Leased territories in Guangdong, China. A comparative study


Research Paper (postgraduate), 2016
127 Pages, Grade: 100

Excerpt

Content

Thesis Proposal

Contextual Essay

Literary Review

Annotated bibliography

Thesis

Secondary Sources

Primary Sources

Photo Sources

Thesis Proposal

In the 19th century, the scramble for an empire was running rampant in Europe. The Americas and Oceania had already been settled and used, Africa was being decided upon, and Asia was just coming into Europe’s line of sight. For centuries, much like in Japan, China had been in a state of seclusion, greatly limiting the much desired trade potential and economic development that European nations desired from them.

Europe’s trading outlet had been limited to the city of Guangzhou, and the Portuguese colony of Macau—both in Guangdong Province. These areas were the first to see economic development and cultural influence from the European powers, as well as some of the most intense and direct effects.

When European powers finally established spheres of influence, and forced the Chinese government into signing over concessions, several countries acquired leased territories throughout China, with France, Portugal, and the United Kingdom leasing territory in Guangdong. These nations maintained their trade relationships in Guangzhou and established crown colonies along Guangdong’s coast; French Guangzhouwan, Portuguese Macau, and British Hong Kong. They were also given spheres of influence in other parts of China, but their territories in this region were particularly strategic. Hong Kong and Macau were located at separate ends of the Pearl River Delta’s mouth, while France’s newly established Guangzhouwan Colony was combined with, and administered by, their French-Indochina Colony further to the south, giving their trade routes more connections.

Hong Kong, Macau, and Guangzhouwan were all leased and colonized under similar circumstances, but experienced differing degrees of cultural and socio-political alteration and influence. The purpose of this research paper is to study these leased territories during their colonization, and find out how they differed during their periods as colonies, why the French gave their leased territory back to China so soon while Portugal and Britain did not, and what lasting effects colonialism had on each territory. This is so the audience will understand how they differ from one another—and mainland China— today. Part of this study will be dedicated to discovering the influence and effects of Britain in Hong Kong, Portugal in Macau, and France in Guangzhouwan during their colonization, while the other part will be dedicated to discovering how Guangdong and these former colonies have been shaped, and contrast one another in modern times. This will include their transition back into Chinese society.

This will be done through a variety of methods, including interviews with locals, and on-site studies, as well as with a variety of academic and journalistic sources. Sources contributing to this study will include secondary sources from several corners of the world, such as Alfred Benique’s La France à Kouang-Tcheou-Wan,“Macau: From Portuguese Autonomous Territory to Chinese Special Administrative Region” by Richard Louis Edmonds and T. Herbert Yee, and Eduardo Galeano’s Memory of Fire, Volume 2 and Volume 3. A few other sources will include: Nicole Bensacq-Tixier’s Histoire des Diplômes et Consuls Francais en Chine (1840-1911), Richard Hughes’ Hong Kong, Borrowed Place—Borrowed Time, and Cross-Cultural Encounters In Modern World History by Jon Davidann. An array of primary sources will also be used to supplement the research. Some of these sources will include the First and Second Convention of Peking, the Basic Laws of both Macau and Hong Kong, as well as the Constitution of the People’s Republic of China, the Treaty of Kwangchow Wan, the Sino-French Accord of 1946, and the Sino-British Joint Declaration.

There were a few outstanding sources that were intended to be used; European Warfare: 1660-1815 by Jeremy Black and Michael Knox Beran’s Forge of Empires: 1861-1871. Unfortunately, some of these sources could not be re-located during the period of note-taking, and others of these sources, while valuable, did not have sufficient information to draw from for the subject of the leased territories in Guangdong Province. Their information fell outside the purview of my inquiries. There were also several travel guide-books that I had hoped to use, but these books failed to relay any historical information.

Why, and how, did these nations come together at this pivotal moment in history to carve out their slice of Guangdong, China in the twilight years of the 19 th century? How did they leave their mark on the histories and the cultures of their colonies? How have these colonies fared since decolonization? This thesis proposes to uncover the answers to these questions, and many more.

Contextual Essay

In the 1800s, various European powers, along with the United States and Japan, engaged in a series of armed conflicts with the ruling dynasty of China. The result of these conflicts culminated in multiple unequal treaties and a dynamic shift in regional and international power.

From its very inception in 1644,[1] the Qing (Ch’ing) Dynasty was riddled with corruption from within, and rebellions across its territory.[2] The rebellions, revolts, and strong resistance against the Qing Dynasty largely stem from the Han ethnic group, which makes up over 90% of the population of mainland China,[3] viewing the Qing Dynasty as outsiders. This is due to the dynasty being founded and controlled by the Manchu/Jurchen ethnic group.[4] The corruption-from-within that was plaguing the Qing Dynasty was an unwelcome tradition that has been a part of Chinese Imperial Politics for thousands of years.

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Gorman, Michael. Ming Dynasty. 17 June, 2016.

The Ming Dynasty (shaded gray), superimposed over the modern borders of China (including Hong Kong, Macau, and Taiwan) in red. Manchu Territory has a dotted outline.

The Manchus, before consolidating their power and overthrowing the preceding Ming Dynasty (1368-1644),[5] were a loose-knit confederacy of nomad horsemen from what is now north-east China and south-east Russia—much like the neighboring Mongolic tribes further west.[6] During the Time of the Ming Dynasty, their territory (Manchuria) was only partially integrated into China’s borders, the majority of their land was independent and free.[7][8] Because of this, at the time, they were not seen as “Chinese” but as outside invaders. Even in modern times, there are discussions rising on whether or not the Qing Dynasty is a “Chinese” dynasty, or a foreign dynasty that ruled China,[9][10] as the Yuan Dynasty (a Mongolian dynasty established by Kublai Khan from 1271-1368)[11] had done before being deposed by the Ming Dynasty.

Since they came into power, the Qing Dynasty had had to put a lot of resources and effort into maintaining control of their new empire. From 1673-1681 they had to put down the Revolt of the Three Feudatories,[12] from 1796-1804 the White Lotus Rebellion was a thorn in the Qing Dynasty’s side,[13] and the Taiping Rebellion, from 1850-1864,[14] occurred at a time when the Qing Dynasty was most vulnerable to outside interference from the West. On top of that, there were at least four other major revolts before the Xinhai Revolution finally put down the Qing Dynasty in 1912, and brought about the rise of the Republic of China.[15] There are even known cases of ranked Manchu leaders and officials who had “changed sides” and fought for the Ming Dynasty and Ming loyalists during the Qing Dynasty’s rise to power.

Wu Sangui, an ethnic Manchu whose family had served in the Ming military, initially supported the Manchu invasion of China. Wu even joined their armies during their gradual conquest of China. After seeing his father, other Ming officials, and one of the several women whom he fell in love with, tortured and abused (yet another reason for Han resentment toward the Qing Dynasty), he gradually grew resentful toward the Qing, although he remained loyal. At some point, he had amassed so much militaristic power and fame, that the Kangxi Emperor grew fearful and distrustful of him, thus creating a rift that would have Wu Sangui change sides once more. Wu christened himself “Grand Generalissimo of All-Under-Heaven” and set up his own private empire in the south of China, before eventually being subdued by Kangxi.[16] Because of Wu Sangui’s association and alliance with the feudal lords of Fujian and Guangdong, and his own feudal lordship of Yunnan, this conflict became known as the Revolt of the Three Feudatories.[17]

The White Lotus Rebellion is believed by many to be the turning point in the Qing Dynasty. The Qianlong Emperor who reigned before, during, and after the rebellion,[18] is said to have been the dynasty’s greatest ruler. It is also said that this period was the height of the Qing rule, so naturally the only place they could go from here was downward.[19] The White Lotus Society was fed up with taxes imposed on them by the ruling dynasty, this dissatisfaction led to a bloody conflict that would see 100,000 of their members killed. To provide a brief bit of history about the society: they are the same society that led rebellions against the Mongol Yuan Dynasty, and helped establish the Ming Dynasty, thus showing an obvious parallel between the foreign Yuan and Qing, and loosely linking the White Lotus Society to Ming loyalty.[20][21]

The next rebellion, the Taiping Rebellion, is actually a revolt from inside China that could be contributed to outside interference from the West.[22] Hong Xiuquan, the leader and founder of the Taiping Rebellion, converted to Christianity after hearing a missionary preaching the bible in Cantonese. He became vehemently devout and eventually sought to overthrow the Qing government and establish the Taiping Tianguo (Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace, 太平天國) as a Christian kingdom, with himself as the “Heavenly King.”[23] Hong considered himself to be God’s younger son (and therefore the younger brother of Jesus) incarnated on Earth. His belief was due to an epiphany and vision he had several years earlier when he became deathly ill.[24] Needless to say, this new rebellion was perceived as a great threat to the Qing and their culture, possibly more so than local bandits or Ming loyalists. The Qing would not be able to subdue the rebellion until after Hong Xiuquan’s death.[25]

It is not difficult to believe that this perception of a foreign dynasty ruling them helped spur so many revolts, the desire for the return of the Ming Dynasty had stayed with the Chinese people throughout the period. This means that even after their dissolution, the Ming Dynasty was always a threat to the future of the Qing. Whether or not the living descendants of the Ming desired a return to power, the Chinese people established the Tiandihui, or “Society of the Heaven and the Earth.”[26] The Society was not just another rebel group plaguing the Qing, they were specifically dedicated to restoring the Ming Dynasty to the Forbidden City.[27] The Tiandihui (also known as the Sanhehui or “Three Harmonies Society”) later evolved and became known as the “Triad,” but for the time being, they were a group dedicated to deposing the “foreign” Manchu Qing Dynasty and restoring the proper “Chinese” Ming Dynasty.[28] Some of China’s greatest artists, scholars, and intellectuals at the time were vehement Ming loyalists; Feng Menglong, Gu Yanwu, Zhu Da, and Zeng Jing.[29]

Outside of organized rebellions and secret societies, the Qing Dynasty also had to deal with bandits in the Chinese countryside, and piracy off of their southern coasts.[30] While the West’s “Golden Age of Piracy” lasted from about 1716-1726,[31] China’s golden age of piracy started earlier, and lasted until about halfway through the 19th century.[32] The most notable pirate off China’s coasts was Jehng Sih/Zhèng Shì (also known as Zheng/Ching’s Widow or “Madame Ching”). Jehng Sih's base of operations lay within the Pearl River Delta, off of Guangdong’s coast.[33] She raided Chinese and foreign ships alike, and "robbed towns, markets, and villages, from Macau to Canton (Guangdzhou).”[34] Her career kicked off in 1801 and lasted until 1810, but not before she amassed a pirate fleet of 300-1500 ships with a crew of 20,000-180,000 pirates.[35] The Qing government was so incapable of combating her and her fleet, that they allowed her to retire with full pardons, keep all of her loot, and honored her family members with government positions.[36]

On land, bandits like Zhang Xianzhong, who had been terrorizing the people of Sichuan Province since the reign of the Ming, set up his own petty kingdom in the province. Since the Ming and Qing forces were occupied with their own conflict, Zhang Xianzhong was uncontested in the region, attacking Ming loyalists and Qing invaders alike. Once the Qing has seized control of the empire, they had to move in to reclaim Zhang’s kingdom in Sichuan, all the while with dealing with unrest from Ming holdouts.[37]

But it cannot be said that the idea of the Manchus being a foreign group was the only thing that helped spur rebellions and restlessness in China, corruption from within was another major issue that displeased the common people. Before getting into further detail about that, the politics of the Qing government should be briefly mentioned.

The socio-political atmosphere of the Qing Dynasty was complex, and at times - chaotic. The ruling hierarchy pitted ethnic Manchus as ruling officials, with the majority Han Chinese in the lower classes. This is not to say that the Han Chinese did not have opportunities to advance in society, but it did mean that the socio-political atmosphere was largely controlled by the ruling minority, under the Eight-Banner System.[38]

The Eight-Banner system was an administrative and militaristic division under which all Manchu households were placed. In times of war, the Eight Banners functioned as armies, but in times of peace, it also functioned as the foundation of the Qing Dynasty and society in general.[39] It was created in the early 17th century by Nurhaci (the founder of the Qing Dynasty who died before ever actually solidifying his takeover of China),[40][41] and played an instrumental role in the unification of the loosely-knit Manchus (then called Jurchen) and their conquest of the Ming dynasty.[42] ight-Banners. Found 17 June, 2016. Public Domain.

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The Eight-Banners as arranged in military formation, typically the Solid Yellow (正黃旗) is considered the highest rank in the banner system.

As Mongol and Han forces were incorporated into the ever-growing Qing Empire, the Mongol Eight Banners and Han Eight Banners were formed and placed beneath that of the Manchus.[43] During times of war, the banner armies were considered the elite forces of the Qing military, anyone else who enlisted or got conscripted was incorporated into the vast Green Standard Army.[44] Membership in the banners was hereditary, and members were granted land and income.[45] Over time, the Eight Banners came to represent Manchu identity, and since membership into the banner societies became exclusive and laden with perks and benefits, the common people of China grew to further resent it and what it stood for.

Imposing laws on hair style, fashion, and changing culture probably did not help the perception that the ruling Manchus were non-Chinese either. Various cultural laws, such as the use of Queue hairstyle (having the front half of the head shaved to the scalp until about the ear and leaving the back of the head to grow into a braided ponytail) for all male citizens, made it easier for the Qing Dynasty to visibly distinguish who supported them (at least outwardly) and who opposed them.[46] This gave them some sense of control. Many who opposed the Manchu rule and forced hairstyles, but still obeyed the ruling dynasty, found growing resentment. Some scholars and learned men at the time even joined priesthoods and became monks as a sign of protest - for Buddhist monks had to shave their heads, and Taoist/Daoist monks could grow their hair long without styling it. Either way, monks were exempt from styling their hair into Queues. A prime example of this sort of cultural rebellion is Zhu Da, a renown artist who became a Buddhist monk, then later a Taoist monk for the reasons stated above.[47]

As mentioned previously, corruption from within the court was nothing new in Chinese Imperial politics.[48] In an empire as complex and expansive as the various Chinese empires have been over the last several thousand years, there is room for local magistrates and governors to carry out their personal will over their territories, as if they were petty kingdoms. It is apparent that even while many were publicly obedient-servants of the emperor, that they had their own agendas.

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Gorman, Michael. Qing Queue. 17 June, 2016.

Inside the royal palace, it was not uncommon for sons to murder their fathers and uncles, brothers to murder one another, or even for fathers to murder their sons in order to attain or maintain power. While the royal heirs were secretly plotting and squabbling amongst themselves, the various ladies-of-the-court; Dowager Empresses, Empresses, lower-level wives, and consorts, were vying for power amongst themselves. They worked with and against one another for a chance to get close to either the king or his heir in hopes to cement their own position of power within the court. They too resorted to murder and trickery to achieve their goals. Even the servants and eunuchs of the palace had a hierarchy, which was just as riddled with corruption and deception. They backed various ladies-of-the-court and princes, while working with and against one another in order to earn favor with the current or future emperor or empress. The eunuchs could be bought with gold and promises of power, or threatened with demotion and death. These players in the imperial court, again, all had their own agendas, despite publicly being loyal servants of the emperor.[49]

A notable corrupt official, Heshen, started his career as a lower-level Imperial Guard and progressively found favor with the ruling Qianlong Emperor. In four years he had secured for himself the titles of Vice Minister of Revenue, Grand Minister of State, Grand Minister of the Imperial Household , and Commander-General of the Metropolitan Infantry, following soon after with several other grand titles. As the official with the highest rank in several fields, including revenue and military affairs, he began to gather private wealth through flagrantly corrupt methods.[50] He appropriated government funds, took bribes from provincial governors, and was overlooked by normal security and corruption checks due to his offices and favor with the emperor. His household was so corrupt that the Governor of Shaanxi Province once had to pay a 5,000 silver tael bribe to Heshen’s doorman, in order to see Heshen and give him a 20,000 silver tael bribe.[51] It is also believed that in order to keep himself from getting checked for corruption, he was personally responsible for filling official positions that had the power to perform these checks. After the death of the Qianlong Emperor, Heshen was arrested by his successor, had his stolen-property seized, and was executed. At the time of his death, he had accumulated 800,000,000 silver taels (about $14,400,000,000 USD, modern).[52]

An aspect of the Qing Imperial system that also helped the growth and spread of profiteering was weak regents and child-rulers. Child-rulers are nothing particularly new in human history, but this aspect of the Qing Dynasty seemed to play a particularly influential role in the spread of corruption during the dynasties rule of China. A child-ruler without a regent, is a child with power. They would not know what to do with it or how to wield it. Even if all members of the imperial court worked as the emperor’s obedient servants, a child with that much power over so much territory and people, could be very detrimental. With a regent, child-rulers themselves would just be a pawn for whoever had the most control over the court at the time, whether they be the child-ruler’s uncle, mother, grandmother, or a high-ranking eunuch. They could sway the emperor to do their will and bidding, effectively ruling the country. If the regent was another heir to the throne (an uncle or cousin), they could set up a circumstance in which the emperor would die under mysterious conditions, leaving a will that would place whoever was closest to the emperor to be the new king. This last scenario would be greatly contested in private, but publicly, the will of the emperor was law.[53]

Dowager Empress Cixi is a good example of a lady-of-the-court, who rose so high through the ranks, that the emperor had to ask her permission to do things. She started out as a low-level concubine of the Xianfeng Emperor, but through will-power, some cunning, and giving birth to a son, she was able to elevate herself to a higher status.[54] It is believed by many that all other male heirs n born to the Xianfeng Emperor had been killed off in infancy in the secret struggle for power behind the emperors back. The Xianfeng Emperor died under Anglo-French forces during the Second Opium War, leaving his only heir (Cixi’s five-year-old son) to inherit the empire.[55]

The emperor’s death untimely rocketed Cixi to the position of junior Empress-Dowager, as the mother of the young, manipulatable, child-emperor: Tongzhi. At this point, she was subordinate only to the late Xiangfeng Emperor’s favorite wife, who was then senior Empress-Dowager. They formed a partnership, having regents expelled and executed. Eventually, Cixi and the senior Empress Dowager became equals, then unequal once more in reversed roles. As the Tongzhi Emperor came into adulthood, Cixi tightened her control over him, controlling his policies and personal life. She would come to do the same to his predecessor, the Guangxu Emperor, and even briefly have dominance of the child-emperor Puyi (China’s last emperor). Her power was so great that she chose which heir would inherit the throne. At one point she even placed the Gunagxu Emperor under house arrest because he had an argument with her. She is an excellent example of the power-struggle and what sort of chaos could occur in the imperial court. Although she is a great feminist figure, and one that did many great things, she was not without her own faults; using military and imperial funds to pay for birthday gifts and palace upgrades, and generally mismanaging money.[56]

It could also be said that the corruption and rebellions played off of one another to add fuel to the metaphoric fire: corruption displeases the citizens, so they revolt, the revolts create opportunity for officials to play-the-field and induce more corruption, thus triggering more revolts and piracy, and so on. The officials would do just enough to convince the emperor and imperial court that their plans to quash rebellion and preserving order were working, while not doing enough to actually end the chaos. This in turn allowed corrupt officials to ask for more money to secretly pocket, and more power to wield in the region.[57]

Pirates and corrupt official were not the only ones taking advantage of the chaos, sweeping through the empire. This tumultuous period in Chinese history coincided with a new age in European exploration and imperialism. When an empire cannot even control and subdue threats within its own borders, how can it be expected to efficiently deal with threats from outside forces? It cannot.

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Gorman, Michael. Qing Dynasty. 17 June, 2016.

The Qing Dynasty (shaded gray), including vassal territories such as Korea, superimposed over the modern borders of China (including Hong Kong, Macau, and Taiwan) in red.

For centuries, the Qing Dynasty had been closed off from the rest of the world. It had been in a state of self-imposed isolationism.[58] In order to not become completely oblivious to the goings-on of the outside world, they did retain restricted trading posts off the coast of Guangdong province, specifically around the city of Guangzhou (Canton) and the Pearl River Delta.[59]

This seclusion and appearance of splendor and grandeur created a desire for trade and exploration of China, starting with the most easily and readily accessible area: Guangdong Province.

Once Europeans had caught a glimpse beyond China’s wall of isolation, they saw that it had the potential for greater wealth, greater trade, and greater resources to offer the western world. Aside from this great potential, what they also saw was how weak the empire had become due to internal struggle and corruption, and they sought to exploit it. Despite China’s massive size, riches, resources, and man-power, isolationism had kept the Qing Dynasty’s army relatively stuck in the past, with swords, spears, halberds, arrows, and light armor that may have been effective against arrows and melee weapons, but could not withstand a barrage of musket balls/bullets or cannon shot. Several centuries early, in the 15th, 16th, even 17th centuries, the Imperial Chinese Military could have posed a threat to, and overpowered, any European power, but in the 18th and 19th centuries, with their rapid advances in technology and the industrial revolution, western nations no longer saw China as an imposing threat.

Britain in the 18th and 19th centuries was beginning to emerge as the dominant force on Earth. They had recently conquered a good majority of France’s colonies in North America, they were getting a monopoly on colonization in Oceania, the Spanish Empire was losing its South and Central American colonies to independence, and Britain was gaining an early foothold in Africa.[60][61] With coalitions against Napoleonic France, in the early 19th century, successfully subduing France’s expansion and control of Europe, Britain was now in a position to cement itself as the greatest power in the world.

Portugal in the 15th and 16th centuries had been a great naval and economic force in Europe, possibly the greatest, rivaled by only the Netherlands and later Spain.[62] But since their exploration and expansion into various port cities around the world, they had fallen considerably lower on the militaristic and economic ladder of Europe. Spain, France, and England had all surpassed them in colonial expansion and economic growth. Even Russia had expanded into the far east of Siberia.[63] ‘Though still a power to be reckoned with, in many rights, the Portuguese Empire was not what it once was, and like Britain, they too sought to expand and grow into new lands—now more so for trade than colonization and settlement.

France in the 18th and 19th centuries had been subject to decades of revolution, overthrown governments, and lost territory. As mentioned previously, they had lost their Canadian territories to Britain, they sold the Louisiana territory to the United States in order to fund their failed expansion into Europe,[64][65] their crowning achievement in the Caribbean (Haiti) had just seized "liberté, égalité, fraternité" for themselves,[66] and the western world was beginning to set its sights on Africa. What France needed to do was get a foothold elsewhere. They had already managed to establish a minor presence in China by establishing missions and Catholic churches, and sending missionaries to and around the “Sacred Congregation of South China,” located in Guangzhou,[67] but this was not enough.

Due to the Qing’s allowance of restricted trade with the outside world, and their policy of isolation, these three European nations had to conceive a way to get their foot in the door and open up demand for trade. The easiest way to sell something is to create demand, and the easiest way to create demand is addiction. The most addictive tradable substance that they could get their hands on at the time, was opium.

In the early 19th century, the British Empire’s commerce was largely dependent on tea imports from China.[68] The British, in return for the Chinese tea, exported luxury items such as clocks and watches. Because of this, there was an overwhelming imbalance when trade began to formulate. To counterbalance this trade disparity, the British began to export opium, which was legal and plentiful in Britain, and an addicting, growing, demand in China.[69]

Opium trade in the Guangdong region, specifically British Opium, had such a crippling effect on society that the government imposed a ban on the trade and distribution of it. This led to British merchants protesting, which in turn resulted in hostile action by the British Navy, who blockaded China’s ports and humiliated their empire. They eventually forced the Qing government to allow the further trade of opium in the name of “free commerce,” thus furthering the potential for un-winnable conflicts and the eventual downfall of the Qing Dynasty.[70]

With chaos already spread throughout the empire, conflict between the Qing Dynasty, the Chinese people, and the western powers were bound to ignite. In many of the conflicts that arose between the western world and China, there was some form of cooperation between the Chinese people and their government. Unfortunately for the Qing government, the European forces had superior technology to aid them when hostilities did break out. This would quite often led to disastrous defeats for the Chinese army, leading to further disillusionment between the people and the government. In some cases, the people themselves took up arms against the westerners, often with similar results. Such circumstances fostered a cycle of unity and disunity between the Chinese people and their government, as well as the Chinese and western governments. With every militaristic loss, the Qing Dynasty was also forced to pay more compensation: monetary, terrestrial, and cultural.

Througout the 19th century, several wars broke out between the Qing Dynasty and the western world and its allies, including: the Ningbo Massacre, the First Opium War, the Second Opium War, the Sino-French War, the First Sino-Japanese War, and the Boxer Rebellion. These wars and conflicts primarily ended in “unequal treaties” which were written in favor of victorious western nations at the time, and left the Qing Dynasty with little more than a weakening grip on the imperial throne in Beijing/Peking.

The Ningbo Massacre was one of the first of these conflicts that drove a rift between the westerners and Qing court during this era. There was another massacre of the same name that occurred in 1542 (during the reign of the Ming Dynasty).[71] This earlier massacre occurred off the coast of Zhejiang against Chinese pirates, the Ningbo Massacre of the 1800s was against Portuguese Pirates and the Portuguese Consul, by Cantonese Pirates. Supposedly, the local populace supported the massacre of the Portuguese pirates, as well as the attack on the Portuguese consul. It is said that the Chinese did not view the Portuguese in the same light as other Europeans. They were no longer a great military power, and as such, the Cantonese pirates were not afraid to fight them in melee combat. It is even believed that the governing authorities in Ningbo were the ones who persuaded the Cantonese pirates to massacre the Portuguese ones. Rather than fighting, the Portuguese chose to flee when their consul was sacked. The result of the massacre was that 40 Portuguese nationals died.[72]

In the end, this conflict was a victory for the Chinese, but it tore a fissure between the Portuguese and Qing governments, as well as putting other European powers on edge. The next several conflicts would not benefit the waning Qing Empire.

The First Opium War, from 1839-1842,[73] is where the Chinese started losing territory. This conflict culminated in the treaty of Nanking, which led the Qing Dynasty ceding Hong Kong Island (so named for the floating village of “Heung Gong,” now called “Aberdeen,” on the south end of the island) to Great Britain, starting a tradition of European nations gradually chipping away at Chinese holdings in response to war.[74]

The next step in the West’s exploitation of the ever-weakening Qing government occurred during the Second Opium War, from 1857-1860.[75] At the conclusion of this war, two more treaties were signed: the Treaty of Tientsin and the First Convention of Peking. This opened several new port cities to the West, such as Newchwang (now Yinkou), Tamsui (in Taipei, Taiwan), Hankou and Nanjing.[76] It also gave westerners the right to sail up the Yangtze River, allowed western merchants to travel within the Qing Empire’s borders for business purposes,[77] forced the Qing Dynasty to cede Kowloon Peninsula to Britain and merge it with Hong Kong, and forced the Qing Dynasty to cede part of their ancestral homeland (Outer Manchuria) to the Russian Empire.[78] To add insult to injury, China had to pay 6 million taels of silver (2 million for France, and 4 million to Britain) for compensation, and official government letters and other documents exchanged between China and Britain were banned from referring to Britons with "夷" (pronounced “Yí” in Mandarin), meaning “barbarian."[79]

Only a few decades later, 1884-1885,[80] the Sino-French War broke out between France and China. This war ultimately led to the Second Treaty of Tientsin, which stipulated that the Chinese government had to acknowledge France’s rule over Indochine (northern Vietnam). In a rare show of “goodwill” at the time, France chose not to annex any territory from China that they had not already claimed as their own.[81]

Although it was not fought between China and a western nation, the First Sino- Japanese War (with World War II being the “Second Sino-Japanese War”) played out much the same way that China’s wars with the West had. After the 1894-1895 war,[82] the Qing Dynasty was on its last leg, it had lost a great amount of prestige, the people were more fed up than ever with the ruling government, and China was forced to cede the Korean Peninsula, Formosa (Taiwan), and the Liaodong Peninsula to Japan.[83] It would seem that even the threat of war was great enough to force the Qing government into accepting revised unequal treaties. Two examples of this are the Treaty of Bogue and the Treaty of Whampoa. The first of these treaties was a British commerce treaty, made to supplement the Treaty of Nanking. In it, the treaty outlines tariffs and trade agreements, as well as detailing specified terms under which the British could reside in the newly opened ports cities of Guangzhou, Shanghai, Ningbo, Xiamen, and Fuzhou. Britons were also allowed to purchase and own property in these cities under the status of “most favored nation.”[84] Further treaties, such as The Chefoo Treaty would outline more privileges to be granted to British citizens.[85] The Treaty of Whampoa introduced similar terms, but also lifted a 1724 ban on Christianity, and thus presented France as the “defender of the faith” in China.[86] Even the United States (and other nations) began setting up unequal treaties, such as the Treaty of Wanghia. This treaty, again, set up similar terms for trade and treatment of their citizens, but in an odd turn of events and “goodwill,” the United States recognized the illegality of opium trade and offered to help curb it in China.[87]

The final straw, it seems, that broke the Qing Dynasty, occurred just after Britain, France, and Portugal forced the Qing to lease them territory in Guangdong Province. This set in motion the circumstances for the Boxer Rebellion, the last great revolt in China before the Xinhai Revolution and the rise of the Republic of China. The Boxer Rebellion, 1899-1901, pitted the Yihetuan (Boxers) who had the support of the Qing Government, against the Eight-Nation Alliance (the British Empire, the Russian Empire, the Empire of Japan, the French Third Republic, the United States of America, the German Empire, the Kingdom of Italy, and the Austro-Hungarian Empire).[88] This ended in the Boxer Protocol, which was substantially more “equal” than previous treaties; not demanding transfer of land. It did, however, force the emperor to publicly apologize, force the Qing Dynasty to pay 450 millions taels of silver, and ensure that foreign troops would be able to occupy Chinese cities for the foreseeable future.[89] This treaty seems to imply that the western powers knew the Qing Dynasty was on its last leg, although some claim that China could have resisted the full-scale invasion if they had held out for a while longer, and that it was only Cixi’s haste to sign the treaty that ended the negotiations the way that they did.[90] The culmination of these wars with outsiders, and the ever growing discontent within their own borders led up to the signing of the unequal treaties, which put the Qing Dynasty and China at the subjection of imperialistic European nations, including the treaties that would grant several of them leased territories and force China to surrender several other territorial holdings. Less than two decades after the transfer of the Guangdong leased territories to Britain, France, and Portugal, the Qing Dynasty was toppled, and the Republic of China rose from the ashes of the old imperial order. But this would not be the end of the foreign interference in Chinese land, for Europe’s stay in China and meddling Chinese politics had only just begun.

Literary Review

To conceive a thesis on the cultural, socio-political, and economic significance of the European leased territories of Guangdong Province, as well as their lasting impact on specific regions and China at large, an assortment of secondary sources, from journal articles to Monographs and anthologies, will be used. Eventually, many primary sources, such as newspaper articles, and the diaries, letters, and memoirs politicians, locals, and colonists will also be included. These sources will come from a variety of authors from different time periods, such as the late 19th century, early 20th century, the 1940s, the 1990s, and even some as recently as 2016. Many sources included also come from Hong Kong, Macau, mainland China, the United States, France, the United Kingdom, and even South America. This will be done so that the legacy of the colonies will be apparent not just from a modern perspective, but over the course of the last century and a half of history. Some of the local sources from Guangdong and China’s Special Administrative Regions will include Richard Louis Edmonds and T. Herbert Yee's “Macau: From Portuguese Autonomous Territory to Chinese Special Administrative Region” published in The China Quarterly in 1999, and Sonny Lo’s “Casino Capitalism and Its Legitimacy Impact on the Politico-Administrative State in Macau” published in The Journal of Chinese Affairs in 2009. Other sources will include a new issue of Macau Guide Book issued by the Macau Government Tourist Office, Lung Ping-Yee’s “The Changing ‘Rural’ setting of Hong Kong’s New Territories in the Twentieth Century” from Scientific Symposium, and Heritage Trails in Urban Hong Kong by Siu Kwok Kin & Sze Sham. To supplement these, valuable sources from the metropole regions; France, the United Kingdom, and Portugal, will include Alfred Benique’s La France à Kouang-Tcheou-Wan, published in 1931, and Nicole Bensacq-Tixier’s Histoire des Diplômes et Consuls Francais en Chine (1840-1911), as well as Zheng Long’s La Chine à l’Aube du XXe Siecle, Roger Price’s A Concise History of France, and Chinese Lives by Victor Mair, and Chen San-Ping. A few other sources worth mentioning really quick are Revue Historique des Armées from France’s Ministère des Armées, and T. R. Tragear’s A Geography of China. These sources are primarily to get the perspective of the colonizing parties, both contemporary and modern, to compare and contrast with the sources from Guangdong and the Special Administrative Regions. Some of these sources from the metropole regions were found and utilized in their original native tongues. This was done to give them more credibility, accuracy, and authenticity, which might be lacking in English translations. Some sources in Traditional Chinese were also discovered, but to save time and conclude this thesis in a timely manner, they will not likely be utilized unless the research absolutely calls for it. A good amount of work has gone into locating versions and copies of the treaties signed between the western powers and the Qing Dynasty and its successors. These sources are vital in understanding what each party desired and was willing to compromise in the transfer of the leased territories and their return. They can also be used to give one a good idea of what sort of socio-political relations these powers had through out different stages of the colonization and decolonization. Some of these aforementioned treaties and documents are, but not limited to: the first and second “Conventions of Peking” (Beijing), the “Boxer Protocol,” the “Chefoo Convention,” the “Treaty of Kwangchow Wan” (Guangzhouwan), the “Sino-Portuguese Treaty of Peking,” the “Joint Declaration on the Question of Macau” between China and Portugal, the “Sino-British Joint Declaration,” and the “Sino-French Accord of February of 1946.” In addition to these treaties, it would also be beneficial to take a look at the Basic Laws (constitutions) of the Hong and Macau Kong Special Administrative Regions, and the Constitution of the People’s Republic of China. With these sources in hand, and many more, it should be quite possible to uncover the questions previously posed in this thesis, as well uncover any new ones that might arise during the course of the research and investigation.

Annotated bibliography

Benique, Alfred. La France à Kouang-Tcheou-Wan. France: Editions Beger-Levrault, 1931.

This source turned out to be exactly what I was looking for for information. It is written in French and provides a prospective from France that may be valuable. It was also written in 1931, giving it a more contemporary voice. It appears to be very reliable and should be quite useful for this thesis.

Bensacq-Tixier, Nicole. Histoire des Diplômes et Consuls Francais en Chine 1840-1911).

France: Les Indes Savantes, 2008. Following La France à Kouang-Tcheou-Wan, this source features similar, yet unique, information. It also comes in French, but has a much more modern voice. In regards to its sources, it also appears reliable

Beran, Michael Knox. Forge of Empire: 1861-1871, New York: Free Press, 2007.

This source initially appeared usable. It was hoped that the information it provided could be used to help divulge the colonial, imperialistic, mindset of the western powers at the time. Although it appears to be a reliable source, its information falls outside the purview of this thesis’ inquiries.

Black, Jeremy. European Warfare: 1660-1815, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1994.

Following Forge of Empire: 1861-1871, it was also hoped that this source could be used to help divulge the colonial, imperialistic, mindset of the western powers at the time. Similarly, it appears to be a reliable source, its information falls outside the purview of this thesis’ inquiries.

Chandler, David. A History of Cambodia. United States: Westview Press, 2000.

Although this source is focus on Cambodia, rather than China, it does go over, in some detail, the French Colonization of Cambodia and South East Asia (which included Guangzhouwan). It is hoped that this source can be used to get into the colonial mindset of the colonizer and colonized, as well as provide at least some information on Guangzhouwan. This source, as a monograph uses many other reliable source and is therefore in itself reliable.

Colas, Raoul L. M. Les Relations Commercial Entre la France et l”Indochine. France:Les Editions Domat-Montchestien, 1933.

Given that Guangzhouwan was administered under l’Indochine (Indochina) by France, it only made sense to look for information here. This source is another source in the French language that can provide a more contemporary voice. It is possibly biased in its perspective and information, but that can be useful from a comparative point-of-view. Aside from potential biases, it appears to be reliable.

Davidann, Jon Thares & Gilbert, Marc Jason. Cross-Cultural Encounters In Modern World History. Pearson: New Jersey, 2013. Print.

This source is all about cross-cultural encounters, as the title implies. It does have information on Europe’s 18th and 19th century encounters with the Qing Dynasty, as well as their interactions with one another, particularly in regard to Jesuits and missionaries. It is very reliable ash has been useful as an undergraduate textbook.

Dean, William T. “Strategic Dilemmas of Colonization: France and Morocco during the Great War.” The Historian. Volume 73 Number 4, (Winter 2011): Pg. 703. Print.

Although this source appears to fall outside the geographic boundaries imposed by this thesis, it is still possible that it can be used to fully comprehend the colonial mindset of France in the early 20th century, as well as some of its hardships during the Great War. It appears reliable and could potentially be useful.

Edmonds, Richard Louis and T. Herbert Yee. “Macau: From Portuguese Autonomous Territory to Chinese Special Administrative Region.” The China Quarterly. Volume 160, (Dec 1999): Pg 801-817. Print

A valuable source in terms of Macau and Portuguese colonization. This article lays out the decolonization of Macau and transfer back to China. This source is also from the same year that it was transferred back, giving it a good perspective for that moment. It appears very reliable, as it is from Macau during the time of transfer.

Elverskog, Johan. Our Great Qing. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2006.

For the main body of the thesis, this source was not as useful as initially thought, but for the contextual essay it can be very useful, focusing on the politics and interrelations of the Qing Dynasty. In terms of reliability, it is very reliable and thoroughly researched.

Fanon, Frantz. The Wretched of the Earth. France: Grove Press, 1963.

This source also appears to fall outside the geographic limits set by this thesis, but it too can be useful in understanding the colonial mindset of France, especially since the author is one of those whose country was colonized. This monograph may also potentially be biased, but that is something that can be useful. It appears to be as much a primary source as a secondary source, given the author’s background.

Hughes, Richard, Hong Kong, Borrowed Place—Borrowed Time, Andre Deutsch: London, 1968. Print.

This monograph is all about Hong Kong, leading up to the return of Hong Kong to Chinese control (about 30 years after publication). It gives a wonderful insight into the minds of the British in Hong Kong during the time. Similarly, this monograph may potentially be biased, but that that can be useful. It also appears to be as much a primary source as a secondary source, given the author’s background.

Macau Guide Book. Macau: Macau Government Tourist Office, 2015.

Though a tourist/travel book, this source comes directly from Macau and therefore gives Macau’s interpretation of their history, as well as who they are and where they came from. Assuming that the Macau Government Tourist Office knows their own history and heritage, this source should be reliable. It is possible that the mainland Chinese government may have had some sway in it, but that remains to be seen.

Mair, Victor, Chen San-Ping, and Frances Woods. Chinese Lives. London: Thames & Hudson, 2013.

This monograph is a collection of mini-biographies of famous Chinese people, from the foundation of the Qin Dynasty, to the rise of the People’s Republic. With that, this source can be used to provide background on some of the individuals responsible for the events that this thesis will be looking into. It is very well researched and was published in London. One of the authors themselves is Chinese.

Spence, Jonathan A. The Question of Hu. New York City: Alfred A. Knopf, 1988.

This book, written almost novel-like, tells the biographic story of a Chinese convert from Guangzhou, who goes on a journey to France, only to be arrested and die on his journey back to China. Putting the story-telling style aside, the book appears very well researched and provides an astounding look at the early interactions of the French and Chinese in Guangdong.

Steves, Rick. Rick Steves’ Portugal. United States: Avalon Travel, 2013.

I was really looking forward to using this source as well as similar titles by Rick Steves. Although it is not a history book or a research thesis, I assumed it would provide ample historic background, some of which might be useful in my research. Unfortunately I discovered very little, if anything, I could use in my research.

Waley, Arthur. Three Ways of Thinking in Ancient China. New Jersey:Doubleday Books, 1939.

This source, like Our Great Qing, would be more useful to the contextual essay than the main body of the thesis. It provides insight into the minds of the ancient Chinese, and the socio-political style of the time. Given that this book was published less than 30 years after the fall of the Qing Dynasty, it is still very close to the mindset and socio-political era that it is discussing, making it potentially quite reliable.

Thesis

“Le Gouvernement chinois en raison de son amitié pour la France, donne à bail pour 99 ans, la baie de Kouang-tcheou-ouan au Gouvernement française, qui pourra y établir une station navale avec dépôt de charbon. Les limites de la concession seront ultérieurement fixées d’accord entre les deux Gouvernements, après études sur la terrain. On s’entendra plus tard pour la loyer.”[91] —Monsieur Dubail, Tsung-li Yamênto 10 April, 1898

These are some of the words written in correspondence by Monsieur Dubail, the Tsung-li Yamênto (a diplomat), of France to China. In this correspondence, M. Dubail set the groundwork for the negotiations that would ultimately establish a leased territory under French control in China’s Guangdong Province. To translate: “the Chinese Government, in consideration of its friendship for France, leases the bay of Guangzhouwan, for 99 years, to the French Government, which may establish a naval station and coal depot (there). The boundaries of the Concession will be fixed hereafter by agreement between the two Governments, after examination of the terrain. We will arrange later for the rent.”

[...]


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Title
Leased territories in Guangdong, China. A comparative study
College
Westminster College
Grade
100
Author
Year
2016
Pages
127
Catalog Number
V340746
ISBN (eBook)
9783668309692
ISBN (Book)
9783668309708
File size
2669 KB
Language
English
Tags
history, engaldn, portugal, france, china, world war ii, hong kong, macau, special administrative region, guangzhou, guangzhouwan, guangdong, colonization, kouangtcheouwan
Quote paper
Michael Gorman (Author), 2016, Leased territories in Guangdong, China. A comparative study, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/340746

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