HOPSCA in the Brisbane urban context. A study into its relevance and application

Research Paper (undergraduate), 2014

33 Pages, Grade: 5.0

Free online reading


1. Introduction
1.1. Statement of the Problem

2. Literature Review
2.1. HOPSCA and the positive impact on market values
2.2. HOPSCA Examples
2.2.1. MixC Shenyang : Shenyang, Liaoning Province, China by RTKL
2.2.2. Buyaka: Umraniye, Istanbul Turkey by Uras + Dilekci Architects
2.2.3. Liverpool One, Liverpool, United Kingdom - BDP
2.3. Overseas literature
2.3.1. Chinese eco-cities: A perspective of land-speculation-oriented local entrepreneurialism
2.3.2. Research on the development strategy and characteristics of the 100 urban complexes in Hangzhou
2.3.3. The Study of Efficient Low Consumption Intensification on City Complex
2.3.4. Paradigm shift toward sustainable commercial project development in China
2.3.5. Towards an Urban Renaissance
2.4. Within Australia
2.4.1. National Infrastructure Plan 2013 (NIP)
2.4.2. Liveable Neighbourhoods
2.4.3. Integrating land use and transport: improving transport choice
2.4.4. State Planning Policy: Development & Construction guideline
2.4.5. Mixed Use Development Act 1993, revised edition 2014
2.4.6. State Development and Public Works Organisation Act
2.4.7. Draft Brisbane City Plan 2014:Centre and mixed use & Emerging Community zones

3. Methodology
3.1. Research plan
3.2. Limitations and Scope
3.3. Justification
3.4. Ethics
3.5. Timeline

4. Analysis of HOPSCA characteristics
4.1. Brisbane Context
4.2. Proposed HOPSCA Location 1
4.3. Proposed HOPSCA Location 2
4.4. Proposed HOPSCA Location 3

5. Discussion

6. Conclusion

7. References


HOPSCA has been coined as "a city within a city". HOPSCA (also known as Urban Complex) is a form of mixed use planning born out of the China development boom of the 1990s. It has been in use since the 1990s and favoured by architects and urban designers worldwide. HOPSCA is an acronym for Hotels, Offices, Parks, Shopping, Convention centres and Apartments. The concept of HOPSCA is gaining recognition as a legitimate planning tool outside of China because it allows deliverable outcomes that are financially viable and a scale of community that is sustainable.

HOPSCA differs from Master Planning, TOD, traditional CBD (Central Business District) models, New Urbanism and Smart Growth in distinct ways. HOPSCA is defined by its city scale, an active transport network and resource streamlining (environmental and social). HOPSCA is driven by an identified market niche to co- locate specific uses: These uses are desirous to co-locate because of their compatibility and profitability.

The thesis proposes to consider how HOPSCA could be realized under current legislation in South East Queensland, specifically, Brisbane City. Further, the paper will discuss the potential of creating a ‘city within a city’ and its relevance and application in the context of Brisbane. The research for the thesis will be undertaken between July and October 2014 with delivery on or before 29th October 2014.

1. Introduction

Land uses are assigned or designated within a zonal system of land use management that allows for an efficient and orderly arrangement of compatible land uses, delivery of infrastructure (like EC for Emerging Community zones in City Plan (Brisbane City Council, 2014b)) and provide an interestingly diverse urban fabric that changes with the evolution of a place according to its needs. Zones that are compatible with each other work best if they deliver safety and security but also have cultural benefits and contribute to and positive living day to day (Dempsey, Bramley, Power, & Brown, 2011; Nutt, 2000; Oleru & Roof, 2008). Mixed uses in built up areas has been a tradition which can be found as early as Ancient Greek and European medieval cities (Antrop, 2004). Historically mixed use enclaves were not established with a set of predetermined criteria as we would find in today’s ligitigious framework in Queensland. In fact, the HOPSCA elements in Judge magazine, 1895 omission of controls outside of Medieval guild interests (for example) is what helps to create richly organic and ancient centres. Following on, the trend of urbanisation has been occurring since cities have been seen as attractive places for opportunity, work or leisure. Today, our planning mechanisms seek to ensure developmental changes encourage sustainable places (Alig, Kline, & Lichtenstein, 2004; Cohen, 2006; Murakami, Medrial Zain, Takeuchi, Tsunekawa, & Yokota, 2005)

HOPSCA is a modern rendition of mixed use development to create an economic hub for a specific purpose at a very large scale, a city scale. HOPSCA requires a minimum active total population of 15,000 persons based on literature reviewed. Therefore one can see that the surrounding city population mist be considerable to support a HOPSCA proposal.

HOPSCA (also known as Urban Complex) is described as ‘a city within a city’ and is an acronym for Hotel, Offices, Parks, Shopping malls, Convention and Apartments (Chu, 2013; CSG China, 2012; Hu, Fan, & Zhao, 2011; Shi & Pan, 2010). In order for HOPSCA to work it needs to be at the city scale being considerably larger than a master planned community and is discussed further in 2.4 Characteristics of a HOPSCA (China Economic Review, 2011; CSG China, 2012; Fung & Zhang, 2011; Shiuh-Shen, 2013; Ying, 2014).

In this thesis HOPSCA’s relevance to Queensland forward planning will be considered using a qualitative detailed analysis of journal articles. Selected examples of global HOPSCA will be reviewed to understand the economic climate, design implications in large scale mixed use development. Planning legislation applicable to the Brisbane City Local Government Area (LGA) will be used to benchmark how a HOPSCA would be considered as assessable development.

1.1. Statement of the Problem

A case study into the relevance and application of HOPSCA in the Brisbane urban context.

As places have evolved through urban growth, shifts in industry and technology, so too has mixed use development evolved. Accordingly, planning legislation has evolved to match demands and expectations with changing times from organising how land is used and for what purpose.

HOPSCA-esque development in Queensland is largely unrealized and as such does not directly fit into any of the current State or local planning legislation.

The thesis will look at whether it is relevant to Brisbane and what level of Government should coordinate this development. The thesis will discuss the legislative framework and a assessment criteria for HOPSCA, over and above the existing mixed use development criteria within Brisbane's City Plan.

2. Literature Review

2.1. HOPSCA and the positive impact on market values

The attractiveness of mixed use development for investors, developers and end-users is that it offers advantages over mono-precinct uses in the following ways:

1.1 Connection to other markets and diversified client bases
1.2 Interconnection with other skills and services
1.3 In-house retention of customers
1.4 Vector trade benefits where single use purchase flows through the various business sectors under the same ‘house’
1.5 Sector marketing
1.6 attractive options than a standalone project; meeting market demand

Examples of HOPSCA are described below. It will be examined from an overseas context then in an Australian context. As HOPSCA came out of the China development boom of the 1990s most of the citations of material is from that perspective and are summarised below.

2.2. HOPSCA Examples

Examples can be found in China and throughout the world.

2.2.1. MixC Shenyang : Shenyang, Liaoning Province, China by RTKL.

As Shenyang is one of the biggest economic developed centres in northwest China, it was important to integrate parts of the Shenyang Sustainable Cities Program. As part of the cities vision, it required policies to be put into place to increase housing densities with improved liveability , organise housing to alleviate crowding and improving the quality of life (Sustainable Shenyang Project Office, 1998). A solution to overcrowding was modelled on the township village found in rural green belt. MixC Shenyang is seven levels of retail, office, residential and hotel designed as a multi-phased development over 20 acres (Lobo, 2014). It features an internal wintergarden which allows light to access within, and also becomes a unifying part of the development but is targeted towards the middle to upper incomes (RTKL, 2014).

Area: 510,967 m2

Phase 1: Retail & Entertainment (Cinema & Icerink), Office spaces Phase 2: Residential apartments, office and meeting spaces, Phase 3: Hotel & winter garden (Contends all HOPSCA elements)

Table showing staged elements that lead to the completed HOPSCA (RTKL, 2014).

Walkable spaces with limited street frontages are shown at MixC (Wang, 2014, p. 14).

MixC is located within the high density district of Yumin Cun where Planning has created a policy of 'Urban Villages' to cope with the rapid expansion of the area and to aid in community planning (Xiao-pei & De-sheng, 2009).

2.2.2. Buyaka: Umraniye, Istanbul Turkey by Uras + Dilekci Architects

Buyaka is located in the eastern part of Istanbul and is located in an area that had little development since the city started to develop which was largely zoned rural. Buyaka was built after a succession of major shopping malls, was and was the second HOPSCA in Turkey since 1988. The first HOPSCA, called Galleria was modelled on the historical 'Grand Bazaar' (Ozorhon & Ozorhon, 2014). Buyaka is one of the largest developments of its type in Turkey, the 4 multi-storeyed towers are set aside for residential use, and the longer section supports shopping and also incorporates a sports complex (Rinaldi, 2013).

Area: 248,000m2

Contains all HOPSCA elements

Access to the site is via the major roads outside (Wang, 2014).

This site was brown field area that has been designed to complement the elongated shape of the site and its proximity to the city centre. Attempts to integrate the HOPSCA into the local area is through transport linkages and employment opportunities (DTZ Pamir & Soyuer, 2009).

2.2.3. Liverpool One, Liverpool, United Kingdom - BDP

In the early 1990s to early 2000, Liverpool was in the midst of counter-urbanisation where people moved away from the city; there was a need to revitalise the city to bring people back to the centre, that is reurbanisation. The move to reurbanisation was initiated by Liverpool Council with the development of “Liverpool One” (Couch,

Fowles, & Karecha, 2009). Liverpool One completed in 2008, exemplifies all

HOPSCA elements. There are six districts, each with its own character. Liverpool

One became a magnet for the young urban and mid career professional and as a

consequence began the wave of revitalisation of the city and region (BDP, 2014).

Area: 148,500m2

Contains: Contains all HOPSCA elements including bus station

Integration into the existing city fabric was critical in its success (Wang, 2012).

The intention of the Local Area Plan for Liverpool was to implement derelict and unused land in the heart of the city centre and restore its role regionally. It's been used as an exemplar of private public partnerships and has reinvigorated Liverpool as a city. It is seen as an organic part of the city due to its integration (City of Liverpool, 2011).

2.3. Overseas literature

The unification of uses into a single node has benefits with combining services and infrastructure. The potential is the incorporation of transit orientated development and active transport modes. HOPSCA can offer these benefits.

For residents the co-location of services and places of employment is convenience. Because of the proximity of mutual uses, HOPSCA is positively associated with housing affordability and its attractiveness to its population. Having high walkability for each area adds to the sustainability of the development (Wu & Xiao, 2013). For example, in section Error! Reference source not found. we saw that the MixC development that fulfils the need of the previously mentioned criteria.

2.3.1. Chinese eco-cities: A perspective of land-speculation-oriented local entrepreneurialism.

HOPSCA has been criticised for the displacement of indigenous residents. “2.1.2. Chinese eco-cities: A perspective of land-speculation-oriented local entrepreneurialism” is a case study that looks at how a new HOPSCA development has displaced the local community and its socioeconomic impacts. Because of the insular nature of HOPSCA, it can alienate the local population as they can't afford to use the facilities of the HOPSCA: HOPSCA is able to create an artificial township, one that is isolated by its design and lack of local connections for social, economic and even environmental concerns. Because of its portability, the developer can place HOPSCA in any location creating pressures for local land prices. On another level, there is thriving demand for this style of predetermined mixed use complex (Shiuh- Shen, 2013).

2.3.2. Research on the development strategy and characteristics of the 100 urban complexes in Hangzhou.

Hangzhou is located on the east coast of China near the capital, Shanghi has a regional population of 21 million people in 2010 (Xin, 2012). With the implementation of HOPSCAs, the local governing council aimed to improve quality of living and combine compatible uses by reducing footprints and adopting elements of the compact city movement and cultural development of Hangzhou (Jackson & World Leisure Expo World Leisure Congress, 2006). It has been demonstrated that people naturally gravitate and prefer to live in places that have the added convenience of walking to frequent destinations. Because of the density of zones in HOPSCA, more land could be freed up to industries. Having one city centre in Hangzhou and a lack of green and brown sites prevented efficient opportunities towards the allocation of land. This problem has been alleviated by adopting HOPSCA's as a new form of city planning. (China Economic Review, 2011; Liao, Xu, & Cao, 2009, p. 945).

2.3.3. The Study of Efficient Low Consumption Intensification on City Complex.

The reorganisation of space into a rational organic way with developing landmarks and spaces are hallmarks of HOPSCA. It represents a new urban culture and can solve a range of issues associated with the city such as employment and social interaction and cohesion (Shi & Pan, 2010).

2.3.4. Paradigm shift toward sustainable commercial project development in China.

HOPSCA is described as a paradigm shift in sustainable development as it is seen as part of the evolution of urban development of a natural human system and activity. It is not only the efficient use of “all in one construction” but is a complementary use of zones. “All in one construction” means to create and develop a HOPSCA based on a city size scale with construction occurring ‘back to back’ through subsequent stages. Some criticism has been raised towards HOPSCAs as it lacks social responsibility by the developer. Within a governmental framework, a company is obliged to comply within the future regulatory environment. In China, a dramatic shift towards large scaled urban development is growing, but making developers accountable to green ideals is also being carried forward. With pressures from the public and governments in reducing the size of new developments so that the urban footprint is smaller, developers are being shaped by market forces. Such a different scenario from the 1990s where development was endless and legislation dealing with social and environmental impacts was scant. In addition to this, councils also have introduced better access to transportation systems, attempting to deliver a safer healthier environment, establishing a higher quality of life as well as financing infrastructure in equitable and efficient manner. These are the new challenges of the millennium that HOPSCA can directly achieve according to its proponents (Zhang, 2014).

2.3.5. Towards an Urban Renaissance.

In England, a paper called "Towards an Urban Renaissance" by the Urban Task force in 1999 states that site location is a required criterion for mixed use as a type of development for it to be successful. Several key themes include recycling land and buildings, improving the natural environment, better management practises and target long term regeneration of the site. Issues of civic pride have also been noted as of vandalism, intimidation, noise pollution are a direct consequence of poor design. The case of having tiered density (where density increases towards the node) in urban areas is positively adjusted to adequate transport, social fabric and local infrastructure to support compatible pre determined mixed use. This means integrated local transport, economic housing strategies and development of Urban Priority Areas to speed up applications by better integrating applications (Urban Task Force, 1999).

2.4. Within Australia

2.4.1. National Infrastructure Plan 2013 (NIP)

National Infrastructure Plan (NIP) is a Federal initiative to developing better use of urban networks, integrate sustainable practises into new developments, and develop higher densities. The concepts are not new but it is of significance importance to Australia as a whole that a federal approach is considered necessary. Consequences of NIP include adding to the variety of housing stock, equitable housing choices, co- location of services and integration between business and residential precincts (Infrastructure Australia, 2013). HOPSCA is similar in this respect to NIP but is market driven .

2.4.2. Liveable Neighbourhoods.

The ‘Liveable Neighbourhoods’ policy from Western Australia (Western Australian Planning Commission, 2009) promotes a prescriptive approach to planning from the regional to the local level even to the point of the placement of buildings to gain better solar aspect. As part of the principle aims, mixed use is used to provide an urban structure in which compatible uses for employment, retail, community facilities and leisure opportunities capable of adapting over time as the community changes as well as maximising land efficiency wherever possible (Western Australian Planning Commission, 2009). It had been argue that this policy was too prescriptive and that it doesn't allow for centres to be flexible and evolve over time (Planning Institute of Australia: WA Division, 2012).

2.4.3. Integrating land use and transport: improving transport choice

New South Wales Department of Urban Affairs, the "Integrating land use and transport: improving transport choice" proposes development principles to accommodate a wide range of uses such as community facilities, parks, health and education, retail, entertainment and leisure as well as incorporating and aligning with public transport infrastructure (New South Wales. Department of Urban Affairs, 2001).

2.4.4. State Planning Policy: Development & Construction guideline.

Queensland's "State Planning Policy: Development & Construction guideline", Priority development Area (PDAs) are identified for specific accelerated development that focuses on residential and mixed use development. It recommends that planning schemes support mixed use precincts by their location, appropriate size and shape, let the market determine the size of commercial and residential areas, have incentives such as a variety of uses as well as finally allowing a lifecycle of the development so that it can be flexible and resilient during the life of the scheme (Department of State Development Infrastructure Planning, 2014b).

2.4.5. Mixed Use Development Act 1993, revised edition 2014.

Mixed Use Development Act 1993 (Qld), revised edition 2014 establishes mixed use and a mixed use scheme (Queensland Government, 2014). This legislation is administered by the State parliament and delivered by local authorities into zoning such as the Brisbane City Plan 2014. The Act provides a series of definitions to scope the meaning of a mixed use development and mixed use scheme for incorporation into an compliant planning scheme.

2.4.6. State Development and Public Works Organisation Act

The State may designate a HOPSCA to be of State significance. As such The State Development and Public Works Organisation Act 1971 (SDPWO Act) would apply. The SDPWO Act "facilitates timely, coordinated and environmentally responsible infrastructure planning and development to support Queensland's economic and social progress (Department of State Development Infrastructure and Planning, 2014).

2.4.7. Draft Brisbane City Plan 2014:Centre and mixed use & Emerging Community zones

Having three different types of Mixed Use (MU) being Inner City, Centre Frame and Corridor only focus on complementary commercial & residential uses and building heights but can vary according to the neighbourhood plan (Brisbane City Council, 2014c). Within Brisbane City Plan, the Emerging Community zone may be an appropriate zone for HOPSCA. The zone facilitates areas of opportunity to develop part of the urban fabric within Brisbane (Brisbane City Council, 2014a). Subdivisions within these zones would require a code assessable development application when the development is larger than 10 hectares and if smaller, impact assessable. If located within a neighbourhood plan or an overlay, the submission will require an alternative level of assessment (Brisbane City Council, 2014b). So such zones are favourable with the condition of the neighbourhood plan and are studied further in section "4.1 Brisbane context" proposed HOPSCA locations.

HOPSCA can provide an answer to the problems and issues that face communities that are suffering from old city models as mentioned through "Towards an urban Renaissance", the 100 Urban Complexes as well as in State Planning Policy. By using the best practises from sustainable integration, economic resilience (like those sought in Hangzhou) and integrating these into the local context can make HOPSCA a viable alternative to traditional development models. As suggested by Infrastructure Australia's report, it is done by supporting new densities, sustainable building practises and efficient transport systems. Such policies as "Liveable Neighbourhoods"

(WA) and "Integrating land use and transport: improving transport choice" (NSW) prescribe HOPSCA goals, which are discussed in Section 3.2. Within Queensland, PDA's are instruments that achieve potential goals but do not prescribe as much as in other states.

3. Methodology

3.1. Research plan

HOPSCA is relatively new in Australian literature and is cited in material published by New South Wales and Western Australia. HOPSCA is not developed in Queensland. There is considerable literature from overseas case studies: mainly China. The amount of material available in English is limited but worthy of review. The first part is to investigate articles that discuss HOPSCA in the last few years. The approach will be one of a correlative assessment of the literature to indeed see if this form of development is a new field of its own. HOPSCA by virtue of a model of development that has been replicated in global locations is a form of city planning. This idea of what a HOPSCA is will be resolved using grounded theory to tie together elements found in the articles. The HOPSCA developments are identified then assessed where characteristics will be qualified. By qualifying, benchmarks can be developed to allow comparison with potential sites in Brisbane LGA.

The second part is to consider what zones and sites in Brisbane are suitable. This will be done through a desktop analysis of locations within the Brisbane LGA and locate potential sites that are favourable.

3.2. Limitations and Scope

Brisbane City was chosen as the case study area for a number of reasons: ease of access to literature, a highly developed planning regime including handle on mixed use development and strong growth in SEQ which would suggest a HOPSCA approach to be within the realms of possibility.

Considering the aspect chosen to look at Brisbane, limitations of the definition of ‘mixed use’ by Brisbane City Council and the State Government (Brisbane City Council, 2014a; Queensland Government, 2014) offers the thesis scope for exploration.

3.3. Justification

A desktop approach is the clearest way to find journal articles as well as peer- reviewed material. This will be done by searching resources like Google Scholar, various industry websites like Brisbane's city plan as well as library databases for relevant articles. Visiting locations of HOPSCA overseas is not possible for the scale of this thesis. Developing potential locations within Brisbane's city plan is proposed.

3.4. Ethics

There are no ethical considerations for this research proposal.

3.5. Timeline

Below is the timeline for this thesis.

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4. Analysis of HOPSCA characteristics

HOPSCA is a prescribed type of mixed use not permitted to be made organically like ancient or medieval mixed use centres over centuries. In some respects HOPSCA design can create a rich texture of uses and attract a wide cross section of users but it is an artifice. Over time it may develop into a richness of character that is seen in older mixed use precincts. HOPSCA is a city-based development that requires certain conditions to make it viable. Below are listed key elements of HOPSCA. The ingredients of a HOPSCA are:

1) Scale: HOPSCA requires a large nuclear population base either surrounding it or at the peri of an established urban area. Minimum of 15,000 resident population in medium and high density living units. Minimum 100,000 m2 (10ha) land component.
2) Active transport network: HOPSCA must be able to tap into an established and well-functioning transit network that incorporates active and passive modes, nonmotorised and motorised networks.

HOPSCA will give a diverse integration of walkways to allow unrestrained pedestrian movement as well as transit, buses, trains, trams or cars are subjugated to lower underground levels.

In conjunction compact built form will be within walking distance of each use.

3) Resource streamlining: HOPSCA will contribute to social cohesion, efficiency and sustainability though sharing of resources. But they also seem to be targeted at the middle to higher incomes and also displace the local community as they are artificially created communities.

In summary,

1. The essential requirements in HOPSCA are:
2. Scale of development is city sized (100,000 - 500,000 m2 )
3. Populations start at around 15,000 people
4. Compatible uses and functions (i.e. vehicles & pedestrians)
5. Orientation and form (i.e. large site areas)
6. High quality structure and materials
7. Efficient travel within and inter node connections
8. Integration into the community
9. Some of the issues with HOPSCA not considered in this thesis are concerned with Social and Environmental. This form of development (especially in China) has socioeconomically displace locals and is one of the criticisms of HOPSCA.

4.1. Brisbane Context

The potential for HOPSCA in the LGA of Brisbane City is considered in three locations in this thesis.

The locations have been selected on parcel size, zoning and potential for successful integration into the community fabric.

The population of Brisbane is expected to reach 5.5 million peoples by 2014 year (Department of State Development Infrastructure Planning, 2014a). In addition to this, Brisbane City Plan has a strategic framework that considers that there are an additional 156,000 dwellings and implicitly adopts the compact city as well as corridor and node / multi centred city focus (Brisbane City Council, 2014a).

The climate is also expanding in the acceptance of apartment living. In a recent forum held by the Urban Development Institute of Australia (Queensland division), it was shown that development applications in apartment living has also increased in the past few years in Brisbane (Mewing, 2014).

Heads Up: Are Apartments the New Black?

At this time, there is scope for HOPSCA in South East Queensland and Brisbane.

In considering a HOPSCA other criteria considered are:

1. Vicinity to a major transport corridor (road, rail)
2. Capacity to integrate well into the established urban environment
3. Within Emerging Community Zones as the transition between existing land uses.

In a real world scenario the proposed HOPSCA would not necessarily be sensitive to current zones. In that regard the current zone becomes less imperative.

For the purposes of the thesis "Emerging Community Zones" of the Brisbane City Plan Zones was selected as a criteria to streamline what would otherwise be a more time consuming process of selection.

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Figure 1 Proposed HOPSCA Sites within the Brisbane LGA (Queensland Government, 2014a)

Below is a table summarising HOPSCA criteria in descriptive and quantitative ways:

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4.2. Proposed HOPSCA Location 1

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Waterford Road, Ellen Grove would be a viable HOPSCA site. The site is strategically located to the local government boundary to Ipswich City and Logan City. It is equidistance to the regional cities of Logan and Ipswich and is contained within a triangle formed by the cities of Brisbane, Ipswich and Logan. The suburb of Springfield is in proximity. The site is considered to be and Emerging Community (EC) in Council’s zone scheme but it would be interesting if Council would consider HOPSCA in lieu of EC development. The site has ready access to major road. It is less than 1km to the railway line to the north but in terms of HOPSCA locational requirements the distance is prohibitive.

Potential constraints is that it's located in proximity to rural and low density uses, so the transition between these and a high-density centred HOPSCA will have conflict.

Positives are relative closeness to, the proximity to major roads to Brisbane, the Logan Motorway and to Ipswich and Logan centres.

Existing parks could also benefit with upgrades to the existing facilities and integration of a green belt from the north linking to the south. Overall the locality will develop as a hub for the district complemented by residential, retail and commercial uses conveniently located. As public transport networks improve such could provide services to the railway network.

4.3. Proposed HOPSCA Location 2

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Being closer to the airport and Brisbane city centre than Waterford Road, Ellen Grove, 253 Telegraph Rd Fitzgibbon is already within a medium density area and could be considered to be a similar density infill. It's adjoining use, open space could also be upgraded as part of the integration with HOPSCA.

Potential issues could arise through the need to substantially upgrade roads external to the site. Access to the Northern railway near Carseldine could also be done by developing a railway station to service the HOPSCA. Again this represents significant external infrastructure.

4.4. Proposed HOPSCA Location 3

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With low density residential to the east and south, 2650 Logan Rd Eight Mile Plains appears to be incongruous with the planning intensions for this site and least appropriate as the previous two locations, Waterford Road, Ellen Grove and 253 Telegraph Rd Fitzgibbon.

The site lies at the intersection of two major State roads, being the South East freeway and Gateway Motorway and has better connectivity to the larger catchment in terms of services and accessibility.

5. Discussion

The population of Brisbane City in 2006 was estimated at 991,260 persons and in 2021 is expected to be 1,210,093 persons. The SEQ was estimated to contain 2.8 million persons in 2006 climbing to 4.6 million persons in 2031 (Brisbane City Council, 2014a).

Within the next 10-20 years HOPSCA could be a possible development in Brisbane City. While this thesis has not canvassed all suitable sites it has shown that potential exists now to secure a site. As part of the State and Local Council’s forward planning the potential for HOPSCA should be investigated. Instead of consolidating existing neighbourhoods the HOPSCA could provide a real alternative to mixed use development and a new hub to remove pressure from the CBD It becomes necessary to review how the CBD of the surrounding local government areas are to function.

A timely view could be a return to regionalisation instead of centralisation over the next 10 - 20 years and certainly HOPSCA could form part of such a strategy.

HOPSCA appears to be a solution to several city scaled problems such as housing, economic vitality, transport efficiencies. This land uses allow for efficient and orderly arrangements, in which HOPSCA's achieve very quickly as one project. The feature of HOPSCA is its ability to co-exist within the planning framework to encourage sustainable places to create an economic hub for a specific purpose at a very large scale, a city scale. There are several important points to note, that HOPSCA-esque development in Queensland is largely unrealized but is relevant to forward planning.

Understanding the short and long term economic climate, design implications are critical in large scale mixed use development and are considerations that shouldn't be ignored. The other assumption is that this scale of development may be difficult to fulfil as it requires an impact assessment due to the scale of the development. It would be more realistic to develop in traditional mixed use, but the formula that HOPSCA has appeals to the people that use it but also embrace its ideology.

In practical terms HOPSCA development would be classified as a project of State significance as it’s impacts are on local and State infrastructure, economies and communities. Brisbane City Council would then have an opportunity to comment (or object) to the HOPSCA and if appropriate recommend conditions of any conditional approval. HOPSCA challenges the notion that the central business district is the only permitted centre in a local government area.

Should a HOPSCA be proposed in Brisbane City it is likely such a proposal would attract not only attention from the immediate National communities but surrounding Councils, National land authorities and International focus.

6. Conclusion

Having a clearer definition of what HOPSCA is, we are able to relate to its relevance and application in the Brisbane urban context. The beneficial effect of higher densities in compact settings is evident but integration into the urban fabric would need to be addressed.

It provides a possible solution for a more concise development that can be perceived as being more in tune with today's community expectations. Brisbane City is not ‘ready’ for a HOPSCA but as the population grows by 2021 or 2031 it is certainly possible. For Council and the State it should be at least investigated and if appropriate sites identified for HOPSCA or conversely, determine that it is not a suitable development for the South East. Further studies could consider how the edges of HOPSCA could mesh with surrounding communities and also how displaced communities could be better managed.

7. References

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Brisbane City Council. (2014a). Brisbane City Plan 2014. Brisbane: Council.

Brisbane City Council. (2014b). Brisbane City Plan 2014: Emerging community zone code. Brisbane City Council Retrieved from http://eplan.brisbane.qld.gov.au/?doc=Emergingcommunityzc.

Brisbane City Council. (2014c). Centre, Mixed use and specialised centre zones (pp. 3). Brisbane: Brisbane City Council.

China Economic Review. (2011). Defining the future: How cities within cities are shaping urban growth. China Economic Review, 6, 16.

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HOPSCA in the Brisbane urban context. A study into its relevance and application
Queensland University of Technology
Urban Development (Urban Regional Planning)
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hopsca, brisbane
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Kari Sinkko (Author), 2014, HOPSCA in the Brisbane urban context. A study into its relevance and application, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/340682


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