teaching
2
66.66
6.
Training on continuous student evaluation
3
100
7.
Seminar on teachers' manual and use of
reference materials
2
66.66
8.
Demonstration of model class
2
66.66
The table 2 shows that various activities have been conducted in the RCs to enhance
the teachers' performance. It is revealed that cent percent of the RCs have conducted
trainings on professional development of teachers, workshop on curriculum and
sensitization, and continuous student evaluation. All other activities were conducted
by 66.66 percentage of the RCs.
4.1.1 School Inspection
The RPs are liable to conduct all the activities, and inspect and supervise all the
schools within the service sector. The RPs, HMs and the teachers were asked about

Role of the Resource Center to Develop Performance of the Teacher
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the status of inspection by the RCs. The responses on the question "Is the inspection
service available in all the school?" are presented in the table below:
Table 3
School Inspection
S.N.
Respondents
Number
Responses
Yes
%
No
%
1.
RPs
3
3
100
-
-
2.
HMs
18
10
55.5
8
44.4
3.
Teachers
32
20
62.5
12
37.5
Total
53
33
62.3
20
37.7
Table 3 shows the mixed responses. Hundred percent of the RPs claimed that they
provide inspection service to all the schools. At the same time, only 55.5% of the
HMs and 62.5% of the teachers agreed on the availability of the inspection service in
the schools. Whereas 44.4% of the HMs and 37.5% of the teachers said that the
inspection service was not available in the schools which is displayed in the pie chart
below:
Figure 1: School Inspection
Yes
62.3%
No
37.7%

Role of the Resource Center to Develop Performance of the Teacher
- Netra Bahadur Karki
16
This brings to the conclusion that 37.7 % schools are out of the inspection service.
Here, the coordination between RCs and the schools lack, and it can be observed that
direct coordination could not be made as advocated by Follett's Principles of
Coordination. Teachers' motivation is require to reform the situation where well
managed inspection and inspection though effective communication is obligatory. The
data prove that the instructional quality has been decreasing and teachers'
performance could not be developed because of ineffective inspection and supervision
(Pokharel, 2006).
4.1.2 Inspection Conducted in an Academic Year
School inspection in two months is compulsory by law. The responses on the question
"How many times were the inspections conducted in the academic year 2070?" are
presented in the table 4 below:
Table 4
Inspection Conducted within an Academic Year
S.N.
Response
RPs
N=3
%
HMs
N=18
%
Teachers
N=32
%
Total
1. One time
1
33.33
11
61.1
20
62.5
60.3
2. Two times
1
33.33
7
38.9
12
37.5
37.7
3. Three times
1
33.33
-
-
-
-
2
4. More
than
three times
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Total
3
100
18
100
32
100
100
The table 4 shows that there are different responses from the RPs, HMs and the
teachers. The data reveals that only 33.33 % of the RPs, 61.1 % of the HMs and 62.5

Role of the Resource Center to Develop Performance of the Teacher
- Netra Bahadur Karki
17
% of the teachers agreed on the one time inspection. Only 33.33 % of the RPs, 38.9 %
of the HMs and 37.5 % of the teachers said that the inspection was conducted twice in
the academic year. Only two percentage of the respondents claimed that the RPs
conducted inspection twice in the year but none of the HMs and the teachers agreed.
This can be summarized in the figure below:
Figure 2: Inspection Conducted within an Academic Year
The figure shows that the inspection was conducted only once in 60.3 percentage of
the schools and twice in only 37.7 percentage of the schools. The data clarify equal
human relation could not be established among the teachers as per Mayo's Human
Relation Theory. The RCs are unable to identify the weaknesses of the teachers and
advice, coordinate and motivate them accordingly.
4.1.3 Behaviour of the Resource Persons during School Inspection
Development of teachers' performance is crucial for the effective teaching learning
process and effective school inspection, monitoring and evaluation are the prerequisite
for this. Teachers should think that the RPs come to school for their assistance. The
question "How is the behaviour of the RPs during school inspection?" was asked and
the responses are presented in the table 5 below:
1 time
60.3 %
2 times
37.7 %
3 times
2 %

Role of the Resource Center to Develop Performance of the Teacher
- Netra Bahadur Karki
18
Table 5
Behaviour of the Resource Persons during School Inspection
S.N.
Response
RPs
(N=3)
%
HMs
(N=18)
%
Teacher
(N=32)
%
Total
%
1. Helpful
3
100
9
50
10
31.2
41.5
2. Giving
no
importance
-
-
2
11
7
21.9
17
3. Fulfilling
formality
-
-
7
39
12
37.5
35.8
4. Threatening
mentality
-
-
-
-
3
9.4
5.7
The table 5 above shows that there is need of improving the behaviour of the RPs
during school inspection. Hundred percentage of the RPs, 50 % of the HMs and only
31.2 % of the teacher agreed that the behaviour of the RPs during school inspection
was helpful and facilitating. RPs did not agree that they did not give any importance
during the inspection where 11 % of the HMs and 21.9 % of the teachers claimed that
be RPs did not give any importance. Similarly, 39 % of the HMs and 37.5 % of the
teachers said that the school inspections were carried out just to fulfill formalities.
Nearly ten percentage of the teachers said that the RPs come to school for inspection
with threatening mentality.
4.1.4 Additional Programs
Various programs related to schools and teachers are being conducted in the RCs. The
responses of the RPs and the office data of the RCs revealed that there were the
following additional programs conducted:

Role of the Resource Center to Develop Performance of the Teacher
- Netra Bahadur Karki
19
Table 6
Additional Programs
S.N.
Programs
Number of RCs
N=3
Percentage
1. HM meeting
3
100
2. Meeting of the RCMC
3
100
3. Extra activities
2
66.66
4. Selection of model school
3
100
5. Making RC profile
3
100
6. Organizing children rally
1
33.33
7. Organizing speech competition
2
66.66
8. Sports activities
2
66.66
9. Designing local curriculum
1
33.33
10. Training on school management
3
100
The table 6 shows that children rally and designing of local curriculum were
conducted in only 33.33 percentage of the RCs. HM meeting, meeting of RCMC,
selection of model school, making RC profile and training in cent percent of the RCs.
Sports activities, debate compaction and extra activities were conducted in 66.66 % of
the RCs.
4.1.5 Extracurricular Activities
The extracurricular activities conducted in the RCs are presented in the table 7 below:

Role of the Resource Center to Develop Performance of the Teacher
- Netra Bahadur Karki
20
Table 7
Extracurricular Activities
S.N.
Activities
Number of RCs
(N=3)
Percentage
1. Quiz contest
3
100
2. Drawing competition
2
66.66
3. Spelling contest
3
100
4. Debate competition
2
66.66
5. Speech competition
3
100
6. Skipping competition
2
66.66
7. Cultural program
2
66.66
8. Running competition
2
66.66
9. Balloon-blast competition
1
33.33
10. Spoon race competition
2
66.66
11. Mathematics race competition
1
33.33
12. Folk song competition
1
33.33
The table above shows that quiz, spelling and speech competition were conducted in
hundred percentage of the RCs. Drawing, debates, skipping, running and spoon race
competitions, and cultural programs were conducted in 66.66 % of the RCs. Folk
song, mathematics race and balloon-blast competition were conducted in only 33.33
% of the RCs.

Role of the Resource Center to Develop Performance of the Teacher
- Netra Bahadur Karki
21
4.1.6 Mobilization of the Community
The community mobilization activities of the RCs have facilitated the teaching
learning process and the development of the teachers' performance. The community
mobilization activities carried out by the RCs are presented below in the table 8
below:
Table 8
Community Mobilization Activities
S.N.
Activities
Number of RCs
N=3
Percentage
1. General Assembly
3
100
2. Folk song competition
1
33.33
3. Children rally
2
66.66
4. Debate competition
3
100
5. Street drama
1
33.33
The table 8 above shows that the general assembly and debate competition were
conducted by cent percent of the RCs. Folk song competition and street drama were
conducted by only 33.33 percentage of the RCs where children rally was organized by
66.66 percentage of the RCs.
4.2
Activities to Be Carried out By the Resource Centers in Order to Develop
Performance of the Teachers
The table 9 below shows the responses of the RPs, HMs and the teachers on the
question "What activities should the RCs conduct in order to develop the teacher's
performance?":

Role of the Resource Center to Develop Performance of the Teacher
- Netra Bahadur Karki
22
Table 9
Activities to Be Carried out by the Resource Centers
S.N.
Activities
RPs
N=3
%
HMs
N=18
%
Teachers
N=32
%
1. Training
3
100
18
100
32
100
2. Facilitation for cordial school-
community relationship
2
66.66
14
72.2
16
50
3. Assistance
for
class
management
2
66.66
9
50
20
62.5
4. Construction
of
local
instructional aids
2
66.66
10
55.5
24
75
5. Assistance for continuous
student evaluation
2
66.66
9
50
18
56.2
6. Assistance on mobilization of
school resource
2
66.66
14
72.2
24
75
7. Informing
on
the
new
educational technologies and
methodologies
2
66.66
18
100
32
100
8. Assistance for designing local
curriculum
2
66.66
10
55.5
24
75
9. Assistance for the construction
of instructional plan
2
66.66
10
55.5
24
75
10. Assistance for the construction
of
question
paper
and
conduction of examination
2
66.66
14
72.2
24
75

Role of the Resource Center to Develop Performance of the Teacher
- Netra Bahadur Karki
23
Teachers remain as the conductors of the teaching-learning activities. Orientation of
the children's future is up to the teachers. For this, the RCs' roles need to be
facilitating and coordinating. The responsibility of the RCs is extended from the
conduction of trainings in order to sharpen the teachers' capabilities to assisting for
the cordial school-community relationship. The schools need to be encouraged to
utilize the local teaching learning aids by assisting in the class management and
mobilization of the school resources. The teachers should be updated on the latest
educational technologies and methodologies. Assisting the schools to increase the
educational achievement through continuous student evaluation is one of the skills of
the RPs. The RCs have to become facilitator of the schools and the teachers for
designing local curriculum and educational plan. The RCs should also assist the
schools on the construction of question paper and the exam conduction for gaining
high level of educational achievement.
The table 9 above shows that the RCs need to assist the teachers in various activities
in order to improve the teaching learning process of the schools. Teachers can
continue the teaching-learning activities effectively only when they are trained and
updated for the skills and knowledge. For this, hundred percentage of the RPs, HMs
and the teachers said that the RCs need to organize short-term training programs for
teachers. Deterioration relationship between the school and the community hinders the
teaching learning process. It seems that the community is attracted towards the private
schools and the enrollment rate in the public schools is declining. This might have
affected the school-community relationship. Above 66 % of the RPs, 72.2 % of the
HMs and 50 % of the teachers agreed that the RCs should play positive role to
strengthen the school-community relationship.
Proper class management is essential for the effective teaching learning. Maximum
schools lack proper class management. Fifty percentage of the HMs, 66.66 percentage
of the RPs and 62.5 % of the teachers said that the RCs should assist the schools for
effective class management through continue inspection and supervision. Teaching
aids make the learning process lively and effective. Presently, the status of the use of
the teaching-learning aids in the schools is very poor. Above 66 percentage of the
RPs, 55.5 percentage of the HMs and 75 percentage of the teachers said that the RCs

Role of the Resource Center to Develop Performance of the Teacher
- Netra Bahadur Karki
24
need to conduct training on the construction and use of the teaching-learning
materials.
Now, the continuous student evaluation system is decided to implement in the primary
level but the execution is still pending. The evaluation is being done at the end of the
academic year because most of the teachers are not capable of conducting continuous
evaluation. More than 66 percentage of the RPs, 50 percentage of the HMs and 65.2
percentage of the teachers said that the RCs should assist the teachers for continuous
student evaluation. The schools are lacking in the part of local resources mobilization.
More than 66 percentage of the RPs, 72.2 percentage of the HMs and 75 percentage of
the teachers agreed that the RCs' assistance to schools on the efficient utilization of
the resources is not sufficient.
The world in dynamic and the development of the technologies and methodologies is
ongoing through researches. The RCs need to assist the teachers for updating
knowledge on the child-centered inventions and the technologies. This will definitely
be helpful to reform the teaching learning process. Above 66.66 percentage of the
RPs, 50 percentage of the HMs and 56.2 percentage of the teachers said that the RCs
are responsible for updating the teachers on the new technologies and methodologies.
Teachers should focus on producing the human resource who can utilize the local
resources according the local necessity. For this, the local curriculum based on the
local requirement is badly needed. More than 66.66 % of the RPs, 55.55 % of the
HMs and 75 % of the teachers agreed on the RCs' role to assist the teachers to design
local curriculum.
Actions without planning can hardly be succeeded. Schools and teachers should be
involved in the instructional planning. The RCs have to assist the schools and the
teachers in the instructional planning process, and 66.66 percentage of the RPs, 50
percentage of the HMs and 62.5 percentage of the teachers agreed on it. The
construction of the question paper should be focused on testing the various learning
outcome. More than 66 percentage of the RPs, 72.2 percentage of the HMs and
hundred percentage of the teachers agreed that the RCs need to assist the teachers to
construct good question paper and conduct the examination effectively.

Role of the Resource Center to Develop Performance of the Teacher
- Netra Bahadur Karki
25
4.2.1 Class Observation
The RPs are to suggest and mentor the teachers after class observation for
professional capacity building and development of the teachers. The responses of the
RPs, HMs and the teachers on the question "Is class observation done by the RPs?"
are presented on the table 10 below:
Table 10
Class Observation
S.N. Respondents Number
Responses Regarding the Class Observation
Yes
Percentage
No
Percentage
1.
RPs
3
3
100
-
-
2.
HMs
18
8
44.5
10
55.5
3.
Teachers
32
12
37.5
20
62.5
Total
53
23
43.4
30
56.6
Mixed response can be seen in the table 10 above. Cent percent of the RPs claimed
that the class observation is being dove whereas only 44.5 % of the HMs and 37.5 %
of the teachers have accepted. Similarly, RPs did not accept that there were no class
observation but 55.5 percentage of the HMs and 62.5 percentage of the teachers said
that there were no class observation by the RPs. The table 10 can be summarized and
presented in the pie chart below:

Role of the Resource Center to Develop Performance of the Teacher
- Netra Bahadur Karki
26
Figure 3: Class Observation
The analysis of the data clearly shows that the RCs are not able to develop the human
relation by understanding the interest of the workers for increasing productivity as per
Mary Parker Follett's Principles of Coordination. Similarly, it is clearly seen that
effective and two-way communication between the RCs and the schools lacks as per
the Human Relation Theory of Mayo. The RPs have to observe the classes and assist
the teachers to solve the problems and difficulties.
4.2.2 Discussion between RPs and Teachers after Class Observation
Mixed responses were received on the question "Do the RPs and the teachers discuss
after the class observation?" which are presented in the following table:
Class
observation is
done.
43.4 %
Class
observation is
not done.
56.6 %

Role of the Resource Center to Develop Performance of the Teacher
- Netra Bahadur Karki
27
Table 11
Discussion between Resource Persons and Teachers after Class Observation
S.N. Respondents Number
Responses Regarding the Discussion
Yes
Percentage
No
Percentage
1.
RPs
3
3
100
-
-
2.
HMs
18
10
55.5
8
44.5
3.
Teachers
32
16
50
16
50
Total
53
29
54.7
24
45.3
The different views of the respondents can be seen in the table 11 above. Hundred
percent of the RPs claimed that they discuss with the teachers after the class
observation but 55.5 % of the HMs and 50% of the teachers did not agree. The data
can be summarized and presented in the following pie chart:
Figure 4: Discussion between Resource Persons and Teachers
The chart above shows that there were no discussion between the RPs and teachers
after class observation in 45.3 percent schools. This clarifies that the RPs are not able
RPs and
teachers
discuss after
the class
observation
54.7 %
RPs and
teachers do
not discuss
after the class
observation
45.3 %

Role of the Resource Center to Develop Performance of the Teacher
- Netra Bahadur Karki
28
to establish the effective and two-way communication for the development of the
teacher's performance as per the Human Relation Theory of Mayo. The RPs should
work harder to motivate the teachers to fulfill their professional needs as per
Maslow's Theory of Motivation.
4.2.3 Assistance for Constructing Instructional Plans
The RCs should assist the needy teachers for improving the teaching-learning process
and developing the professional skills. In this regard, the responses of the RPs and the
teachers are displayed in the table 12 below:
Table 12
Assistance for Constructing Instructional Plans
S.N. Respondents Number
Responses
Yes
Percentage
No
Percentage
1.
RPs
3
3
100
-
-
2.
HMs
18
9
50
9
50
3.
Teachers
32
12
37.5
20
62.5
Total
53
24
45.3
29
54.7
The table 12 above shows that the RPs claimed that they provide continuous
assistance to the schools for the construction of the instructional plans but only 50
percentage of the HMs and 37.5 percentage of the teachers agreed. Similarly, 50
percentage of the HMs and 62.5 percentage of the teachers said that the RCs have not
assisted for constructing instructional plans which is summarized in the chart below:

Role of the Resource Center to Develop Performance of the Teacher
- Netra Bahadur Karki
29
Figure 5: Assistance for Constructing Instructional Plans
The data clarifies that the RCs' assistance to the teachers for constructing instructional
plans is not enough. The RCs have been lacking to motivate the teachers for their
capacity development and the RCs have not succeeded for motivating the teachers for
solving their problems. This shows that full support of the RCs is lacking, the RPs
could not establish appropriate human relation by understanding the interest of the
individuals as per Follett's Principles of Coordination.
4.3
Problems Being Faced by the Resource Centers
The RCs have been facing various problems. The lack of resources due to the
economical limitations is common in an underdeveloped country like ours.
Complicated working procedure because of the lack of clear policies and rules, and
unnecessary political interference has damaged the educational environment. The
geographical characteristics of Nepal have added difficulties. There is scanty of
required professional trainings. The schools have been lacking the devoted teachers
and personnel because of the lack of proper prize and punishment system. The
responses of the RPs, HMs and the teachers on the question "What are the problems
being faced by the RCs?" are presented in the table 13 below:
No assistance
for constructing
instructional
plans
45.3 %
No assistance
for constructing
instructional
plans
54.7 %

Role of the Resource Center to Develop Performance of the Teacher
- Netra Bahadur Karki
30
Table 13
Problems of the Resource Centers
S.N.
Problems
RPs
N=3
%
HMs
N=18
%
Teachers
N=32
%
1. Lack of financing
3
100
9
50
16
50
2. Lack of training for the RPs
2
66.66
12
66.66
24
75
3. Political interference
2
66.66
10
55.5
24
75
4. Need to be involved in
administrative works
3
100
18
100
24
75
5. Lack of clear policy and rules
2
66.66
10
55.5
16
50
6. Lack
of
professional
commitment
-
-
12
66.66
28
87.5
7. Geographical difficulties
2
66.66
9
50
16
50
8. Lack of subject wise RPs
3
100
12
66.66
24
75
9. Non-implementation
of
school inspection report
3
100
9
50
20
62.5
10. Lack of prize and punishment
system
2
66.66
9
50
16
50
11. Lack of qualification and
experience
1
33.33
9
50
20
62.5
12. Lack of assistant personnel
3
100
9
50
16
50
13. Lack
of
conducive
educational environment
2
66.66
12
66.66
24
75

Role of the Resource Center to Develop Performance of the Teacher
- Netra Bahadur Karki
31
The table 13 shows assorted problems being faced by the RCs. Because of these
hindrances, the RCs are very less effective to increase the learning achievement rate
of the students. The improvement in the teaching- learning process and development
of the teachers' performance has not been achieved. The RCs need to have financial
support to speed up the actions where financial limitation has been one of the biggest
problems of the RCs that is pointed out by cent percent of the RPs, 50 percentage of
the HMs and 50 percentage of the teachers. Due to lack of building for the RCs, the
RCs have been being operated in a room of a school where they face extreme shortage
of basic furniture and materials. The RPs need to be trained and qualified in their
respective disciplines for the smooth running of the activities of the RCs. Above 66
percentage of the RPs, 66.66 percentage of the HMs and 75 percentage of the teachers
said that lack of in-service and subject wise refreshment training for the RPs has
hindered the activities of the RCs. This proves that the RPs need professional, pre-
service, in-service and refreshment trainings.
Scholars have similar view that the educational institutions should not be developed
as a political hub. In the process of operating RCs, the RCs are found appointed in the
political pressure and the teachers could not make similar concept on the politically
appointed RPs. More than 66 percentage of the RPs, 55.5 percentage of the HMs and
75 percentage of the teachers agreed that the political pressure and interference has
detrimental impact on the whole educational system .This proves that the RCs should
be kept out of the political interference.
The RPs are found to be involved in others administrative tasks in addition to those
for developing teachers performance. The RPs are being involved in the analysis of
the educational data, extracurricular activities, meeting of School Management
Committee, conduction of the exams and so on. Hundred percentage of the RPs, cent
percent of the HMs and 75 percentage of the teachers said that the involvement of the
RPs in those administrative matters has limited the main role of developing
professional capacity of the teachers. This clarifies that the RPs are involved in the
administrative tasks and it is necessary to free them from those additional activities.
Some of the roles of the RPs are clearly listed but the implementation part lacks. For
example, the RPs should inspect and supervise the schools of their area of

Role of the Resource Center to Develop Performance of the Teacher
- Netra Bahadur Karki
32
responsibility once in two months but many schools found without single inspection
within an academic year. The RPs were found to be in the RCs only at the time of
trainings, workshops, seminars or meetings and they were found out of the office in
other time. Above 66 percentage of the RPs, 55.5 percentage of the HMs and 50
percentage of the teachers agreed that the lack of clear policies and rules has negative
impact of the development of the teachers' performance. This clarifies that lack of
clear policies is one of the main problems of the RCs.
The RPs are found to be less attracted towards their profession. Cent percent of the
RPs said that they are professionally committed, where 66.66 % of the HMs and 87.5
% of the teachers blamed that the RPs are not professionally committed. Here, data
shows that the RPs are not professionally devoted in the eyes of the HMs and the
teachers.
The task of the RPs is technical one. For this, the RPs need to be qualified and
experienced in their disciplines but the RPs are not found capable in all the subjects of
the primary level. Hundred percentage of the RPs, 66.66 percentage of the HMs and
75 percentage of the teachers said that the RPs are not capable of mentoring and
solving the problems of the teachers of all subjects after class observation. This
proves that lack of subject wise RP is one of the problems of the RCs.
The RPs are responsible for preparing a school report including suggestions after the
inspection of the schools and their activities, and submit to the District Education
Office (DEO). The school inspection reports were not found to be implemented by the
DEO. The RPs were found with the view that there is no significance of the
inspection. Cent percent of the RPs, 50 percentage of the HMs and 62.5 percentage of
the teachers agreed that non-implementation of the school inspection reports is one of
the problems.
There should be provision of prize and encouragement for those who perform well
and punishment for those who do wrong in any institution. There is no provision of
prize and punishment for the RCs for their good or bad performances on the basis of
evaluation. More than 66 percentage of the RPs, 50 percentage of the HMs and 50

Role of the Resource Center to Develop Performance of the Teacher
- Netra Bahadur Karki
33
percentage of the teachers have accepted this fact which justifies that lack of prize and
punishment system is one of the problems of the RCs.
Professionally sound, experienced and qualified personnel are essential for effective
execution of any task in any institution. The school inspectors must have minimum
qualification of Bachelor's Degree in Education as per the Education Act, 2028 BS
(Education Act, 1971) and the Regulations, 2059 BS (Education Rules, 2002), and at
the same time the report of the High Level National Education Commission, 2055 BS
has recommended qualification of Master's Degree in Education and ten years of
experience for school inspectors. These provisions are not implemented for the
selection of the inspectors. Lack of academic qualification of the RPs is one of the
problems of the RCs which is accepted by 33.33 % of the RPs, 50 % of the HMs and
62.5% of the teachers. Only one RPs is appointed for all the activities of the RCs
where assistant personnel are not appointed. Hundred percentage of the RPs, 50 %
HMs and 50 % teachers accepted that lack of assistant personnel is one of the
problems of the RCs.
Good political, economical and social environment of the country are the prerequisites
for the smooth implementation of the educational programs. The RCs should be fully
resourced with reading materials, instructional aids, library, furniture etc. Conducive
educational environment could not be created due to the political instability in the
country. More than 66 percentage of the RPs, 66.66 percentage of the HMs and 75
percentage of the teachers agreed that lack of favourable educational environment is
one of the problems of the RCs. The RCs are not capable of developing the teachers'
performance and teaching learning could not be improved due to above discussed
problems and difficulties.
4.3.1 Measures to Solve the Problems of the Resource Centers
The RCs are not capable enough to perform remarkably in the areas of development
of the teachers' performance and improvement of the teaching-learning activities. The
respondents were asked for the measures to solve the problems of the RCs discussed
in the previous paragraphs, the responses are presented in the table 14 below:

Role of the Resource Center to Develop Performance of the Teacher
- Netra Bahadur Karki
34
Table 14
Measures to Solve the Problems of the Resource Centers
S.N.
Measures to Solve the
Problems
RPs
N=3
%
HMs
N=18
%
Teachers
N=32
%
1. Providing
financial
assistance
3
100
12
66.66
24
75
2. Trainings for the RPs
3
100
18
100
24
75
3. No political interference
3
100
12
66.66
24
75
4. Non-engagement of the RPs
in administrative business
3
100
18
100
24
175
5. Clear policies and rules
2
66.66
18
100
32
100
6. Professional commitment of
the RPs
-
-
12
66.66
28
87.5
7. Appointment of the subject
wise RPs
2
66.66
18
100
32
100
8. Implementation
of
the
inspection report
3
100
18
100
32
100
9. Provision of prize and
punishment
2
66.66
12
66.66
32
100
10. Constructing
conducive
educational environment
3
100
18
100
32
100
11. Appointment of the assistant
personnel
3
100
9
50
24
75

Role of the Resource Center to Develop Performance of the Teacher
- Netra Bahadur Karki
35
The table 14 above shows that cent percent of the RPs, HMs and teachers suggested
implementation of the school inspection report and construction of conducive
educational environment for solving the problems of the RCs. Hundred percent of the
RPs, 66.66 percent of the HMs and 75 percent of the teachers suggested for the
financial assistance and political non-interference. Hundred percent RPs, cent percent
HMs and 75 % teachers said that the RPs should be trained and they should not be
engaged in the administrative tasks. Sixty-six percent of the RPs, hundred percent of
the HMs and teachers focused on the clear policies and appointment of the subject
wise RPs to solve the problems of the RCs. Sixty-six percent of the HMs and 87.5 %
of the teachers said the RPs need to be professionally committed but none of the RPs
accepted. Sixty-six percent of the RPs and 66.66 % of the HMs and cent percent of
the teachers suggested for the provision of prize and punishment system as one of the
problem solving solution where hundred percent RPs, 50 % HMs and 75 % teachers
suggested for the appointment of the assistant personnel.
The RCs require financial support to fulfill scanty of the resources. The RPs
themselves must be updated and trained in the new technologies and methodologies
so that they can assist the teachers. Educational institution must not be treated as the
hub for politics. The RPs should not be engaged in the administrative task and they
should always be focused to develop the teachers' capacity i.e. skills, qualifications,
knowledge and attitude. The RPs prepare inspection report after school inspection but
the suggestion of the report are never implemented. This has discouraged the RPs.
The RCs need to be encouraged with the prize for the outstanding performance and
there should be provision of punishment for wrong doers. The educational policy in
Nepal changes as per the government change and the teachers and students are used
for the political purpose. Political instability has regressive effect on the overall
educational development. The conducive educational environment is the prerequisite
for the development and improvement of the educational sector.
The analysis of the responses suggests various solutions to the existing problems of
the RCs. The RCs should conduct regular inspection and supervision of the schools.
The RPs need to be well trained. The RPs should be impartially appointed and the
individuals from the subjects English, Mathematics and Science should be prioritized.

Role of the Resource Center to Develop Performance of the Teacher
- Netra Bahadur Karki
36
There should be consensus to keep the education sector out of the political
interference. The RCs need to be resourced. The assistant personnel should be
appointed in the RCs. The RPs should also be monitored, supervised and evaluated
and there should be the provision of prize and punishment. The school inspection
reports need to be implemented. All the stakeholders should be united in the effort to
make a favourable educational environment.

Role of the Resource Center to Develop Performance of the Teacher
- Netra Bahadur Karki
37
CHAPTER V
FINDING, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
This research was carried out in Morang district of eastern Nepal to find out the role
of the RCs to develop the performance of the teachers. The research was focused on
the tasks being performed by the RCs, the tasks RCs need to perform, the existing
problems of the RCs and the measures to solve the problems. The findings of the
analysis of the data collected from the records and through the questionnaires are
presented below with the conclusion and some practical recommendations.
5.1
Finding
For the professional development of the teachers, the RCs have been conducting the
professional development training for teachers, curriculum orientation, trainings on
the construction and use of local teaching-learning aids, seminar on the use of
teachers' manual and other reference material, and model teaching. The inspection
and supervision of the school was not found as per the once in the month provision of
the Education Regulation, 2059 BS. The RCs have not carried out even a single
inspection within an academic year in 37.7 % schools of their area or responsibility.
Among inspected schools, 60.3 % schools were inspected only once in a year. It is
found that the class observation was done only in 37.5 percentage schools. The RPs
discussed with the teachers only in 54.7 % schools after those class observations.
Among the inspections by the RPs, 35.8 % were just for formality, 41.5 % were
facilitating and 17 % were without giving any importance. The extracurricular
activities like quiz contest, drawing contest, spelling competition, debate, speech,
cultural program, running competition etc. are being conducted in the RCs. The RCs
were found conducting the additional activities like HM meetings, meetings of the
RCMC, selection of model schools, constructing RC profile, designing local
curriculum, exhibition of teaching-learning aids, sports competition and professional
development training for the teachers. The RCs need to facilitate the teachers to
develop the performance. The RCs need to assist the schools and the teachers for

Role of the Resource Center to Develop Performance of the Teacher
- Netra Bahadur Karki
38
conducting trainings, class management, construction and use of local teaching-
learning aids, continuous student evaluations, designing local curriculum,
improvement of school-community relationship, question paper construction and
conduction of examination, utilization of the new technologies and methodologies etc.
The RCs have been facing the problems like lack of financing, lack of training from
RPs, political interference, engagement of the RPs in administrative tasks,
geographical difficulties, lack of subject wise RPs. Lack of professional dedication of
the RPs, non-implementation of the school inspection report, no assistant personnel,
lack of conducive educational environment and lack of clear policies and rules. The
respondents have suggested various problem-solving measures: financial support to
the RCs, training for RPs, no political interference, non-engagement of the RPs, no in
the administrative issues, appointment of the RPs on the basis of subject wise
expertise, clear policies, favourable instructional environment and appointment of the
assistant personnel in the RCs.
5.2
Conclusion
After the analysis of the data on the basis of various theories, we can reach to the
conclusion that the RCs are not capable of establishing good human relation between
the RPs and the teachers by understanding the individual interests as per Follett's
Principles of Coordination. The task of inspection and supervision could not be
motivated. The RCs need to work harder to establish two-way communication
between schools and RCs by finding out the weakness of the personnel and
motivating them as per Mayo's Human Relation Theory.
The RCs need to be proactive to motivate the teachers on their profession by fulfilling
their professional needs as per Maslow's Theory of Motivation. There should be
result-oriented efforts of the stakeholders to solve the existing problems of the RCs.
The RCs should be financially supported. There should not be political interference in
the educational sector. The school inspection reports need to be implemented and
there should be clear provision of RPs roles, responsibilities and authorities in the
Education Regulation.

Role of the Resource Center to Develop Performance of the Teacher
- Netra Bahadur Karki
39
5.3
Recommendation
5.3.1 Policy Recommendation
Based on analysis of the data, some policy recommendation can be made. There
should be clear policy to select the subject experts as RPs. A clear financial policy to
support the RCs should be formulated. There should be addition of the clear-cut roles,
responsibilities and authorities of the RPs in the Education Regulation. There should
be selection of assistant personnel in the RCs. Legal provision of prize and
punishment needs to be formulated.
5.3.2 Operational Recommendation
The role of the RC to develop the teachers' performance can be made more effective
with small operational efforts. The RPs should regularly inspect and supervise the
school of own area of responsibility. The school inspection reports prepared by the
RPs need to be implemented by the DEOs. DEO should not engage the RPs in the
administrative matters. The RCs should conduct refreshment trainings, trainings on
the construction and use of local teaching-learning aids. The RPs need to be more
committed to their profession they should act proactively to improve the school-
community relationship.
5.3.3 Research Recommendation
The inspection should be once in two months as per the Education Regulation, 2059
BS but it lacks in the implementation part. It was found that 37.7 percentage of the
schools of their service sector are not inspected even once in an academic year by the
RPs. Only in 62.5 percentage of the schools, the RPs observed class during their
inspection. It can be assumed that the expected educational achievements can be
obtained when the provisions are effectively followed. Here, the potential level of
educational achievements that might be obtained through regular inspections,
supervisions and class observations can be an interesting area of further research.

Role of the Resource Center to Develop Performance of the Teacher
- Netra Bahadur Karki
40
REFERENCES
Bhattarai, I. P. (2004). Role of the Headmaster, Teacher and Social-Servants for
Improving School Education (Unpublished Master's Thesis). Tribhuvan
University, Kathmandu, Nepal.
Dhakal, S. (2004). Role of Headmaster in Improving the Teaching Learning of
Secondary School (Unpublished Master's Thesis). Tribhuvan University,
Kathmandu, Nepal.
Education Act (1971).
Education Rules (2002).
Kafle, B. R. (2009). Observing the Practical Aspect of the Education from Workplace
(First). Kathmandu, Nepal: M.K. Publishers and Distributors.
Kafle, B., Shrestha, C. B., & Sinha, R. S. (2005). Educational Administration and
Supervision (First). Kathmandu, Nepal: Vidyarthi Pustak Bhandar.
K.C., M. B. (2006). School Supervision and Its Effectiveness (Unpublished Master's
Thesis). Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal.
Koirala, B., & Shrestha, C. B. (2008). Educational Management and Organizational
Behaviour (First). Kathmandu, Nepal: Vidyarthi Pustak Bhandar.
Manual on the Operation of Resource Center. (1993). Ministry of Education,
Government of Nepal.
Ministry of Education, Government of Nepal. (1998). Report of the High Level
National Education Commission. Kathmandu, Nepal.
National Education System Plan. (1971). Ministry of Education, Government of
Nepal.

Role of the Resource Center to Develop Performance of the Teacher
- Netra Bahadur Karki
41
Pokharel, K. B. (2006). Role of Resource Persons to Improve the Teaching Learning
of the Schools in Tanahu District: A Study (Unpublished Master's Thesis).
Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal.
Regional Education Directorate. (2004). Regional Education Report. Surkhet, Nepal.
Secondary Education Mirror. (2009). Kathmandu, Nepal: Ministry of Education,
Government of Nepal.
Sharma, C. (2004). Foundation of Education (First). Kathmandu, Nepal: M.K.
Publishers and Distributors.
Thapa, B. K., Shrestha, C. B., & Sigdel, S. P. (2001). Management Information
System and Human Resource Management (First). Kathmandu, Nepal:
Vidyarthi Pustak Bhandar.
Wagle, M. P., & Karki, U. K. (2007). Foundation of Education (First). Kathmandu,
Nepal: Vidyarthi Pustak Bhandar.

Role of the Resource Center to Develop Performance of the Teacher
- Netra Bahadur Karki
42
APPENDICES
ROLE OF THE RESOURCE CENTER TO DEVELOP
PERFORMANCE OF THE TEACHER
Appendix A
QUESTIONNAIRE FOR THE TEACHERS
Name:
Academic Qualification:
Name of the School:
Current Level and Class:
Address:
Signature:
1.
What are the tasks performed by the Resource Centers to develop the
performance of the teachers?
2.
Do the Resource Persons inspect your school?
a.
Yes
b.
No
3.
If yes, how many times in an academic year?
a.
One time
b.
Two times
c.
Three times
d.
Four times
4.
How is the behaviour of the Resource Persons during school inspection?
a.
Facilitating
b.
Giving no importance
c.
Fulfilling formality
d.
Threatening mentality
5.
Do the Resource Persons observe class during school inspection?
a.
Yes
b.
No

Role of the Resource Center to Develop Performance of the Teacher
- Netra Bahadur Karki
43
6.
Do the Resource Persons and the teachers discuss after the class observation?
a.
Yes
b.
No
7.
Do the Resource Persons assist for the construction of instructional plans?
a.
Yes
b.
No
8.
What are the tasks of community mobilization carried by the Resource
Centers?
a.
General Assembly
b.
Road Drama
c.
Speech Competition
d.
Others
9.
What are the other additional activities conducted in the Resource Centers?
10.
What are the extracurricular activities carried out in your Resource Center?
a.
Quiz Contest
b.
Debate Competition
c.
Sports
d.
Others
11.
What is the effective one among them in your view?
12.
What are the tasks a Resource Center should perform to develop the
performance of the teachers?
13.
What are the problems being faced by the Resource Centers?
14.
What are the measures to solve those problems?

Role of the Resource Center to Develop Performance of the Teacher
- Netra Bahadur Karki
44
ROLE OF THE RESOURCE CENTER TO DEVELOP
PERFORMANCE OF THE TEACHER
Appendix B
QUESTIONNAIRE FOR THE HEADMASTERS
Name:
Academic Qualification:
Name of the School:
Current Level and Class:
Address:
Signature:
1.
What are the tasks performed by the Resource Centers to develop the
performance of the teachers?
2.
Do the Resource Persons inspect your school?
a.
Yes
b.
No
3.
If yes, how many times in an academic year?
a.
One time
b.
Two times
c.
Three times
d.
Four times
4.
How is the behaviour of the Resource Persons during school inspection?
a.
Facilitating
b.
Giving no importance
c.
Fulfilling formality
d.
Threatening mentality
5.
Do the Resource Persons observe class during school inspection?
a.
Yes
b.
No
6.
Do the Resource Persons and the teachers discuss after the class observation?
a.
Yes
b.
No

Role of the Resource Center to Develop Performance of the Teacher
- Netra Bahadur Karki
45
7.
What are the tasks of community mobilization carried by the Resource
Centers?
a.
General Assembly
b.
Road Drama
c.
Speech Competition
d.
Others
8.
What are the other additional activities conducted in the Resource Centers?
9.
What are the extracurricular activities carried out in your Resource Center?
a.
Quiz Contest
b.
Debate Competition
c.
Sports
d.
Others
10.
What is the effective one among them in your view?
11.
What are the tasks a Resource Center should perform to develop the
performance of the teachers?
12.
What are the problems being faced by the Resource Centers?
13.
What are the measures to solve those problems?

Role of the Resource Center to Develop Performance of the Teacher
- Netra Bahadur Karki
46
ROLE OF THE RESOURCE CENTER TO DEVELOP
PERFORMANCE OF THE TEACHER
Appendix C
QUESTIONNAIRE FOR THE RESOURCE PERSONS
Name:
Academic Qualification:
Name of the School:
Current Level and Class:
Address:
Signature:
1.
What are the tasks performed by the Resource Centers to develop the
performance of the teachers?
2.
Do the Resource Persons inspect your school?
a.
Yes
b.
No
3.
If yes, how many times in an academic year?
a.
One time
b.
Two times
c.
Three times
d.
Four times
4.
How is the behaviour of the Resource Persons during school inspection?
a.
Facilitating
b.
Giving no importance
c.
Fulfilling formality
d.
Threatening mentality
5.
Do the Resource Persons observe class during school inspection?
a.
Yes
b.
No
6.
If yes, what are the subjects of class observation?
a.
All subjects
b.
Main subjects

Role of the Resource Center to Develop Performance of the Teacher
- Netra Bahadur Karki
47
c.
Interested subject
d.
Difficult subject
7.
Do the Resource Persons assist for the construction of instructional plans?
a.
Yes
b.
No
8.
What are the tasks of community mobilization carried by the Resource
Centers?
a.
General Assembly
b.
Road Drama
c.
Speech Competition
d.
Others
9.
What are the other additional activities conducted in the Resource Centers?
10.
What are the extracurricular activities carried out in your Resource Center?
a.
Quiz Contest
b.
Debate Competition
c.
Sports
d.
Others
11.
What is the effective one among them in your view?
12.
What are the tasks a Resource Center should perform to develop the
performance of the teachers?
13.
What are the problems being faced by the Resource Centers?
14.
What are the measures to solve those problems?

Role of the Resource Center to Develop Performance of the Teacher
- Netra Bahadur Karki
48
ROLE OF THE RESOURCE CENTER TO DEVELOP
PERFORMANCE OF THE TEACHER
Appendix D
NAME LIST OF THE SAMPLED RESOURCE PERSONS
S.N.
Name of the Resource Centers
Name of the Resource Persons
1.
Sukuna Resource Center
Prem Prasad Bhattarai
2.
Banigama Resource Center
Ramesh Poudel
3.
Bahuni Resource Center
Prem Karki

Role of the Resource Center to Develop Performance of the Teacher
- Netra Bahadur Karki
49
ROLE OF THE RESOURCE CENTER TO DEVELOP
PERFORMANCE OF THE TEACHER
Appendix E
NAME LIST OF THE SAMPLED SCHOOLS
Resource Centers S.N.
Name of the Schools
Address
Sukuna Resource
Center
1. Sukuna Higher Secondary School
Koshiharaincha-1
2. Janata Secondary School
Koshiharaincha-8
3. Himalaya Lower Secondary School
Koshiharaincha-8
4. Ram Primary School
Koshiharaincha-1
5. Prajatantra Primary School
Koshiharaincha-1
6. Hirak Primary School
Koshiharaincha-1
Banigama
Resource Center
7. Public Higher Secondary School
Banigama-1
8. Dhanpal Secondary School
Belbari-8
9. Mahendra Lower Secondary School Belbari-9
10. Rani Primary School
Banigama-1
11. Himalaya Primary School
Banigama-3
12. Sahid Primary School
Banigama-4
Bahuni Resource
Center
13. Janata Higher Secondary School
Bahuni-1
14. Janakalyan Secondary School
Hoklabari-1
15. Shanti Lower Secondary School
Bayarban-1
16. Amar Primary School
Bayarban-2
17. Kalyan Primary School
Hoklabari-3
18. Ram Primary School
Bahuni-3

Role of the Resource Center to Develop Performance of the Teacher
- Netra Bahadur Karki
50
ROLE OF THE RESOURCE CENTER TO DEVELOP
PERFORMANCE OF THE TEACHER
Appendix F
NAME LIST OF THE SAMPLED HEADMASTERS
S.N.
Name of the Headmasters
Name of the Schools
1. Amrit prasad Acharya
Sukuna Higher Secondary School
2. Krishna Gurangain
Janata Secondary School
3. Tika Kattel
Himalaya Lower Secondary School
4. Ramesh Thapa
Ram Primary School
5. Dal Bahadur Raya
Prajatantra Primary School
6. Roshan Shahi
Hirak Primary School
7. Binod Khawas
Public Higher Secondary School
8. Kaushal Rai
Dhanpal Secondary School
9. Narayan Choudhari
Mahendra Lower Secondary School
10. Ramesh Kha
Rani Primary School
11. Fagatlal Choudhari
Himalaya Primary School
12. Jagatlal Choudhari
Sahid Primary School
13. Tek Narayan Shah
Janata Higher Secondary School
14. Ram Chandra Pandit
Janakalyan Secondary School
15. Pawan Rai
Shanti Lower Secondary School
16. Rudra Thapa
Amar Primary School
17. Hikmat Karki
Kalyan Primary School
18. Rohit Rai
Ram Primary School

Role of the Resource Center to Develop Performance of the Teacher
- Netra Bahadur Karki
51
ROLE OF THE RESOURCE CENTER TO DEVELOP
PERFORMANCE OF THE TEACHER
Appendix G
NAME LIST OF THE SAMPLED TEACHERS
S.N.
Name of the Headmasters
Name of the Schools
1. Padam Bimali
Sukuna Higher Secondary School
2. Sagar Sharma
Sukuna Higher Secondary School
3. Ramesh Rai
Janata Secondary School
4. Rewata Dhamala
Himalaya Lower Secondary School
5. Devi Thapa
Ram Primary School
6. Dilli Ram Adhikari
Prajatantra Primary School
7. Suresh Shah
Hirak Primary School
8. Jyoti Prashad Choudhari
Public Higher Secondary School
9. Anil Shrestha
Public Higher Secondary School
10. Kamlesh Kumar Choudhari
Dhanpal Secondary School
11. Radhika Koirala
Dhanpal Secondary School
12. Prem Rai
Mahendra Lower Secondary School
13. Dilli Katwal
Mahendra Lower Secondary School
14. Santosh Kha
Rani Primary School
15. Mahesh Regmi
Rani Primary School
16. Shanti Rai
Himalaya Primary School
17. Hari Narayan Mandal
Sahid Primary School

Role of the Resource Center to Develop Performance of the Teacher
- Netra Bahadur Karki
52
18. Hima Bantawa
Janata Higher Secondary School
19. Thakur Rai
Janata Higher Secondary School
20. Yamuna Bhandari
Janakalyan Secondary School
21. Devi Maya Rai
Shanti Lower Secondary School
22. Ram Bohara
Shanti Lower Secondary School
23. Narayan Karki
Amar Primary School
24. Rajendra Thapa
Amar Primary School
25. Rajendra Rai
Himalaya Primary School
26. Khem Niroula
Sahid Primary School
27. Hira Poudel
Amar Primary School
28. Bhim Kumar Deuja
Amar Primary School
29. Santa Kumar Bhagat
Kalyan Primary School
30. Lokendra Giri
Kalyan Primary School
31. Keshab Prasad Yonghang
Ram Primary School
32. Bhim Bahadur Magar
Ram Primary School
60 of 60 pages

Details

Title
Role of the Resource Center to Develop Performance of the Teacher
College
Tribhuvan University
Course
Master's Degree in Education
Grade
1
Author
Year
2016
Pages
60
Catalog Number
V338568
ISBN (Book)
9783668275249
File size
1973 KB
Language
English
Tags
Resource center, Teacher, Performance, Education
Quote paper
Netra Bahadur Karki (Author), 2016, Role of the Resource Center to Develop Performance of the Teacher, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/338568

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