Assessing leadership and manangement role played by women in the development of Community Nutrition and Development Centres


Masterarbeit, 2016
115 Seiten

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

LIST OF TABLES

LIST OF FIGURES

LIST OF ACRONYMS

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Background to the Study
1.3 Problem Statement
1.4 Aim of the Study
1.5 Objectives of the Study
1.6 Research Questions
1.7 Significance of the Study
1.8 Format of the Study
1.9 Conclusion

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.2 Concepts of Leadership and Management
2.2.1The Concept of Leadership
2.2.2 Theories of Leadership
2.2.2.1 Trait Theory
2.2.2.2 Behavioural Theories
2.2.2.3 Contingency Theories
2.2.2.5 Transactional leadership Theories
2.2.2.6 Transformational Leadership Theories
2.3 Concept of Management
2.3.1 Levels of Management
2.4 Distinction between Leadership and Management
2.5. Women and Leadership
2.6. Women leadership and leading styles
2.6.1 Transformational Leadership
2.6.2 Characteristics of Transformational Leaders
2.6.3. Collaborative, participative and instructional leadership
2.7 Women Leadership Behaviours
2.8 Concept of Community Development
2.8.1. Community Development and Leadership
2.8.2 Women Leadership in Community Development
2.8.3 Community Development and Nutrition Centres
2.9 Conclusion

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction
3.2 The Research Philosophy
3.2.2 Phenomenological Research Strategies (Qualitative)
3.3 Research Design
3.3.1 Descriptive research
3.4 Research Strategies
3.5 Target Population
3.6 Sampling
3.7 The Research Instrument
3.8.1 Interviews
3.8.2 Group interviews
3.9 Pilot Study
3.10 Administration of Questionnaires
3.10.1 Process used to prepare for interviews
3.11 Collection of Questionnaires
Validity and Reliability
3.12.1 Validity
12.2 Reliability
3.13 Data Analysis
3.13.1 Thematic analysis
3.13.2 Content analysis
3.14 Limitations of the Study
3.15 Elimination of Bias
3.16 Ethical Considerations
3.17 Conclusion

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS, DISCUSSION AND INTERPRETATION OF FINDINGS
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Response Rate
4.3 Thematic Analysis of Data
4.3.1 Coding of Data
4.4 One on One Interviews results
OBJECT IVE 1: To explore the leadership and management roles played by women in the development of CNDC’s
THEME 1: Expected Mandate
THEME 2: Inadvertent Roles
Sub-theme 2.1 Mentoring
- Sub-theme 2.2 Counsellor
- Sub-theme 2.3 Information and Support services
OBJECTIVE 2: To examine the leadership and management characteristics women possess in the in the CNDC’s
· THEME 3: Power and Influence
- Sub-theme 3.1 Need for Female Presence
- Sub- theme 3.2 Concern for community.
- Sub-theme 3.3 Influencing and helping others
- Sub- theme 3.4 choosing to be a leader
THEME 4 Inciting Change
- Sub theme 4.1 Contributing influences
- Sub- theme 4.2 Change through Innovation
- Sub-theme 4.3 Taking charge
- Sub theme 4.4 having a vision
4.5 FOCUS GROUPS INTERVIEW
THEME 1: Shared Leadership
Theme 2: Challenges and Obstacles
- Sub theme 2.4 Gender Roles
THEME 3: Self-Efficacy and Identity
- Sub –theme 3.1 Influence of others
- Sub- theme 3.2 The Confidence to Succeed
- Sub theme 3.3 Impacting Society
- Sub- theme 3.4 Personal characteristics
THEME 4 Effectual Leadership Styles
Sub-theme 4.2 Motivations and Empowering
4.6 Conclusion

5.1 Introduction
5.2 Findings from the Study
5.2.1 Findings from the Literature Review
5.2.2 Findings from the Primary Research
5.3 Conclusions
5.4 Recommendations
5.5 Area for Further Research
5.6 Conclusion

6. BIBLIOGRAPHY
Appendix A: Letter of Granting Permission to Conduct the Study
Appendix B: Letter to Respondents
Appendix C: Letter to Respondents
Appendix D: Research Instrument
Appendix E: Interview Schedule

ABSTRACT

In South Africa, more than 11 million people do not have access to nutritious, healthy and adequate food, children being more affected. Food is fundamental human concern and central to the health of our communities. The constitution of the Republic of South Africa state that everyone has the “right to food”. As a result government has approved the provision of food to communities through Community Nutrition and Development Centres (CNDC’S). These CNDC’s are community initiated structures that exist to ensure that the poor and vulnerable communities have access to healthy and nutritious food, working to alleviate poverty, unemployment and vulnerability in the rural areas of South Africa. This study is based on the Assessment of the Leadership and Management Role Played by Women in the Development of Community Nutrition and Development Centres (CNDC’s) in the North West Province.

This study was conducted by using a non-probability, purposive sampling which specifically looked at a Case Study of Four Selected Community Nutrition and Development Centres in the Bojanala District Municipality. This study documented the role played by 20 Women Leaders in the development of the CNDC’s and their quest to lead in the advancement of their communities. This qualitative research employed various methodologies such as in-depth interviews, and document analysis. Specifically, the research findings described and analysed the management and leadership role, leadership understanding and styles, reasons for becoming leaders, barriers of women leadership and strategies employed by these women leaders in developing the community.

The study found that the women exceeded the scope of their expected mandates by taking leadership which led to them inadvertently addressing other challenges that arose in the communities such as taking care of those who were affected by HIV and AIDS, orphans poverty and vulnerability in communities. Through their engagement, the also initiated skills development and psychosocial programmes, which included offering services like counselling, mentoring, and job creation and empowerment programmes.

While their leadership roles have been successful and impactful, the research found that women are also challenged by gender stereotypes and the patriarchal nature of society. The study recommends that while women are seen to be empowering their communities, efforts need to be put into ensuring that 1) they are further capacitated 2) that their work is recognised and lastly, 3) that they are rewarded accordingly.

DECLARATION

I, Mpho Putu do hereby declare that this dissertation is the result of my investigation and research and that this has not been submitted in part or full for any degree or for any other degree to any other University.

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Mpho Putu Date

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I wish to extend my sincere gratitude and appreciation to GOD my Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. His love endures forever. I continue to appreciate His work in me, especially for allowing me to finish this thesis.

My unalloyed appreciation goes to my supervisor Nishika Chetty for her tireless efforts in guiding and giving me direction regarding the content, and for her invaluable support and dedication in critically evaluating my work including being so eager to help and give her unwavering support and academic input in the writing of this thesis. May God continue to bless you.

I would also like to extend my sincerest gratitude and appreciation to Regent Business School for their unceasing support. I was enabled by their help and loving spirit to keep on pushing until the finishing line of this work.

To the women leaders who so generously gave their time to participate in this study: this thesis would not have eventuated if they had not been prepared to speak so candidly about a very sensitive subject and also allowed me to interfere with their work schedules to conduct the interviews.

To my family - Poki, Tshegofatso Rorisang, and the Putu clan, (including my late parents, Lemogang and Ramokayane Putu, to whom this project is dedicated), for their prayers, support, and sacrifice throughout the years to my studies.

Finally, my friends, colleagues for being the wind beneath my wings and encouraging me to fly even in adversity.

LIST OF TABLES

Table 2.1 Distinction between manager and leaders

Table 2.2 Definitions of transformational, transactional and Laissez -Faire leadership styles

Table 3 Male and Female Interaction Styles

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1 Overview of the features of transformational 16 leadership

Figure 2 Characteristics of a transformational leader Bass‟s Model

Figure 3 Community Development Model

LIST OF ACRONYMS

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CHAPTER ONE : INTRODUCTION

1.1 Introduction

The study is based on the leadership and management role women play in the Bojanala Communities. In South Africa, for many years, women have been in the fore front in their communities and have been involved in various ways in their communities. They have established themselves as leaders in community development and acquired the skills that have brought positive change to their communities. This first chapter provides a broad overview of the study. This chapter gives the context and background within which the phenomenon under study takes place. It outlines the reasons, research questions, a research goal and the objectives that inspired the researcher to conduct the investigation

1.2 Background to the Study

Globally, women have long been the backbone of communities and are heavily involved in community initiatives in various forms. The role of women in the community and their situation in rural areas depends on their geographic region, social class, age and ethnicity. In most cases in urban areas, Women are found to be taking active role in complex affairs such as politics, education, socio, and economical life, whereas in rural areas women would play a different but crucial role for the subsistence of their communities, though this role is not always acknowledged. Though often the unsung heroes of community action, women’s role in community development has become increasingly important.

Today the women’s role has changed significantly, from just a child carer to professional business women, educators, doctors, scientists etc and competing with men across various fields of work. The levels of sophistication in their role is dependent on geographic areas and socia economic classes, they are at. However they have defined and developed mechanism to survive in their own spaces, they have formed associations and clubs and in one way or the other, they have found a way to organised themselves, defined their own spaces and environment and are able to make things happen for themselves. They are solving complex problems, influence each other, and providing guidance to each, their young ones and their communities at large. According to Fine. (2009: 23), throughout the world leadership is generally perceived as something society needs more.

Women leaders play key roles in establishing and maintaining important relationships and networks in their communities. They face cultural, economic, and social barriers in leading the community and in many cases overcoming those barriers become their motivation. While their comprehensive approach has influenced the evolution and nature of community development, women’s contributions have been neither widely acknowledge nor explicitly credited. In rural areas women are not gainfully employed and, even when they are, their salaries are far lower than those of men.

Many organizations and government institutions (The hunger project, 2005:98) have long recognized the importance of women in both developed and developing nations to the process of increased development (Coleman, 2004:46). Women are credited with the role of primary caregiver, and their efforts outside the home to generate income positively affect a strong, burgeoning family (Coleman, 2004;45) The United Nations’ Millennium Development Goals (UN, 2003:32) specifically address women-related issues, promoting gender equality and the empowerment of women, and the UN Division for the Advancement of Women (DAW) (UN, 2005:22) promotes equality with men across the world for sustainable development, peace and security, governance, and human rights. In the past decade, the number of people living in poverty has been reduced, the gender gap in education has narrowed, women have become more involved in political arenas, and women are a growing force in the economic labour market. They remain critical role players in South African development history.

This study intends to provide deeper insights into the leadership and management role of women in Community Nutrition and Development Centres, the barriers to women’s leadership, their leadership styles and strategies that should be undertaken to facilitate and promote their status and roles in community development.

1.3 Problem Statement

The socio-economic problems such as high levels poverty, unemployment, HIV and Aids including inequalities in South Africa have stimulated communities to engage in strategies which enable them to uplift their standards of living and promote their social functioning. In an attempt to address their community problems, women, in particular, engage in activities that lead to the process of community change and development. In rural areas particularly, women's status is traditionally low. Most women were deprived of education by the system including tradition, because they were females (Fick, Meintjes, & Simons, 2002:45).

The Population Development Programme Report (2011:14) estimates that sixty percent of the South African population lives in rural areas, with more than half of this population being women. As an attempt to survive in rural areas, women have engaged in many community development projects. Development activities have always existed in most countries with women leading the way. However, since women were never given any recognition for their contribution, it thus appeared as if men were the only ones influential to the process of development. How do women see and paly their leadership and management role in their community? What are factors that has a bearing their community intervention?

1.4 Aim of the Study

The aim of this research is to investigate leadership and role played by women in the development of Community Nutrition and Development Centre’s (CNDC’s) in the four Local Municipalities in Bojanala District Municipality, North West Province.

1.5 Objectives of the Study

- To explore the leadership and management roles played by women in the development of Community Nutrition and Development Centre’s (CNDC’s)
- To examine the transformational leadership and management characteristics women possess in the in the CNDC’s;
- To investigate challenges and constraints experienced by women in the Community Nutrition and Development Centres;
- To establish whether transformation leadership style influences women in the CNDC’s; and
- To make recommendations to policy makers, using the research results, regarding the leadership and management role played by women in the development of CNDC’s.

1.6 Research Questions

- What leadership and management role do women play in the development of the CNDC?
- Describe the leadership and management characteristics women possess?
- Does leadership styles have an impact on women in the development of Community Nutrition and Development Centres?
- Do challenges, opportunities and constraints have an impact on women leadership?
- What recommendations can be made to policy makers regarding the leadership and management role of women in the development of CNDC’s?

1.7 Significance of the Study

In order to ensure that this problem stated is researchable, its meaning should have clear significance and utility for practice through building a convincing argument that demonstrates the usefulness of research in contributing to knowledge, relevant practice and the intended target population (Fouché & De Vos, 2005:98; Fouché & Delport, 2011:107). Similarly, with this study, answering the research questions would contribute to increased knowledge base in the field of women leadership and management and improve the practice for those involved.

Knowledge generated through this study would contribute to the growth and development of rural women leadership and management as a field of practice and could also be of practical value. It is also intended to assist policy makers in determining the future direction in Women, Women Leadership and Development, including the development of Community Nutrition and Development Centres (National Policy on Food and Nutrition Security 2013:10) .

1.8 Format of the Study

Chapter one: Introduction, this chapter forms the basis of discussion for all other chapters (Anfara & Mertz, 2006:232; Strydom & Delport, 2011:287). It analyses the situation; outlines the background; describes the significance of the study; mentions statement of the problem, specifies research goal and objectives, indicates underlying research questions that the study seeks to answer.

Chapter Two: Literature Review, This chapter present is a review of a relevant literature linked to the management/leadership role by play women. It discusses both theoretical and empirical literature of the study.

Chapter Three: Research Methods, In line with what is proposed by Strydom and Delport (2011:289), a detailed description of the methodology used in the study is given; the research design is specified, methods of data collection are described and data analysis procedures are outlined

Chapter 4: Results, Discussion and interpretation of Findings; presentation and discussion of research findings; the data obtained by means of the questionnaire and the interviews is presented and discussed according to certain key topics and themes ((Strydom & Delport, 2011:289).

Chapter 5: Conclusions and Recommendations – This chapter summarises the conclusions reached based on a review of literature and empirical findings; suggestions for future research, including recommendations (Strydom & Delport, 2011:289-290).

1.9 Conclusion

This chapter provided an introduction including an overview of the study on the leadership and management role women play in the CNDC’s. It also covered various aspects of the thesis such as the background of the issue to be studies, the problem that study intended to addressed, including motivation, goals and objectives. The information on these aspects provided the basis for the researcher’s decision on the research topic and also specified its relevance and importance (Mouton, 2003:122). The study focussed on women leaders in Bojanala, their challenges, types of leaders they are and how they established themselves as leaders in community development and acquired the skills that have brought positive change to their communities despite the challenges they experience.

The next chapter discusses women in management and leadership in CNDC’s with special attention paid to how the transformational may impact on women leaders; an overview of women in leadership and management; theoretical and practical aspects; leadership styles, qualities of women leaders and community development including the leadership role of women in development

CHAPTER TWO : LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Introduction

In this chapter a thorough review of the relevant literature concerned with women in leadership management settings was undertaken as a preliminary step in the research. Primary and secondary sources were consulted to identify critical issues in past research and to establish current thinking on the subject of women in management in community development, particularly in rural setting. Such a review will provide insight into different perspectives on the subject and present a framework for further exploration as well as a basis for the identification of variables to be included in the study.

2.2 Concepts of Leadership and Management

Women have made great progress in Organisations. They make up more than half the workforce and are increasingly occupying management and senior leadership positions. The “playing field” has become more level in many industries and countries and women are able to compete directly as never before. Some companies are actively recruiting women for their boards (Winston, 2001:5). They are building programmes to move more women into the management ranks and leadership pipeline.

While the terms ‘leadership’ and ‘management’ are commonly used interchangeably, many theorists distinguish between them Van Wart (2013:556). ‘Leaders’ are expected to provide strategic direction and inspiration, initiate change, encourage new learning, and develop a distinct organisational culture, while ‘managers’ are seen to plan, implement and monitor on a more operational and administrative level. As a consequence there is a perception that management is concerned with resolving specific issues and day-today challenges, while leadership is about the big picture and promoting change Northouse (2013:5). The reality is that those people with responsibility to ensure that plans are implemented, systems are effective, and staff motivated are both leaders and managers. This overlap of roles is particularly apparent in smaller organisations where one person often has to play both roles simultaneously.

In practice leadership and management are integral parts of the same job. Both these activities need to be balanced and matched to the demands of the situation. Leadership is not just restricted to top management. Leadership skills are needed at a departmental and team level. Middle managers are commonly team or project leaders, and as such are crucial to the successful implementation of new strategies. Consequently any analysis that makes a clear distinction between managers and leaders can be misleading. Effective leaders have to demonstrate some managerial skills, and good managers display leadership qualities. There is no rigid formula as to the degree that these skills or attributes are used or displayed. In practice it depends on the judgement of the individual involved and the context in which they find themselves.

Van Wart (2013:553) and Northouse (2013:4) believes Leadership and management is a fairly new field of study and one with several possibilities especially in this age of modern management. Before moving into a detailed discussion of this issue, an exposition of the concepts ‘leadership’ and ‘management’ and how they differ from each other will be useful. Although the literature indicates that a debate exists whether leadership is synonymous with management or if a distinction exists between the two, the discussion that follows presents the latter perspective that there is a distinction between leadership and management and between a leader and a manager (Andersen, 2012:66).

Ledwith, (2011:168) ‘writes: Leadership and management are two distinctive and complementary systems of action. Each has its own function and characteristic activities, both leadership and management are necessary for success in an increasingly volatile business environment and the real challenge is to combine strong leadership and strong management and use each to balance the other management is about coping with complexity, whereas leadership is about coping with change and these different functions shape the characteristic activities of management and leadership

2.2.1The Concept of Leadership

Leadership is defined in many ways. According to Eagly A, Johannesen-Schmidt M, van Engen M: 2003:571) throughout the world leadership is generally perceived as something society needs more, at the same time it is generally misunderstood. There are at least a hundred definitions of leadership. These definitions include leadership styles, functional leadership, situational leadership, bureaucratic leadership, charismatic leadership, servant leadership, follower leadership and group-centred leadership (Winston, 2001:5). Badaracco (2002:54) defines leadership as an is exercised when persons with certain motives and purposes mobilize, in competition or conflict with others, institutional, political, psychological, and other resources to arouse, engage, and satisfy the motives of followers.

Leadership is defined by Northouse (2013:5) as a process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal. A leader therefore has influence over their followers but there is no exact reason why. This certainly contrasts with what a manager is defined as a person responsible for controlling or administering an organization or group of staff (OED, 2014). This is a very different definition, showing that managers are appointed to lead, but may not be considered to be, or consider themselves as a leader Northouse (2013:5). This means that the key differences (as according to these definitions) is that a leader is associated with influencing others as opposed to administering or controlling them, however all these traits can be found dependently or independently in either a leader or a manager.

Leadership can be defined in a variety of ways, when finding an appropriate theory the definition can be the most important aspect. The definition shows what other authors believe leadership to be and how that is integrated into the model or theory. Northouse (2013:5) has a very good basic definition; Leadership is a process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal . Northouse (2013:5) also highlights that leadership can be separated into 3 parts depending on how the reader wants to view their leader or the concept of leadership.

The first relating to the quote above, he highlights that it can be viewed as a process, which means that it is not a trait or characteristic that resides in the leader themselves, but rather the event that happens between the leader and followers. This event emphasizes that leadership is not linear, one-way event, but rather an interactive occasion. That means that when leadership is defined in this manner it is an option for everyone, it not restricted by formally designated leaders (Northouse, 2013:5). The second that he suggests is that leadership can also be seen to involve influence, which concerns how the leader affects the followers. Meaning that without influence leadership does not exist. The third viewpoint that can be taken is that leadership occurs in groups (Northouse, 2013:5; Van Wart (2013:558). Groups are the context in which leadership takes place; therefore leadership involves influencing a group of individuals who have a common purpose.

The concept of what leadership is, and how it is displayed and acted on by individuals, also depends on the researcher and how they feel that leadership comes about. Goleman, Boyatzis, and McKee (2002:270) believe that leadership can be part of a person’s natural behaviour and personality, they were effectively born to be a leader, and part can be learned from “how-to” leadership books, in various contexts. The main perspective which is taught in these books is the ability to influence others, to change organisations, provide vision, and the ability to create a consensus (Enright, 2006:104)

These different viewpoints of how leadership can come into existence reflect how people can also perceive what leadership is. For those who believe leaders are born (Andersen, 2012) they would lean more towards the influence viewpoint, focusing on that even if there is no group now, the individual has influence and will display that influence at some point. Opposing this idea is the concept of groups, considering that anyone can become a leader depending on the group that they are placed in and the goals that the group have. As well as taking into consideration the process view which highlights again that it is not an individual's traits for leadership, but it is more related to the event and how leadership is needed in that instance. All these theories of leadership can also be associated with major research eras or heydays, but they have all evolved over time in research, education and training, some more than others (Van Wart, 2013).

2.2.2 Theories of Leadership

For decades, leadership theories have been the source of numerous studies. In reality as well as in practice, many have tried to define what allows authentic leaders to stand apart from the mass! Hence, there as many theories on leadership as there are philosophers, researchers and professors that have studied and ultimately published their leadership theory (Eddy, 2009 423, Van Wart, 2013:222)

Theories are commonly categorized by which aspect is believed to define the leader the most. The most widespread one's are: Trait Theory, Behavioural Theories, Contingency Theories, Transactional Theories and Transformational Theories (Early, A., & Johannesen-Schmidt, 2003:145).

2.2.2.1 Trait Theory

The trait leadership theory believes that people are either born or are made with certain qualities that will make them excel in leadership roles. That is, certain qualities such as intelligence, sense of responsibility, creativity and other values puts anyone in the shoes of a good leader (Joiner, 2007:98).The trait theory of leadership focused on analyzing mental, physical and social characteristic in order to gain more understanding of what is the characteristic or the combination of characteristics that are common among leaders .

2.2.2.2 Behavioural Theories

Eagly, Johannesen-Schmidt, van Engen (2003:145) describe the behavioural theories focuses on the behaviours of the leaders as opposed to their mental, physical or social characteristics. Thus, with the evolutions in psychometrics, notably the factor analysis, researchers were able to measure the cause an effects relationship of specific human behaviours from leaders. From this point forward anyone with the right conditioning could have access to the once before elite club of naturally gifted leaders. In other words, leaders are made not born (Greenleaf, 2002:222).

2.2.2.3 Contingency Theories

The Contingency Leadership theory argues that there is no single way of leading and that every leadership style should be based on certain situations, which signifies that there are certain people who perform at the maximum level in certain places; but at minimal performance when taken out of their element (Eagly, Johannesen-Schmidt, van Engen 2003:145). To a certain extent contingency leadership theories are an extension of the trait theory, in the sense that human traits are related to the situation in which the leaders exercise their leadership. It is generally accepted within the contingency theories that leader are more likely to express their leadership when they feel that their followers will be responsive (Joiner, 2007:98).

2.2.2.5 Transactional leadership Theories

Transactional theories, also known as exchange theories of leadership, are characterized by a transaction made between the leader and the followers. In fact, the theory values a positive and mutually beneficial relationship (Enright, 2006:102). For the transactional theories to be effective and as a result have motivational value, the leader must find a means to align to adequately reward (or punish) his follower, for performing leader-assigned task. In other words, transactional leaders are most efficient when they develop a mutual reinforcing environment, for which the individual and the organizational goals are in sync (Eagly, Johannesen-Schmidt, van Engen 2003:143).

The transactional theorists state that humans in general are seeking to maximize pleasurable experiences and to diminish un-pleasurable experiences. Thus, we are more likely to associate ourselves with individuals that add to our strengths.

2.2.2.6 Transformational Leadership Theories

The Transformational Leadership theory states that this process is by which a person interacts with others and is able to create a solid relationship that results in a high percentage of trust, that will later result in an increase of motivation, both intrinsic and extrinsic, in both leaders and followers (Eagly, Johannesen-Schmidt, van Engen, 2003:144).

The essence of transformational theories is that leaders transform their followers through their inspirational nature and charismatic personalities. Rules and regulations are flexible, guided by group norms. These attributes provide a sense of belonging for the followers as they can easily identify with the leader and its purpose (Enright, 2006:102).

2.3 Concept of Management

Management is the combined activities of planning, decision-making and directing others (Larwood & Wood, 2007). According to Northouse (2013:20), management is more formal and scientific than leadership is. It relies on foundation skills such as planning, budget control, and making effective use of information technology. Management uses an explicit set of tools and techniques, based on reasoning and testing that can be applied in a variety of situations. Management has been given different definitions by different authors. Daft (2005:210) defines management as the process of setting and achieving goals through the execution of five basic management functions; planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling that utilize human, financial, and material resources in an efficient and effective manner.

There are a number of points to remember in this definition: first, management and managers make conscious decisions to set and achieve goals. Decision- making is a critical part of all management activities. Secondly, management is getting things done through people (Ladegaard, 2010:24). Once management acquires the financial and material resources for the organisation, it works through the organisation’s members to reach the stated objectives. Thirdly, to achieve the goals they set, managers must execute five basic functions: planning, organising, staffing, directing and controlling (Dubrin, 2001:98).

2.3.1 Levels of Management

In recent years, a significant number of women are entering in management/leadership positions. One of the most pleasing realities of the present era is that the leading talents and abilities of women are acknowledged slowly and surely. Northouse (2013:5) state that more and more women in leading positions have proved not only that they can meet the requirements of their job, completing the assumed tasks, but that they make a change at the level of perceptions in what management practices are concerned.

According to Northouse (2013:23), most organization have many different managers, across many different titles, authority levels, and levels of the management hierarchy. The role of a management in organizations is complex. While management can come in different shapes and sizes they all share the task of utilizing people and resources to achieve organizational goals. The term Levels of Management refers to a line of demarcation between various managerial positions in an organization (Crosby and Bryson, 2005:101). The number of levels in management increases when the size of the organisation and work force increases and vice versa. The level of management determines a chain of command, the amount of authority and status enjoyed by any managerial position. The levels of management can be classified in three broad categories, Top level / Administrative level, Middle level / Executory, Low level / Operative / First-line managers (Mitroussi, and Mitroussi, 2009:119).

Management in CNDC’s like in any other organisations has various levels and performs different functions. They consist of Top management, Middle Management and the lower management. Top Level of Management , is made up of board of directors, chief executive or managing director. The top management is the ultimate source of authority and manages the goals, policies and plans of the CNDC’s. It devotes more time on planning and coordinating functions (Mitroussi and Mitroussi, 2009:119). The Middle Level of Management consist of Section or departmental managers constitute middle level. They are responsible to the top management for the functioning of their department. They devote more time to organizational and directional functions. In small organization, there is only one layer of middle level of management, Lower level is also known as supervisory / operative level of management. It consists of supervisors and coordinators of the projects within the organisation. According to Northouse (2013:7) Supervisory management refers to those executives whose work has to be largely with personal oversight and direction of operative employees. In other words, they are concerned with direction and controlling function of management

2.4 Distinction between Leadership and Management

According to Northouse (2013:23), misperception between management and leadership is sometimes identified, it is necessary to distinguish the ways in which management and leadership are different. Women managers tend to work within defined bounds of known quantities, using well-established techniques to accomplish predetermined ends; the manager tends to stress means and neglect ends. Bennis and Thomas (2002:201) are of the opinion that the woman leader’s task is to hold before all persons connected with the centre, some vision of what the organisation’s mission is and how it can be reached effectively. Like managers, there are leaders throughout the organisations (Ladegaard, 2010:25).

Mitroussi & Mittroussi, (2009:497) says that leaders master the context rather than surrender to it and makes a distinction between managers and leaders. This distinction appears clearly in the table that follows. The clear distinction between a leader and a manager is an organisational consensus on overall goals in the context of a vision. According to Mitroussi & Mittroussi, (2009:496) by focusing attention on a vision, the leader operates on the emotional and spiritual resources of the organisation, on its values, commitment and aspirations.

The manager, as Middlehurst (2012:88) mention by contrast, operates on the physical resources of the organisation, its capital, human skills, raw materials, and technology. As they put it, any competent manager can make it possible for people to earn a living and see to it that work is done productively and efficiently, on schedule, and with a high level of quality. It remains for the effective leader, however, to help people in the organisation know pride and satisfaction in their work.

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Table2.1 Distinction between Manager and Leaders, Source: (Badaracco, 2002:54)

2.5. Women and Leadership

The study of women and leadership/management is a recent phenomenon, chiefly because historically, leadership has been concerned with the study of political leadership, of “great men” who defined power, authority, and knowledge (Mitroussi & Mittroussi, 2009:510). Leadership as Van Wart (2013:556) is generally associated with men and with male styles of behaviour, and because women have not been in leadership positions in great numbers, the mental image of a leader held by most people is male. Mitroussi & Mittroussi, (2009:511) notes that most leadership research prior to the 1980’s was carried out by men and dealt almost exclusively with male leaders, because women were largely absent in the study of leadership, much of our knowledge of leadership has been derived from the description and analysis of male leaders reported by male researchers. Leadership has been synonymous with masculinity (Van Wart, 2013:552).

The concept of leadership is strongly embedded in gender stereotypes, and as Phendla (2009:99) observes: the language of leadership has masculine connotations, images of leaders are often male heroes and popular contexts for leadership encompass traditionally masculine scenarios common perceptions of appropriate leadership behaviours also carry stereotypically masculine overtones: of command and control, of autocracy and dominance, or personal power or charisma, decisiveness, initiative and courage because management and leadership have for long been predominantly male enclaves, the picture of the ideal manager is grounded in masculine attributes (Phendla, 2009:99).

Leadership in this century demands different skills, the type most commonly associated with women, which comprise abilities to:

- empower others and fill them with enthusiasm;
- build informal networks and coalitions;
- be flexible and responsive to customer and client needs;
- nurture and develop individuals;
- be willing to share information and operate in an open and transparent manner; and
- Articulate core values and so develop culture through the creation of shared meaning (Phendla 2009:102, Ladegaard, 2010:19).

It is widely recognised that women have alternative ways of problem-solving and dealing with conflict. Helgesen (2014:54) focussed on the extent to which orthodox leadership theory is applicable to the needs of women managers and points out that in the past, leadership studies have focused almost entirely on the behaviour of male managers.

Studies on the leadership styles of women suggest that women tend to adopt more democratic and participative management styles than males. They share power and information and support and encourage subordinates. Women managers are said to be persuasive, influential and charismatic and make extensive use of interpersonal skills.

Helgesen (2014:57) also points out that Malaysian studies on the leadership attributes of men and women in universities have found that women are more consultative and conciliatory, avoid conflict, and are more likely to be task oriented than their male colleagues. She adds that women in leadership in universities are often described as co-operative, team-oriented, collaborative, fair and contextual, whereas men are described as competitive, hierarchical, winning, rational, cold and principled Furthermore the guiding principles of women leaders of further education colleges in the UK are listed as:

- Valuing and motivating; women leaders value leaders and fellow workers and including motiving young female students.
- Team working and decision-making; Women leaders are eager to work together with leaders and they to take decision that will benefit all
- Listening; more students find women leaders ready to listen to their challenges.
- Accountability; Honesty and integrity; It was found that many women leaders act with integrity, and are honest in their work and also trusted much more than men
- Equality of opportunity and empowerment;
- Commitment to community; women leaders creates group commitment and encourages the subordinates to reach their organisational goals
- Staff development (Stott & Lawson 1997 cited in Hall 2002:24).

2.6. Women leadership and leading styles

There are a various different leadership theories which can be used to describe the style of different leaders, Van Wart (2013:553) sums up an overview of most theories quite well into these categories:

- Classical management and role theory;
- Transactional leadership theory;
- Transformational leadership theory;
- Horizontal or collaborative leadership theory; and
- Laissez-faire leadership theory (source).

There are few types of leadership that this thesis will focus on, that is Transformational leadership, Transactional leadership and the perspectives from which a manager is using their style to influence the workforce and motivate them (Caughron & Mumford, 2011:349).

These managers in this instance are also leaders and can be treated as such. The reason that the focus will be on these styles is due to the extensive existing literature which associates these styles with feminine and masculine traits. The literature will be investigated closer in following sections. Each of these classic theories is defined in various ways by many different authors, but many of them share similar characteristics and motivations from the leader. (Haines, 2009:67) asserts that focus is placed on transformational and transactional leadership styles, the reasoning behind this is that styles such as horizontal and collaborative can be seen as elements of transformational and transactional. Horizontal is more focused on getting results from the subordinates while trying to please their managers, thinking little of the organisation as a whole, these are similar characteristics to transactional leadership style. Similarly with collaborative, this can be seen as a transformational approach as it focuses on team work and encouraging growth in the employees (Ladegaard, 2010:19)

Leadership Styles

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Table 2.2 Definitions of transformational, transactional and Laisse –Faire leadership styles Source: (Eagly et al., 2003, p. 571).

2.6.1 Transformational Leadership

In recent years, Ladegaard (2010:43) transformational and transactional leadership construct has become a popular theme in leadership literature in the general management domain. It has been defined by some authors as visionary leadership. Leaders applying this form of leadership style are stated to be involved with change within their communities’. The leaders also focus on issues involving matters of support, directing and coordinating goals or purpose that has been set up by the organisations or communities in order to increase the work effort.

Linstead, Fulop and Lilley (2004:163) states that in transformational leadership that is mainly led by women. Weyer, (2007:490) postulates that transformational leadership style emphasises motivation among subordinates, which creates group commitment and encourages the subordinates to reach their organisational goals. The way of pursuing organisational goals can be explained in the management style that is based on the visioning the future, communication, and the implementation (Eagly and Johannessen- Schmidt, 2003:595). The way transformational leaders differ from the other leadership style is based on managing personal qualities rather than using ones positions. This creates pros for women , since from the early age, are taught to be caring rather than command and take control which is the trait more common in men. Transactional leadership is based on exchanges between the leader and followers where followers are rewarded for meeting specific goals or performance criteria (Linstead et al., 2004:168).

Transformational is seen by (Caughron and Mumford, 2011:350) to be charismatic and visionary in nature, and leaders lead and motivate followers in ways beyond exchanges and rewards. Transformational leadership is generally held to be a superior form of leadership, built on transactional leadership, but not vice-versa.

There is a line of argument in leadership literature contending that female leaders tend to be more transformational than male leaders (Debebe, 2011:221).This argument is based on the idea that transformational leadership emphasizes the nurturing of subordinates and the process of socialization. The nurturing qualities of women are particularly well developed in comparison to men (Friedman 2009:206).

Transformational leadership requires a great deal of passion, commitment, energy and insight (Van Wart, 2013: 558). Phendla, (2009:99) bring in the key needs for a transformational leader: charisma, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation and individualized consideration. Van Wart, (2013: 558) concludes from these remarks that it would very hard for an egotistical person to be a transformational leader. There have been similarities in skills and methods used in both transformational leadership and supportive leadership, as the latter is found to instil confidence in their team. As opposed to coercive leadership which instils more confidence and responsibility in the leader (Caughron & Mumford, 2011: 350).

There are many different styles of leadership as was mentioned earlier. In the full range, transformational leaders inspire employees to go beyond the call of duty, foster creative solutions to problems, serve as mentors, create vision, and articulate plans for achieving their visions (Van Wart, 2013:558). This is demonstrated in Table 2; the measurement of transformational leadership encompasses several sub scales, typically inspirational motivation, two aspects of idealized influence (attributes and behaviour), intellectual stimulation, and individualized consideration. In contrast, (Caughron & Mumford, 2011: 350) transactional leadership entails establishing exchange relationships by rewarding subordinates for a job well done and punishing them for mistakes.

The final leadership style, “laissez-faire” is marked by a general failure to take responsibility. Vinkenburg, Van Engen, Eagly, A.H., & Johannesen-Schmidt, (2011:10). Despite the controversy about gender and leadership, research on how women lead is growing. Haines, (2009:99) view Leadership style as a composite of relatively stable patterns of behaviour that are manifested by leaders. Work on female leadership style tends to conclude that women are better community leaders than men (Phendla, 2009:99).This claim is justified in terms of women’s relationships, teaching, caring and community building. In a Greek study, on leadership interpreted women’s leadership more positively than men’s leadership. They argued that women lead more flexibly, intuitively and holistically (Enright, 2006:104). Some argue that women embrace superior leadership styles (Friedman, 2009:206).The debate about whether or not women have a unique leadership style is an interesting area in leadership research

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Figure 1. Provides An Overview Of The Main Features Of Transformational Leadership . Source: (Clarke, 2009:213)

2.6.2 Inherent features of Transformational Leaders

A distinctive characteristic of transformational leadership, according to Magner, 2008:132 is the communication of a vision as a vehicle for motivating others. Clarke (2009:213) contends articulating the vision entails dialogue and conversation. Dialogue is described by McKeown (2008:452) as an interchange of ideas on a specific topic. Opportunities must be created for individuals to meet in order to discuss and share opinions, so that an environment of trust can be created (Clarke, 2009:213). Friedman (2009:206) states that creative leaders motivate all role-players to view difficulties in a fresh manner by requesting all individuals to be collectively involved in the process of change. They begin to function as a unit, and their interactive relationships secure trust, which is evident of a spirit of willingness to take risks.

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Figure 2: Bass’s Model of Transformational Leader

Source: (Gill, 2006:212).

According to Magner (2008:131), Transformational leaders capture the trust of people through coaching, inspiring and empowering others (Laurent & Bradney, 2007:123). Empowerment is described as having reliability, fulfilment in achievements, and influence over what and how to do things, acknowledgement for opinions and suggestions, and the confidence that one is being valued and appreciated. Recently, empowerment has been expanded to incorporate aspects such as sharing control, invigorating workers, “self-efficacy” and strengthening possibilities for intrinsic motivation (Gill, 2006:211). Singh and Lokotsch (2005:282) offer a similar explanation, stating that empowerment essentially means distributing power.

Empowerment implies viewing every individual as a leader, enhancing collaboration and making others stronger by encouraging participation. This entails capacities such as to hold one’s own or to subsist; the generation of modifications by leaders and followers; the use of influence; and ensuring that others are developed (Singh & Lokotsch, 2005:282). Empowerment also encapsulates the two tenets, of transformational leadership, namely individualised consideration and intellectual stimulation, as described in the above Bass‟s model (Gill, 2006:212).

2.6.3. Collaborative, participative and instructional leadership

According to Lyman et al (2009:99), women prefer teamwork, and tend to be more accessible, caring and supportive. They emphasize students’ learning achievement through instructional leadership (Coleman, 2003: 42). Numerous studies have shown that women employ a collaborative and participative leadership style. When adopting this style, women encourage inclusiveness and use collaborative decision-making (Lyman et al., 2009). One way of interpreting women leaders’ effectiveness is the higher standard they have to meet in attaining their leadership positions and the perception that they have to maintain better performance to retain these roles Friedman (2009:206). However, few researchers explain why these styles are more likely to be embraced by women. It could be argued that the positive women’s stereotype as “nurturing, caring and people orientated” might account for it (Coleman, 2003:40). Coleman (2003:46) seems to believe that it is due to being in the field of education, which is an environment that predisposes its leaders towards a more democratic and participative style.

According to Weyer (2007:485), female gender roles are identified with communal behaviours such as nurturing, supporting others and being helpful. In contrast, leadership roles have been associated with particular agentic characteristics such as “assertiveness, ambition, competing for attention, and making problem-focused suggestions” Incongruity appears when women leaders act in contradiction to their gender role stereotypes or typical leader roles. Consequently, their behaviours may be evaluated negatively due to their subordinates’ prejudice. Friedman (2009:206) further explain that in order for a woman’s leadership to be accepted by subordinates, she needs to placate them by involving them in decision making. Interestingly, this is not found in leaders who behave more directively

Blackmore (2003:57) characterise style as more than just typical behaviour, but as being affected by such situational constraints as role demands, which are related to the leader’s level in the organisation and the expectations of followers. Style also is a function of the particular followers with whom the leader interacts. Although it is a general belief that women have a different leadership style to men, some researchers (Rhode: 2003:18) think it may be a problem to lump all women together and treat them as if they were a ‘homogeneous group’ without considering differences such as race, class, beliefs, ethnicity, age and sexual orientation. In other words, all women are not the same and as Rhode puts it, sweeping generalisations about women’s experience risk over-claiming and over-simplifying (Rhode 2003:18). These wide generalisations have to do with what Blackmore refers to as the popular discourse about women’s’ leadership being flexible, democratic, valuing openness, trust and compassion, ‘humane and efficient (Blackmore 2003:57).

Friedman (2009:206) attests to the existence of differences in leadership priorities between black and white women leaders. For black women, the overall aim of management is the promotion of racial justice, whereas for white senior managers, the priority is to manage effective. Whilst it cannot be denied that women have certain leadership qualities that are different from men’s, such as the prevalent one of ‘caring and nurturing’, studies conducted so far have not yet provided conclusive evidence about the dichotomy between male and female leadership styles. Some of the most widely cited features of male and female interaction styles are summarized by Holmes (2006:6).

What some studies (Caughron & Mumford, 2011: 352) been able to reveal is that women seem to have styles of leadership better suited to certain contexts than others. For instance, Blackmore (2003:57) thinks that the popular discourse about women’s style of leadership is seemingly convergent with ‘new’ and softer management discourses that focus upon good people management as the new source of productivity in post-modern organisations.

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Table 3 Male and Female Interaction Styles; Source: (Holmes, 2006:6)

Studies have found that women leaders tend to have transformational leadership styles which make them more suitable leaders in the new environment which emphasises teamwork and where fresh values and visions are promoted and pursued as Kotler (2009:27) argue, positional power and the purse-strings are used to promote conformity to corporate objectives.

Bass (2000:186) contends that the tendency of women in leadership positions is somewhat more transformational than their male counterparts. Evidence from a New Zealand survey of two samples of leaders using the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) found that women were rated higher for transformational leadership than their male counterparts. Other evidence gathered using the MLQ from four investigations between 1986 and 1992 supports the conclusion, according to Friedman (2009:218) that women display more transformational and less transactional leadership than males. Women are also more likely to structure flat organisations and to emphasise frequent contact and sharing of information (Bass, 2004:8). Bass gives various explanations for the male-female differences in transformational leadership (Bass, 2004:77-8):

- Differences may be due to the tendency for women to be more nurturing;
- Women tend to be more understanding of the needs of their followers and attempt to develop them to higher levels;
- Women tend to be more sensitive or ‘feeling’ – more interested in others than their male counterparts and more socially sensitive;
- Women highlight responsibility and care when reasoning morally, whereas men highlight rights and justice; and
- Women tend to be less self-serving and authoritarian than men (source).

2.7 Women Leadership Behaviours

In the climate of transformation in community development management, cultures, as well as organisational structures feminine qualities are being increasingly appreciated. Although male values of management and leadership still dominate in organisations (Phendla, 2009:233), womanly merits are growing in importance as organisations now emphasise teamwork, participation and empowerment of others. It seems therefore that contemporary management and leadership roles are highly suited to women because they have family-style skills of mutual trust and tolerance along with good communication skills. It looks as if a more feminine approach to leadership is required by today’s flatter organisational structures which emphasise female qualities of caring and concern for others. Helgesen (2003:33) sees the ideals of leadership as the traditional lone hero being increasingly replaced by a new kind of managerialism which values a combination of efficiency and humaneness. Women’s leadership qualities and their propensity to be good communicators, to have good relationship skills, to be active and analytic listeners and negotiators define the new order.

According to Caughron and Mumford (2011:350) male managers are more likely than female managers to find it difficult to relinquish the “control and command” type of leadership in favour of the softer skills and values which are believed to be in demand in contemporary management. In academic organisations, the ‘command and control’ models of leadership have little or no importance as there are other more suitable models to substitute or neutralise this model (Laconia, 2002:189). Robbins, Judge, Odendaal, & Roodt, (2009:254) gives a summary of the differences between male and female leadership styles,

Women tend to use a more democratic leadership style. They encourage participation, share power and information, and attempt to enhance followers’ self-worth. They prefer to lead through inclusion and rely on their charisma, expertise, contacts, and interpersonal skills to influence others. Men, on the other hand, are more likely to use a directive command-and-control style (Helgesen, 2003:37). They rely on the formal authority of their managerial position for their influence base. In today’s organisations, flexibility, teamwork, trust and information sharing are replacing rigid structures, competitive individualism, control, and secrecy. The best leaders listen, motivate, and provide support to their people. Many women seem to do these things better than men. Robbins et al. (2009:254) argues that the leadership styles women typically use can make them better at negotiating. Qualities of women leadership observed is characterised by participative leadership, empowerment, team building, collective work, vision creation and hands on supervision.

2.8 Concept of Community Development

In most communities in rural South Africa, community development involves a holistic approach to local resources and talent to develop sustainable solutions, with core programming centred on community farming, child care, health related, job creation, and food security etcetera. Through these programmes, the aim to break the cycle of generational poverty that exists in rural areas by empowering people with the knowledge, skills, and confidence to make positive contributions to their communities (Aref and Ma’rof 2009:110) .

The concept of Community development is defined by McCright and Terry (2006:90) as a process concerned with the improvement as well as the transformation of social, mental, economic, and institutional and environment condition of the communities through the mobilisation and rational utilisation of their material and institutional resources as to enhance their capacity to cope with their daily task and demands of modern times (Aref and Ma’rof 2009:110).

According to Gilchrist (2009:122) development implies total improvement of the individual, his/ her milieu and environment. Aref and Ma’rof (2009:110) asserts that development is about people, it’s about quality of life of people and their capacity to improve the conditions of their existence to reach control and utilise their resources for greater productivity and enjoyment It is about the autonomy and self-respect of the individuals as a free member of his community. It is brought about by people.

Community development involves a lot of multi-sectoral activities such as the improvement in agriculture, the promotion of rural industrial activities as well as the establishment of appropriate decentralized structures in order to allow for mass participation in the development process McCright and Terry (2006:34). Aref and Ma’rof (2009:110), provide the objectives development to include:

- To increase employment;
- To maximize the personal incomes of the rural folk;
- To uplift the general heath of the rural folk;
- To provide technical works and knowledge to the rural dwellers;
- To maximize the productivity of the average rural person on and his family; and
- To inculcate civic awareness, commitment, involvement and loyalty in the citizen (Aref and Ma’rof (2009:110).

Community development cannot be achieved without the collective efforts of the people. It produces an environment where people can exercise their full potentials to lead fruitful, ingenious lives (Daft, 2005:98). It seeks the empowerment of local communities, taken to mean both geographical communities, communities of interest or identity and communities organising around specific themes or policy initiatives (Jiang and Carroll, 2009:210). It strengthens the capacity of people as active citizens through their community groups, organisations and networks; and the capacity of institutions and agencies (public, private and non-governmental) to work in dialogue with citizens to shape and determine change in their communities (Jiang and Carroll 2009:212). Community development plays a crucial role in supporting active democratic life by promoting the autonomous voice of disadvantaged and vulnerable communities. It has a set of core values/social principles covering human rights, social inclusion, equality and respect for diversity; and a specific skills and knowledge base (Daft, 2005:98).

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Figure 3. Community Development Model, Source: Meshack (2004:63)

Good community development as Gilchrist (2009:123) put it, is an action that helps people to recognise and develop their ability and potential and organise themselves to respond to problems and needs which they share. It supports the establishment of strong communities that control and use assets to promote social justice and help improve the quality of community life. It also enables community and public agencies to work together to improve the quality of government. The figure 3 above demonstrates how a community works as depicted by Meshack (2004:63). It present how individual identifies a need or concern, then began to explore and share with others who with the similar interest, continue to express and address the concern, which ultimately grows to be community issue.

Jiang and Carroll (2009:212) provided a more comprehensive definition of community development. It is a process of community activities that are planned and organized in such a way so as to raise the quality of life in the community in terms of economy, social, culture, spiritual and the environment through initiatives and active participation of the community members and with minimum outside help. This study also referred to a definition forwarded

Rosette & Tost, (2010:159). He defined community development as the active voluntary involvement of community residents in a process to improve some identifiable aspects of community life. Kirk and Shutte (2004:111) suggested a community development model that is more collaborative and comprehensive in nature that comprises of three components: Leading change through dialogue, collective empowerment and connective leadership.

2.8.1. Community Based and Driven Development

According to Gaventa (2009:10) Community development focuses on training and educating communities to find lasting solutions to the challenges they face such as hunger, poverty and disease. It empowers communities for long term instead of creating dependency. Molm, Collett, & Schaefer, (2007:145) believes that the spirit of community development is self-efficiency of individuals in the community. In Bojanala, community development has been on discourse for many years, but due to the challenges faced, its maximum goals are yet to be actualized. Central to the challenges of community development is the issue of leadership which believed to pose a threat to successful community development, citizens’ participation, mobilization and involvement in decision making in community development projects Gaventa (2009:2).

Community development occurs when people strengthen the bounds within their neighbourhoods, build social networks, and form their own organizations to provide a long-term capacity for problem solving (Rubin and Rubin, 200l: 70). Community members who have the capacity to do something to enhance their quality of life are portrayed as having the ability to think, to decide, to plan and to take action in determining their lives. It is often argued that, in any community development programme both economic and individual growth must be given equal attention so as to ensure that the process of community development achieves its due balance, continuity and sustainability through its leadership structure.

Various community development literature have been dedicated to community leaders and their role in local communities. Fariborz, Aref; and Zahid, (2009:79) states that a community without leadership may not be equipped to mobilize resources or influence tourism planning which obviously is also an aspect of community development. They further argued that, local communities, like other organizations cannot progress successfully without active and dynamic leaders who are willing and able to take initiative.

Community leadership theory provides for a human element of community interaction that is often lost within other definitions (Fariborz, Aref; and Zahid, 2009:79). According to Greenleaf's (2004:77) definition, a community leader operating under transformational leadership begins with the feeling or desire to serve first, followed by the conscious choice to lead. This is illustrated by those leaders dedicated to the community and improving it for future community members, not for leadership notoriety. Within this theoretical framework, Laub (2004:102) identifies Community leader as one who values people, develops people, builds community, displays authenticity, provides leadership, and shares leadership. Thus, the more community leaders share power with community members, leading them to feel empowered, the more likely these same leaders have a strong vision and are open to community change in the future.

2.8.2 Women Leadership in Community Development

Moolenaar and Sleegers (2010:121) states that community developments cannot succeed if it does not involve women and take advantage of their potentials more especially in rural South Africa. Bass (2004:102) believes that the best and perhaps the only way to achieve sustainable rural development in South Africa is to orientate it towards the people living in the rural areas, working with their full participation and focusing on the process the unique attributes of women (Ledwith 2011:168).

Women’s fundamental contributions on their household’s food production and national economics are increasingly acknowledged within Africa and by the maturational community (Ledwith, 2011:168). This is due in no small part of African women’s own energetic efforts to organize, and articulate their concerns and make their voices heard. At both the grassroots and national levels, more women’s associations have been formed since the 1990s, taking advantage of the new political opening to assert their leadership roles (Moody & Paxton, 2009: 221). By improving their own positions, they are simultaneously strengthening African society as a whole as well as enhancing the continent’s broader development prospects (Fick, Meintjes, & Simons, 2002:45).

Many rural women belong to all-women mutual-aid societies, benevolent groups in churches, cooperatives and market women group (Fick, et al 2002:47) some of these groups allow women to pool resources to reduce their workload and to invest in saving societies or cooperation ventures. These cooperative societies have provided women access to resources. From the pre-colonial period till date women have contributed their own quota to give room for development. Their activities were in agriculture, poultry making, health care and spiritual service (Marthur-Helm, 2007:105).

The role of women in community development is crucial to the health of a society. According to Greenleaf (2002:67), women make many of the decisions that determine a household's participation in the community, including healthcare, educational, and cultural decisions. In parts of the world where women's rights are still developing, the role of women in the development of a community can be the key to reducing gender inequality, providing for the needs of women and families, and ending centuries of discrimination against women.

When women are involved in the issues of women’s education, rights, food security, and economic opportunities for women, they stand a greater chance of reducing inequality and promoting a fair society (Marthur-Helm, 2007:57). In communities where the role of women has been traditionally marginalized, it may take strong, vocal, and persistent female participation to insist that these issues be addressed for the betterment of society.

2.8.3 Community Development and Nutrition Centres

In 2013, the South African adopted the Household Food and Nutrition Plan and Strategy to mitigate the food insecurity challenges the country is faced (National Policy on Food and Nutrition Security, 2013:10). Through partnering with Non-Government Organisations (NGO) and Community Based Organisation, funding was made available to set up such centres throughout the country National DSD with Community Based Organisations in Bojanala Platinum District Municipalities to set up such feeding centres. Currently there are about 212 of the CNDC’s in the country and 16 in the Northwest Province and 4 in Bojanala District Municipality.

Community Nutrition and Development Centre’s (CNDC’s) are social protection food access centres developed by Department of Social Development in South Africa to provide the poor and vulnerable access to food. These Centre owned and operated by local community-based organisations (CBOs), aimed at providing cooked nutritious meals to vulnerable and food insecure members of the community in a shared space. The centre has a kitchen and enough space equipped with cooking and catering equipment. The meals are served during lunchtime, five days a week. Beneficiaries participating in are seated at tables and enjoy a nutritious meal served with appropriate cutlery and crockery. A weekly menu is provided, posted in the facility and reflects the meals cooked for that week (The household food and Nutrition Security Strategy 2013:10)

2.9 Conclusion

The literature review attempted to define what leadership is and presented the theoretical implications thereof, including the transformational leadership role women play in community development. It also present the role manager and leaders do, their challenges and contributions. This chapter has considered various aspects of leadership in relation to the role of women leadership and management in general. Having looked at the impact of the transformational leadership in women leaders, the discussion continued to include women in leadership by examining aspects of leadership study such as the distinction between leadership and management, and female leadership style. Moody & Paxton, (2009: 221) take the view that there is a distinction between leadership and management and leaders and managers respectively. The female leadership style was discussed within the context of a changing management culture and shown to be more suitable than male leadership style as it seems to be convergent with new and softer management discourses.

The literature reviewed in this chapter has highlighted the debate concerning leadership especially female leadership style. It may be concluded that women in management face the same dilemmas as their male counterparts. Nevertheless women encounter additional dilemmas because of their gender. Their leadership style may be viewed with suspicion if it does not conform to the accepted leadership schema, yet in this new age of management there are calls for the very female leadership qualities and behaviour which is perceived as weak. Women managers and leaders can only help themselves and those under them by exercising the kind of leadership and management style that comes most naturally to them.

In chapter three the author details the research design and methodology used to study the experiences of women in leadership and management in Bojanala CNDC’s selected for this study. The topic under discussion begins with the theoretical foundation of quantitative methodology followed by the choice of data collection method and the design of the study including the sample population. This includes the selection of the informants and how they were located, the instrument development, data collection and lastly, the analysis plan.

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 Introduction

Most research is based on some underlying philosophical assumptions about what constitutes 'valid' research and which research method(s) is/are appropriate for the development of knowledge in a given study Babbie and Mouton (2010:74). In order to conduct and evaluate any research, it is therefore important to know what these assumptions are. This chapter discusses the philosophical assumptions and also the design strategies underpinning this research study. Common philosophical assumptions were reviewed and presented; the interpretive paradigm was identified for the framework of the study. In addition, the chapter discusses the research methodologies, and design used in the study including strategies, instruments, and data collection and analysis methods, while explaining the stages and processes involved in the study.

3.2 The Research Philosophy

A research philosophy is a belief about the way in which data about a phenomenon should be gathered, analysed and used (Bell 2005:154). Two major research philosophies have been identified in the Western tradition of science, namely positivist and interpretivist (De Vos, 2005:113).

3.2.1 Positivism (Quantitative)

Positivists believe that reality is stable and can be observed and described from an objective viewpoint (Delport and Roestenburg, 2011:189) i.e. without interfering with the phenomena being studied. Quantitative methods emphasize objective measurements and the statistical, mathematical, or numerical analysis of data collected through polls, questionnaires, and surveys, or by manipulating pre-existing statistical data using computational techniques (Dale and Newman, 2010:105). They contend that phenomena should be isolated and that observations should be repeatable. This often involves manipulation of reality with variations in only a single independent variable so as to identify regularities in, and to form relationships between, some of the constituent elements of the social world.

3.2.2 Phenomenological Research Strategies (Qualitative)

Qualitative research originated in phenomenology, which views social reality as distinctive and exclusive (Ary, Jacobs, Razavieh and Sorensen, 2006:25). This method views human beings and their world as so interrelated that the one is dependent on the other to exist (Ary et al., 2006:25). Groenewald (2004:5) holds that describe is the key word in phenomenology. The objective of the research is to give an exact or precise explanation of the event, as well as stating the facts as truthfully as possible. Making sense of “social and psychological” events from the frame of reference of the respondents is significant to the researcher. What is also of interest to the researcher are what Groenewald (2004:5) refers to as the lived experiences.

The purpose of the phenomenological approach is to illuminate the specific, to identify phenomena through how they are perceived by the actors in a situation. In the human sphere this normally translates into gathering ‘deep’ information and perceptions through inductive, qualitative methods such as interviews, discussions and participant observation, and representing it from the perspective of the research participant(s) (Burns and Grove (2003:201).Thus, phenomenology is an attempt to describe lived experiences without making previous assumptions about the objective reality of those experiences (Holloway, 2005:47). Phenomenology is concerned with the study of experience from the perspective of the individual, ‘bracketing’ taken-for-granted assumptions and usual ways of perceiving.

A variety of methods can be used in phenomenologically-based research, including interviews, conversations, participant observation, action research, focus meetings and analysis of personal texts. If there is a general principle involved it is that of minimum structure and maximum depth, in practice constrained by time and opportunities to strike a balance between keeping a focus on the research issues and avoiding undue influence by the researcher (Dale and Newman, 2010)

Qualitative methods is chosen and used in this research to understand the experiences and attitudes of Respondents. These methods aim to answer questions about the ‘what’, ‘how’ or ‘why’ of a phenomenon rather than ‘how many’ or ‘how much’, which are answered by quantitative methods aim is to understand how a community or individuals within it perceive a particular issue, then qualitative methods are often appropriate.

3.3 Research Design

Maree (2007:70) defines a research design as a formula or procedure based on the researcher’s notional beliefs, which describes the choice of participants, the approaches to be employed to gather information, as well as how the data will be anatomised. De Vos, Strydom, Fouché and Delport (2005:268) view the word design as associated with strategies, methods, approaches and traditions of inquiry. De Vos et al. (2005:268) use the word “paradigms” instead of design when alluding to the researcher’s choice of techniques to be employed to investigate a specific situation. De Vos et al. (2005:268) interpret “design” as the complete investigation approach. Babbie and Mouton (2010:74) states is a plan or a blue print of how the research is to be conducted, research methodology refers to systematic methodological and accurate execution of that design. Welman, Kruger and Mitchell (2005:52), specified that the research design guides the researcher on how to obtain data about the research phenomenon from the focus group participants or respondents.

According to Mouton (2008:107), the main function of a research design is to enable the researcher to anticipate what the appropriate research decisions are likely to be, and to maximise the validity of the eventual results. The relevant data are collected, which in the context of the current study focus on the role of women played in Bojanala and the implications thereof for in their leadership and management in the development of the CNDC’s.

The various designs are highlighted below:

- Causal-comparative research: attempts to determine the cause or consequences of differences that already exist between or among groups of individuals.
- Correlational research: a specific type of non-experimental design used to describe the relationship between or among variables
- Explanatory research: research conducted for a problem that has not been clearly defined. It often occurs before we know enough to make conceptual distinctions or posit an explanatory relationship
- Descriptive research: used to describe characteristics of a population or phenomenon being studied. It does not answer questions about how/when/why the characteristics occurred.
- Exploratory research: it is research conducted for a problem that has not been clearly defined

3.3.1 Descriptive research

For the purse of this research, Descriptive research was utilised. Marlow (2005:333) defines descriptive research as a process of recording and reporting phenomena; not primarily concerned with causes. Pierson and Thomas (2010:440) and Royse (2011:27) see descriptive studies as larger-scale numerical efforts that attempt to characterise, for instance, age, income and family size, to understand, to illuminate and to gain a detailed picture of patterns of a particular group, such as the leadership, to differentiate them from other phenomena, or to accurately describe programme activities.

Descriptive research in this study intended to provide a picture of a situation as it naturally happens. It may be used to justify current practice and make judgment and also to develop theories. A descriptive approach in data collection in qualitative research gives the ability to collect accurate data on and provide a clear picture of the phenomenon under study (Mouton & Marais 2010:43-44). In the present study, the descriptive approach was particularly appropriate because an accurate and authentic description was required of the experiences of women involved in the CNDC’s, their characteristics, style of leadership including qualities they shown.

3.4 Research Strategies

3.4.1 Interviews

Basit (2010:99-100) states that interviews are regarded as the most widespread method of collecting data, using an interpretive paradigm in a qualitative inquiry. An interview is described as an exchange of opinions between two or more individuals on a subject of common interest conducted by one person who wishes to obtain “information” from the other person (Bogdan & Biklen, 2003:94).The purpose of using interviews as a data gathering method is not to make generalisations, but to allow the researcher to explore the perceptions and experiences of the interviewee (Basit, 2010:100). Some qualitative researchers use interviews as the main data collection technique; others may use interviews while simultaneously using other techniques, such as observation (Bogdan & Biklen, 2003:95). The objective here is to collect detailed data in the exact words of the participant, to allow the researcher to generate an appreciation of the respondents‟ interpretation of “some piece of the world” (Bogdan & Biklen, 2003:95).

Bell (2005:157) expresses a similar view to Basit (2010:212), stating that one of the prime benefits of using interviews is their versatility and flexibility. The advantages or benefits of interviews have been contrasted with questionnaires by Bell (2005:157).

In this study interview strategy was utilises to exploit information and thoughts of interviewees, scrutinise answers and examine opinions and emotions, which is impossible when using questionnaires.The matters raised are recorded and subsequently analysed Interviews are very flexible.

3.5 Target Population

A population is described as a group of individuals who possess specific characteristics and from which a sample is drawn to determine the parameters or characteristics (Creswell & Plano Clark, 2007:112; Maree & Pietersen, 2007:172. Schurink (2004:45) considers the term target population to refer to the intended population covered by a study in a specific geographical area such as country, region and town in terms of the age group and gender.

In this research, the study population consists of 4 Community Nutrition and Development Centre projects in which women of Bojanala are involved. Each project consists of about fifteen (15) members. Approximately sixty (60) women are involved in community development activities which comprise projects that provide food to more than 600 beneficiaries, including other projects such as sewing, gardening, education, assisting with enabling documents such as ID’s birth Certificate etcetera.

This study is conducted in the Bojanala Platinum District Municipality (BPDM), situated in the north-eastern part of North West Province.

3.6 Sampling

A sample size is defined by Coleman (2003:34) to refer to the number of representatives respondents selected for interview from a research population. The number depends on the accuracy needed, population size, population heterogeneity and resources available. Schurink, (2004:45), defines a sampling frame as the actual list of sampling units from which the sample is selected. (Pope, Lovell & Brandl, 2001:369) defines a sampling frame as the actual list of sampling units from which the sample is selected. Each project consists of about fifteen (15) members. Approximately sixty (60) women are involved in community development activities. The sample size for this study was 20 respondents. The participants are drawn as follows: Out of each of the four (4) centres, approximately (5) members per centre were interviewed which means that the total number of those women who were involved in projects was twenty (20).

Therefore participants were chosen by means of ‘purposeful’ sampling, which is a strategy to choose small groups or individuals likely to be knowledgeable and informative about the phenomena of interest (McMillan & Schumacher 1993:413).

The participants were selected because of their position and their years of service in that capacity. They were all women leaders in the CNDC’s who had been such for at least two years

3.7 The Research Instrument

The most common instruments for data collection in qualitative research are interviews, observations, and review of documents (Creswell, 2009b; Locke, Silverman, & Spirduso, 2010:183).

3.8.1 Interviews

Seale, Giampietro, Gubrium and Silverman (2004:210) define an interview as a social encounter where speakers collaborate in producing retrospective and prospective accounts or versions of their past or future actions, experiences, feelings and thoughts. Two types of interviews were used in this study, namely focus group interviews and unstructured interviews.

3.8.2 Group interviews

In this study five (5) Focus groups were organised and conducted in the five (5) CNDC’s with women leadership. Each focus group consisted of three women leaders all from one area. These participants were selected because they are part of the leadership at various management levels and have certain characteristics in common that relate to the role women leaders play in the community. According to Rabiee (2004:655), a focus group interview is a technique involving the use of in-depth group interviews in which participants are selected because they are a purposive, although not necessarily representative sampling of a specific population, this group being focused on a given topic. Lewis (2005:188) defines a focus group interview as a carefully planned discussion designed to obtain perceptions in a defined area of interest in a permissive, non-threatening environment. According to Rubin & Rubin, 2005:212), this type of interview will yield both a more diversified array of responses, and afford a more extended basis for designing systematic research into the situation at hand.

According to Valenzuela and Shrivastava (2009:5), the following are the different types of interviews:

- Unstructured interviews: There are no pre-determined questions and is open and adaptable;
- Structured interview: There are a set of pre-determined questions. This provides more focus and still allows a degree of freedom and adaptability in getting the information;
- Standardised open-ended interviews: The same open-ended questions are asked to all interviewees; and
- Closed fixed-response interviews: All interviewees are asked the same questions and asked to choose questions from the same set of alternatives, Valenzuela and Shrivastava (2009:5).

The open unstructured interview in phenomenological studies is intended to be in-depth (Burns & Grove 2003:284). De Vos (2002:302) states, the aim of the unstructured interview is to actively enter the world of people and to render those worlds understandable from the standpoint of a theory that is grounded in behaviours, languages, definitions, attitudes and feelings of those studied.

3.9 Pilot Study

A pilot study is a preliminary small-scale study that conducted in order to help decide how best to conduct a large-scale research project (Babbie & Mouton, 2010:234). The main aim was to determine the feasibility of conducting the study; suitability of the sampling frame; suitability of the measuring instrument to the actual field conditions; identification of any difficulty or unforeseen problems with the method or instrument; investigation of the accuracy and appropriateness of the instrument; and establishment of the adequacy and appropriateness of the methodology. This was done with a view to effect modifications at little cost before the main investigation (Babbie & Mouton, 2010:244; Strydom, 2011:237-243)

A pilot study was conducted in Tlapa Village CNDC in Bojanala in with on 3 individual’s participations using one to one interview, and 1 focus group with three participants. All were women working in the CNDC. Only one CNDC was selected out of the four for this pilot. This was a face to face interviews unstructured questionnaires was used to collect data.

This is one of the areas where the larger research was conducted. A Pilot test of the measures was conducted against prospective sample population in order to measure validity and reliability. There were ethical issues related to the study and they were addressed by maintaining high level confidentiality of the information volunteered by the respondents.

3.10 Administration of Questionnaires

De Vos (2002:302) defines the qualitative research interview as an interview, whose purpose is to gather descriptions of the life-world of the interviewee with respect to interpretation of the meaning of the described phenomena. Collecting these descriptions can be done in several ways, of which face-to-face interviews are the most common (Burns & Grove, 2003:285). Besides Face-to-Face interviews, telephonic interviews is popular too. But also interviewing using the Internet is rising. For this study a face to face interview method was utilized collect information from twenty individuals selected in the Bojanala Community.

Due to this synchronous communication, (Welman, Kruger & Mitchell, 2005:149) as no other interview method face to face interviews can take its advantage of social cues. Social cues, such as voice, intonation, body language of the interviewee can give the interviewer a lot of extra information that can be added to the verbal answer of the interviewee on a question (Mitchell & Jolley, 2007:230).

3.10.1 Process used to prepare for interviews

The researcher followed the following steps with each interview:

(1) Made an appointment with each participant at a time which suited them
(2) Created a quiet room conducive to conversation
(3) Arranged chairs to enhance face-to-face interviewing
(4) Prepared a tape recorder
(5) Had a jar of water available

Before the researcher conducted each interview:

(1) Thanked the participant for the time and willingness to be part of the study
(2) Reminded the participant about the agreement
(3) Explained that the interview was to be unstructured and that probing questions would be determined by the information given by the participant
(4) Asked permission to record the interview

3.11 Collection of Questionnaires

The choice of method is influenced by the data collection strategy, the type of variable, the accuracy required, the collection point and the skill of the enumerator. Links between a variable, its source and practical methods for its collection can help in choosing appropriate methods. The main data collection methods are:

- Questionnaires: forms which are completed and returned by respondents. An inexpensive method that is useful where literacy rates are high and respondents are co-operative.
- Interviews: forms which are completed through an interview with the respondent. More expensive than questionnaires, but they are better for more complex questions, low literacy or less co-operation.
- Direct observations: making direct measurements is the most accurate method for many variables.

3.12 Validity and Reliability

3.12.1 Validity

According Holden (2010:107) Validity determines if the research measures what it planned to measure. As it were, does the research and the instruments used to carry it through permit you to hit "the pinpoint center" of the examination object?

Furthermore, as indicated by Delport, (2005:162) validity poses the question: "Do the study's measuring instruments in certainty measure what it cases to gauge? Is it an exact or genuine measure of the phenomenon under study? Validity was guaranteed in this study by gathering information from the same sample and by asking the same questions from all individuals of the sample.

12.2 Reliability

A common definition of reliability is the extent to which a test would give consistent results if applied by different researchers more than once to the same people under standard conditions ((Bergman, 2008:208). De Vos, Schulze, & Patel. (2005:41) defines reliability as the extent to which results are consistent over time and an accurate representation of the total population under study is referred to as reliability and if the results of a study can be reproduced under a similar methodology, then the research instrument is considered to be reliable.

- The results of the research study can be said to be reliable as the responses of the respondents were gathered through more than one method to ensure trustworthiness – these were: one on one interviews and focus groups. Furthermore the results that were received from the research mostly correlated. The respondents were also all asked the same questions to answer during the interviews which ensured consistency in the study

3.13 Data Analysis

Data analysis is a mechanism for reducing and organising data to produce findings that require interpretation by the researcher (Burns & Grove, 2003:479). Data analysis is a challenging and a creative process characterised by an intimate relationship of the researcher with the participants and the data generated (De Vos 2002:339)

In phenomenological research, the analysis begins as soon as the first data are collected. They may consist of no more than a single interview. When the researchers prepare to attend to the data, their first task is a conceptual one: the clarification of their own preconceptions of the phenomena under study. (Tesch 2001:92). The researchers immerse themselves in the data, read and reread, and dwell with the data, in order to achieve closeness to the data and a sense of the whole. When they are satisfied that the text has become accessible to them, they can delineate all “meaning units” throughout the entire interview transcription, decide which ones are relevant to the research questions asked, then bind the meaning units that contain them (Tesch 2001:91).

Data analysis requires that researchers dwell with or become immersed in the data. Data analysis is done to preserve the uniqueness of each participant’s lived experience while permitting an understanding of the phenomenon under study. This begins with listening to the participants’ descriptions and is followed by reading and rereading the verbatim transcriptions (Henning 2004:127-128).

3.13.1 Thematic analysis

The researcher translated and transcribed the tape-recorded interviews, then read and reread the interviews in their entirety, reflecting on the interviews as a whole. Then, summarised the interviews; keeping in mind that more than one theme might exist in a set of interviews. Once identified, the themes that appeared to be significant and concepts linking substantial portions of the interviews were written down and entered on computer (Henning 2004:127-128).

3.13.2 Content analysis

In this analysis, the entire interview is read, identifying several topics. These topics then become primary categories or category labels. With too many categories, saturation is achieved slowly. Once the categories have ample data, the selected to it is categorised into sub-categories of two or more (Morse & Field 1996:117). Data is transcribed verbatim Transcripts were printed with space allowed for notes, including coding and identification of themes. With this information, the researcher assigned codes to particular sections of text, while also identifying surprising or unusual themes to accompany the codes expected to find. (Burns & Grove 2003:290).

The researcher used the method of inter-coder agreement to ensure my coding was consistent. After finding codes that repeated themselves in several transcripts, the researcher developed these codes into several themes, which were then expanded upon in findings section. Once these themes were determined, a discussion of the findings was presented.

3.14 Limitations of the Study

There will be several key limitations to this research and this will evidently affect the outcome of the results. By clarifying and addressing these limitations hopefully their effect can be minimized and taken into consideration throughout the course of this study. First of all the position of myself as a researcher and researching alone will impact the outcome of this research and the view in which this paper is written. As a male researcher working and researching on women leadership, may impact the respondent’s feelings and attitudes therefore the outcome of the research. This study was a qualitative study, and therefore the size of the sample was small. Only four CNDC’s out of 16 CNDC’s in the rural communities of North West were selected. All 20 participants in the selected four CNDC’s participated in the face to face one on one interviews. The information gathered in this research study was therefore limited to certain individuals in participating CNDC’s and should not be generalised to all South Africans.

The study sample was confined to Bojanala. This also limits research further as it is purely focusing on only four CNDC’s. The reason for focusing on these four CNDC’s is due to their feminine characters. Even though this will limit the results of the study, it will still show relevant results. In a sense a narrative approach will be a limitation to this study due to the very nature of this approach; the participants could change their past and stories as well as their ideas and thoughts. This is something that is taken into consideration and the researcher will attempt to keep the respondents as truthful as possible with anonymous documentation and confidentiality. The focus on role of women at Community Nutrition and Develoment Centres as a less researched area of leadership and management which allows this study to get a feel for all aspects of community leadership culture on the ground level. This is important for this study since there has already been a lot of research based on female leaders at corporate level and their impact on the organisation, but not so much on rural community leadership (O' Conor, 2014)..

3.15 Elimination of Bias

Bias as defined by Holden (2010:121), means allowing a particular influence to have more importance than it really warrants. In a qualitative research, the main aim is to provide answers without any bias. Occurrence of bias is natural but you can surely take steps to minimize them by recognizing them before only.

Bias can occur at any phase of research, including study design or data collection, as well as in the process of data analysis and publication (Rubin & Rubin, 2005:98). As some degree of bias is nearly always present in a published study, readers must also consider how bias might influence a study's conclusions. Denzin and Lincoln (2005:312) provide example of biasness in data collection or research that might affect the validity and reliability relate to working in a gender sensitive areas, different race groups, religious and cultural beliefs. All these have a potential of distorting the results of the research.

3.16 Ethical Considerations

Ethical considerations in research help to protect the interests of research subjects and serve as a basis for evaluating the researcher’s conduct by dealing with what is good and bad or right and wrong through adhering to certain rules and conventions (Brynard & Hanekom, 2006:85, Strydom, 2011:126-127). The key ethics complied with include the following:

Permission: The researcher obtained permission from authorities in various research sites to collect data from the participants and respondents (Creswell and Plano Clark, 2007:113; Those authorities included the four Communities based organisations operating CNCDC asking for permission to conduct the study, are attached to this research report as Annexure B. These letters serve as examples of permission letters sent to authorities in various organisations.

Consequences for human beings: This refers to the protection of research subjects (i.e., focus group participants and respondents) against physical or emotional harm through provision of information on the potential impact of the investigation (Strydom, 2011c:113). The anticipated consequences of the study were explained to the focus group participants prior to commencement of each session.

Voluntary and informed consent: The researcher requested voluntary participation of focus group participants and respondents (De Vos, 2005:25; Strydom, 2011:116) and to offer them the choice of participating voluntarily, withdrawing or refusing to participate in the study, by explaining the possible risks involved in the study.

Confidentiality: The researcher guaranteed and assured the participants protection of their privacy, which includes keeping their responses confidentially as a basic right (Mitchell & Jolley, 2007:36; Strydom, 2011c:119).

3.17 Conclusion

This chapter has outlined the research paradigm, research methodologies, strategies and design used in the study, including procedures, participants, data collection tools, data collection and analysis methods, and data credibility issues. The research design for this study was a descriptive and interpretive interviews, one on one and group interview that was analysed largely through qualitative methods mainly using descriptive analysis. Further it also briefly described the several stages involved in the design and development processes of the research in this study. The next chapter will focus on the findings, analysis of results and discussions of findings.

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS, DISCUSSION AND INTERPRETATION OF FINDINGS

4.1 Introduction

This chapter describes the analysis of data followed by a discussion of the research findings. The findings relate to the research questions that guided the study. Data were analysed to identify, describe and assess the Leadership and Management Role Played by Women in the Development of Community Nutrition and Development Centres (CNDC’s). Data was collected through the use of interviews, i.e. twenty (20) Participants, eight (8) in one on one interviews and twelve (12) in four focus group interviews.

The 20 women who participated in this study, represented diverse situations and background. They reacted differently to their surroundings and shared openly with the researcher in varying degrees. Great care was taken to utilize research understandings as they surfaced to improve the data gathering and interpretation process in an on-going fashion. Literature on women leadership and management was used as a framework for this study.

The objectives of the study were:

- To explore the leadership and management roles played by women in the development of Community Nutrition and Development Centre’s (CNDC’s)
- To examine the leadership and management characteristics women possess in the in the CNDC’s;
- To investigate challenges and constraints experienced by women in the Community Nutrition and Development Centres; and
- To establish whether leadership style influences women in the CNDC’s;

4.2 Response Rate

The response rate is about the number of people responded on participated in the research either through surveys or interview (Eagly and Karau 2002:213). In this research all participants responded and were willing to participate in the interviews, i.e. for the One to one interview and also the focus groups. So the rate was 100 %`

4.3 Thematic Analysis of Data

4.3.1 Coding of Data

The data collected from both the interviews were analysed. The collected data, as prescribed by the research question and emergent themes, served to articulate how the participants’ described their leadership experiences. All qualitative data which also incorporated data from the field notes were transcribed and code, wherein several iterations and views of the data was considered at each coding stage. The research analysis coding comprised of three main stages. Stage 1 was open coding where line by line coding was undertaken for each interview question (a copy of the interview guide is contained in Appendix A).

This section reflects the results of the interviews and focus groups discussions conducted with twenty (20) interviewees, eight (8) in one on one interviews and twelve (12) in four focus group interviews.

These themes reflect the experiences and narratives of the Participants in their roles as Community Leadership. This chapter presents the key findings emerging from the study. The discussions are divided into two sections, firstly- six theme and sub themes are captured from the Respondents who participated in the One to One Interviews; the second section deals with the findings of Focus Groups.

An analysis of the data gathered from the semi-structured interviews revealed 8 themes:

Individual Interviews : Expected and Inadvertent roles, Power and Influence, Inciting Change, Significant Role Models, and Focus Groups: Shared Leadership, Challenges and Obstacles, Self-Efficacy and Identity, and Effectual Styles. These themes and sub themes reflect the experiences and narratives of the participants in their roles as community leaders.

4.4 One on One Interviews results

Interviews are a widely used tool to access people’s experiences and their inner perceptions, attitudes, and feelings of reality (Strydom, 2011:237). De Vos (2002:302) states, the aim of the unstructured interview is to actively enter the world of people and to render those worlds understandable from the standpoint of a theory that is grounded in behaviours, languages, definitions, attitudes and feelings of those studied. The unstructured interview technique was developed as a method to elicit people’s social realities. In the literature, the term is used interchangeably with the terms, informal conversational interview, in-depth interview and non-standardized interview (Babbie & Mouton, 2010:244).

In the One to One Interviews the following themes were recorded:

(1) Expected mandate : reflects what the leaders roles and responsibilities in meeting their organisational objectives;
(2) Inadvertent roles provides an opportunity on unintended roles and other supporting functions leaders play in the development of their communities;
(3) Power and influence- the theme revealed a concern for the community and the need for female presence in leadership positions within that community;
(4) Within the theme of inciting change, the importance of innovation and vision emerged as key factors in effective leadership; and

OBJECTIVE 1: To explore the leadership and management roles played by women in the development of CNDC’s

Objective number one explored the various roles played by women leaders in the development of the CNDC’s. The themes that emerged included, Expected Mandate, Inadvertent Roles.

Laurent & Bradney (2007:123) observed that leadership has a direct cause and effect relationship upon organizations and their success. Leaders determine values, culture, change tolerance and employee motivation. They shape institutional strategies including their execution and effectiveness (Haines, 2009:99). Leaders can appear at any level of an institution and are not exclusive to management. Successful leaders do, however, have one thing in common, according Laurent & Bradney (2007:123), they influence those around them in order to reap maximum benefit from the organization’s resources, including its most vital and expensive: its people, they drive strategy, vision and objectives of the organisation.

THEME 1: Expected Mandate

One of the strongest emerging theme during the interview related to the objectives and expectations meant to be achieved in the development of the CNDC’s. According to Daft (2005:109), management firstly has the task to accomplish the function of coping with complexity by planning and budgeting whilst leadership accomplishes change by first setting a direction. Secondly, management develops the capacity to achieve its plan by organising and staffing, whereas leadership does so by aligning people. Thirdly, management ensures accomplishment by controlling and problem-solving. Leadership does the same by motivating and inspiring (Eagly, 2007:89)

It was clear that Managers and Leaders at various levels, top, middle and lower recognised and comprehended their expected mandates, including the achievement of key deliverables and objectives of the CNDC’s, the role and responsibilities they were expected to perform as part of their organisational mandate to achieve the set goals and objectives.

All most all women leaders interviewed were great at their work, they are smart, passionate, driven, focused, and easy to work with, good at explaining things, and have a “get-it-done” mentality. They understand the value of investing time and effort in certain areas because it make the difference in producing something great which will sets them apart from the competition, and make their beneficiary happy. Every leader understood that their people , i.e., their beneficiaries are their greatest assets. They also understood that they are creating or building something for other people. The service needs to make a difference in the lives of their clients.

In this theme, respondents provided their own individual understand on key objectives and elements of what they are expected to do in the development the CNDC’s. Participant A, a Director at one CNDC, offer an explanation on the mandate and objectives of the CNDC’s, its functions, key responsible performance areas:

“ The main purpose for establishing Community Nutrition and Development Centres (CNDCs) is to feed the hungry with nutritiously cooked meals and promote the development of beneficiaries towards creating sustainable livelihoods”. Our work centres on the feeding nothing else

Participant D also stated:

“Our objectives is to ensure that vulnerable people, hungry, the sick, children, including anyone without food in our community are fed every day. We ensure that cooked nutritious meals is prepared and served daily, this done through a carefully planned and managed system.

The manager, as Middlehurst (2012:88) mentioned by contrast, operates on the physical resources of the organisation, its capital, human skills, raw materials, and technology. As he puts it, any competent manager can make it possible for people to earn a living and see to it that work is done productively and efficiently, on schedule, and with a high level of quality. It remains for the effective leader, however, to help people in the organisation know and take pride including finding satisfaction in their work.

Another aspect of work according Participant F

“We also try to expose our beneficiaries to various skills development project such as brickmaking, food garden, beadwork, job creation projects and many other courses to empower people to become self-sustainable, while the nutritional support is an interim safety net measure. This is our everyday job

The objectives of an organisation are met through the coordinated actions of many people working with individual targets, but to a common purpose. Many organisations set their goals for the year ahead, and arrive at the objectives for individual employees by cascade through divisional and departmental managers (Ledwith, 2011:168). These women have clear mandate and they just had to do that amongst other things they did.

THEME 2: Inadvertent Roles

Women leaders played a pivotal role in maintaining rural communities, as well as in their economic activities, they continue to make major contributions to the maintenance of family and community life. They work actively with their clients to encourage and support them to become more civically engaged. Through volunteering and participating in community development activities, assist new comers in the community to improve language skills, develop leadership capacity, breakdown social isolation and volunteer in their communities. They do this by developing and coordinating volunteer opportunities, developing peer led programming, catalysing new initiatives, providing and coordinating leadership. It also provides backed up supports to other programs through volunteer coordination, leveraging resources, and integrated community development principles in to programs. Some of the key activities are: Food gardening, Computer clubs, Burial Society, Public education, Child support, community kitchen training, assisting with acquiring enabling documents, such as Identity books, Birth certificates, and Child support grant.

What was interesting in this case was how these women leaders continued to put extra efforts in their work, working beyond their own mandates and key performance areas.

According to (Van Wart, 2013:558) transformational leaders inspire employees to go beyond the call of duty, foster creative solutions to problems, serve as mentors, create vision, and articulate plans for achieving their visions. Some of the sub- themes emerged from this theme included mentoring, counselling, information service and support roles

According to Participant F

“The work of the CNDC is not limited to food access only, but also a number of other activities not prescribed in our contracts”.

Participant B revealed that in the development of the CNDC’s,

“We play various significant and strategic roles, while providing nutritious meals. Women in these CNDC have acted and continued to serve their communities as advisors, mentors, counsellors, coordinators, educators, social workers, including conflict managers, they provide support and also act as a link between individuals and various government departments”.

The following are roles cited as other roles women leaders’ play which are somehow not part of their key roles and responsibilities but are performed by women on daily basis.

Sub-theme 2.1 Mentoring

According to Magner (2008:131), transformational leadership capture the trust of people through coaching, inspiring and empowering others (Laurent & Bradney, 2007:123). Nearly all of the women indicated that mentoring was critical to their success and their growth as a leader. Although this topic was specifically addressed in the interview guide, it often arose spontaneously very early in the interviews. Several major themes emerged in terms of the role that mentors played. One of the major roles was to inspire the women by what they were doing or had done themselves; these mentors included family members, leaders of other organizations, and historical figures.

"“Quite truthfully, my mother, but not from the sense of her being my mother but the challenges that she has dealt with…Just because her hearing is really limited, yet she taught English for, I don’t even know, 20 years. And then continued to move up to administration, and when she retired she was the principal of a school. And so from witnessing that you just keep on going and you don’t take ‘no’ for an answer and you don’t let something that could easily hinder you or give you a reason to change course – you just focus on your course and make it happen.”

Mentors also demonstrated a strong belief in the women leaders, and helped push them to realize their fullest potential, as well as offering specific advice. These mentors often included older women and/or business entrepreneurs, with whom the women had a relatively close relationship. Participant B alluded:

"“She has seen consistently in me attributes that I haven’t even seen in myself sometimes. I can count on her to push me to do things that I [thought I] couldn’t do. That I couldn’t see. And discover, I can do this.”

Empowerment is described as having reliability, fulfilment in achievements, and influence over what and how to do things, acknowledgement for opinions and suggestions, and the confidence that one is being valued and appreciated. Participant E related her experiences in mentoring youth when she volunteered to be a coach for a girl who later received the job.

“As a leader, I was so happy to have helped the young woman find this success, my friend called to find out if there is none I know they can offer a job. I forwarded her CV and began to coach her on what to say as she goes for an interview. That was one of the many moments I pride myself with”

Motivations and definitions of success

The women defined success primarily as the ability to change the lives of others. This is also what kept them motivated to do their work, especially as they faced numerous challenges. The women were not particularly motivated by money or the size of their organizations. Although they appreciated being recognized for their work, prestige did not drive them. Participant A commented:

"“So for me, impact is changed lives. Healed bodies, minds, and spirits. Especially women who begin to glimpse who they are and go forth. That really matters to me.”

Participant F also alluded:

"“But I would say that more concretely is when I actually see a change in the individuals that we work with. So to our youth training program, to actually see the penny drop, to see people shift in terms of how they view food as a social justice issue, in terms of how they suddenly see their own role in the world, in terms of not just having to be receivers of whatever is handed out to them, but being an agent of change. I think that’s what keeps me motivated.”

- Sub-theme 2.2 Counsellor

Women leaders at the CNDCs mentioned that they remain open to provide counselling and support services to beneficiaries who want to talk about anything, families, children thoughts, problems, whatever they want to be assisted with. These in most case lead to empowerment and self-acceptance in all decisions that others make. Participant B, as a former Teacher, alluded to the fact that:

“Almost every day I deal with family disputes, fights between a man and his wife, women and their children and many of this sort. I also provide advices on careers, offer counselling and support, including referring those who are sick to the nearby clinic”.

Participant D further explained that:

Many young women come to me with their marital problems, and over the years I learnt how to listen and give advice appropriately. As a result many people looked at me as a community leaders and respect me for what I am”.

“Young women come from rural communities with children without birth certificates. As a community I link them with Home Affairs, which has really supported our work so much. And in most cases the young women will get birth certificate and also register for the child support grant. This makes me so happy”

- Sub-theme 2.3 Information and Support services

Some of the CNDC’s work closely with the department of Health, Social Development and other government department, as result they provide information regarding welfare and health services. Some leaders do provide information on matters such as HIV and AIDS, eating habits, cleanliness etcetera. Participant F gives her an account of her experience:

As a trained caregiver, my team and I do home based care visits, and door to door TB campaign, assisting patients who need care and also linking the sick with local clinic, sometime assisting with grants registration. The job is hard, and painful but fulfilling. I have been doing this for more than ten years

Participant G also a member of a ward committee, talks about how in her daily work at the CNDC’s has to provide assistance on local government related issues:

“When people come to have their meals, they suddenly remember their household issues, such as a need for a stand, some basic services etc” I just help and if possible take their issues to the ward committee for more attention”.

OBJECTIVE 2: To examine the leadership and management characteristics women possess in the in the CNDC’s

Objective number two assess the leadership and management characteristic women leaders possess and how they contribute in the development of the CNDC’s. The model of leadership that the women articulated is characterized by a strong vision along with a total commitment to that vision and an ability to inspire others to share it (Vinkenburg et al. 2011:12). It is widely recognised that women have alternative ways of problem-solving and dealing with conflict. Eagly (2005:212) studies on the leadership styles of women suggest that women tend to adopt more democratic and participative management styles than males. They share power and information and support and encourage subordinates. Women managers are said to be persuasive, influential and charismatic and make extensive use of interpersonal skills. Moreover, as Vinkenburg et al. (2011:12) has observed: women managers adopting feminine management styles are better suited to contemporary business conditions than males since modern management techniques are invariably based on teamwork, flexibility, trust and the free exchange of information.

- THEME 3: Power and Influence

Power and influence revealed a concern for the community and the need for female presence in leadership positions within that community. Stories centered on reasons for becoming a leader and how women in leadership can influence others. Within the theme of inciting change, the importance of innovation and vision emerged as key factors in effective leadership. The theme revealed a concern for the community and the need for female presence in leadership positions within that community.

- Sub-theme 3.1 Need for Female Presence

Larwood and Wood (2007: 232) attest to the existence of differences in leadership priorities between black and white women Participants. For black women, the overall aim of management is the promotion of racial justice, whereas for white senior managers, the priority is to manage effective. In order for women to make a difference in leadership positions, women first need to be present in influential positions. The number of women leaders is increasing and this trend needs to continue. Many of the Participants in this study identified the need for women to be visible in their roles and take ownership of them.

Participant C claims that:

“Women are appreciate women leaders, as their roles as leaders. I encourage them to let people know that they have power and can be in any positions of authority without any hesitation, and should be proud to lead.”

Participant D also commented on the need for a female presence in the community and political arena.

“Although I tried to get some of the women in the board to be involved, the interest was just not there. This lack of presence has an effect on the potential influence of women in this area. Don’t be afraid to jump in and do something that might lead you into yet another place where a door opens. This is the advice”

Participant F gives women starting out in leadership positions.

As a trained builder, I found myself in a professional area dominated by men. The presence of women in the field was important to her, but when I went to gather women together, I could find only two or three women with experience. For these reasons, I started training sessions that ran for six months, three times a week. I held seminars until women became familiar with the tools and competent as builders. Encouraging a female presence in underrepresented areas is paramount to developing future leaders”.

- Sub- theme 3.2 Concern for community.

Many women assume leadership positions in order to have an influence within their communities. Moolenaar and Sleegers (2010:121) states that community developments cannot succeed if it does not involve women and take advantage of their potentials more especially in rural South Africa. In other words rural women have an important role to play in the sustenance and sustainability of family and the rural economy (Ledwith 2011:168).

As a member of the Tlapa CNDC and also a ward committee member, Participant G expressed her concern for the conditions in the community in which she has lived nearly her entire life. As she contemplated her work with her community, she stated,

“I look at the issues and arrive at a decision that is based upon what is in the best interest of the people to be served or benefit by a particular measure.”

Considering the needs of one’s constituents elicited a similar response from Participant D.

“My motivation was look out for the little person” and influence the community accordingly. In my opinion, everyone needs to be represented, and certain entities make many decisions that affect our lives every day. Working with rural development gave me a chance to work with the community as a specialist and affect change. My involvement in community projects made me more convinced about what I was doing. It’s not just my personal opinion”,

Participant E stated

“It was never about what I personally thought. It was what was best for the community and you learn to take out your personal bias.” it should not be about me, it should be about making decisions based on the needs of the community. You are deciding things that you won’t see the results of until down the road.”

This is also true within the field of community services. Participant B works as a Director feels that:

“Community development is critically important to the fabric of a community. When you have the involvement of the community, you can create a system and then it is a matter of “getting the players to play.”

Participant C echoes this sentiment. As a director of CNDC:

“I wished to serve the community as well as help it to help itself. In the early stages of my involvement, I lacked community connections. As a result, I went to those who had the knowledge about community affairs and asked for their assistance”. As I am able to influence others and affect the necessary change”. “I have seen kids coming to my centre, and growing to become Participants in their own way, at school, family and in community politics. This makes me so happy”

- Sub-theme 3.3 Influencing and helping others

Clarke (2009:212) and Johns (2009:224) provide a definition of a transformation leader as an individual who seeks to function as a servant leader. His/her purpose is therefore to serve others. A transformational leader must be a good listener and possess the ability to identify with others. In addition to this, resilience and the ability to give direction are important. Transformational leaders are leaders who are characterised by quiet thought or contemplation, so that they become professionals of reflection (Johns, 2009:224).

Along with a need for a female leadership presence and a concern for one’s community, the idea of being an influence and a help to others was of great importance in these women’s desire to take on their positions as leaders. According to Participant B:

"Most people don't realize that leadership is fundamentally about service, about a dying to self and loving others into their true potential. It isn't about us personally. It isn't about what we can get, or consume. It isn't about elevating ourselves above others. It isn't about ego. Leadership is about lowering ourselves such that the people who work with us, and our organizations can thrive in ways that create value

Participant G alluded to the fact that:

"When I am serving I can't help but to be compassionate. And when I am not, the tendency to become worn-out, more callous, and less forgiving can take over. This has been one of my greatest observations. How ineffective leader are, once they lose the capacity to put themselves to the side in favor of the common good."

Participant C also expressed her interest in helping people succeed and helping them be happy in their positions. She emphasized the need that people have to feel like they are contributing to something, as opposed to just coming to work every day and going through the motions. She shared an example involving one of their CNDC members who was struggling in his studies.

“We sat down and had a conversation and I told him if you really want to go far in journalism or other fields, you really need to get yourself to college and get that degree. To this day, he credits me with having put him on the right path.”

Participant G state that she learned this lesson when changing roles at her CNDC and realized that power is all about the ability to truly influence people and make an impact in their lives.

"It doesn’t come from any title or position … a true Participant is someone who is wholeheartedly willing to be their authentic self."

Participant E alluded on mentoring that:

As a mentor for others you need to persuade people to take positions that will take them somewhere, influence young women, to reaching out with her thoughts and encouragement to other women in her position.

Participant B commented that:

“A successful leader is someone whom people want to follow. I know many people in positions of authority, or positions of leadership who people don’t want to follow. Maybe they’re coerced to follow; maybe they’re required to follow. But I think that the best types of leaders are ones that people rally around and say, ‘Oh, I really want to follow them, I really want to be with them, I agree with them, this is something I’d like to do.’”

Participant F said.

“You get to make a difference for other people, who, without your help might have a worse day, worse week, and worse year. You get to help people be the best they can be and there’s nothing more rewarding.”

- Sub- theme 3.4 choosing to be a leader

Research studies on leadership such as Kezar (2003) indicate that the leadership of women tends to emphasize reciprocity. This was exemplified in the stories of the leaders in this study. Participant B and Participant G identified their decision to become leader rested heavily on having something to contribute to their communities.

At the same time, several women said being in a position of leadership was something that they never really considered.

Participant B, who has served in many roles within her community, said

“I feel I am called to serve, it was hard at first but the more I see women who are powerless and hungry I felt I cannot stop to help I need to do something, I just wanted to assist and empower not only women but also men. I love giving time and I feel so honoured to see so many people happy and smiling”.

Participant G

For me seeing those kids coming back from school hungry I thought what can we do as the women of this community? I got few ladies and we started a feeding centre”

Participant D

I tended to shy away from the spotlight until I took on a role that emphasised my Leadership skills”.

Participant E commented”

I really did not see herself as a leader until it was pointed out to her that this was indeed her role”

When Participant A talked about her leadership path leading to her role as a director, she explicitly stated,

“I never wanted to be a leader—never thought about it.” At the same time, I acknowledged that I took on their role because nobody else was bothering to do the job in question.

In a study conducted by Fine (2009), the author refers to highly motivated women having the desire to make a difference in the world. This would seem consistent with the stories provided by the women in this study as they described their various reasons for becoming community leader. The predominant factors seem to be the concern for community and a desire to help others.

THEME 4 Inciting Change
- Sub theme 4.1 Contributing influences

The basis for many women’s interest in being in positions of influence is dissatisfaction with the status quo. The historical contributions of women in the past were cited by several Participants in this study as influential on their own careers. Women leaders do have an immense capacity to positively influence the livelihoods of people.

Participant D grew up in the late 70s, a time when you could not talked about your opinions publicly. Participant A compared the transformative qualities in today’s women to those in the 70’s, eras of Winnie Mandela, Albertina Sisulu etcetera.

“Women often talk the same way as their predecessors would, about being able to be a part of all the incredible things that happened leading up to the women’s right to vote.” History represents the importance of the contributions of women as leader and this significance continues to date.

Participant G’s experiences support this assertion.

“I believe we need more women candidates for community development and political office. Women are just as likely to get elected as their male counterparts, if they’re running for an open seat, but we don’t have enough women running. That’s the problem. And so I think it’s important that we find women to run.” Women need to continue to assert themselves as Participants in these forums” As a result my heart is empowering young women and young to understand issues of concern in our community and voice them out”

Lack of diversity i.e. women and youth is one of the influences Participant E noted in her choice to be a community Participant. The decision-makers in her community were a homogeneous group that lacked diversity in terms of age and gender. She thought there needed to be equal representation for all groups of people and was concerned about people’s rights being defended.

“We have to give people a voice, people who don’t generally have a voice. As I got into a Leadership position and got used to what we had to deal with, I found that there are a lot of people who felt excluded and left behind.”

According to Weyer (2007:485), female gender roles are identified with communal behaviours such as nurturing, supporting others and being helpful. In contrast, Leadership roles have been associated with particular agentic characteristics such as “assertiveness, ambition, competing for attention, and making problem-focused suggestions”

- Sub- theme 4.2 Change through Innovation

Many studies on transformational Leadership indicate that this type of Leadership positively influences innovation. In recent years, Ladegaard, (2010:43) state that Participants applying this form of Leadership style are stated to be involved with innovative change within their communities’. The Participants also focus on issues involving matters of support, directing and coordinating goals or purpose that has been set up by the organisations or communities in order to increase the work effort.

Participant D talked about her role within community services, she articulated not only the need for a vision, but the need for thinking of new, innovative ways to make it work.

Having new ideas is what Participant B, “I saw how our children in our mining community loses parents, they stayed with grandparents who also struggled with life, and God laid a desire for me to look after these vulnerable children”. It started with few families, today we cook and provide meals to more than 300 community members” We did not only served the sick and vulnerable but we also have employed more than 40 people in our programme. This make me really excited.

“I brought together a number of volunteers to assist with providing care for the orphans and vulnerable children, including providing home based care for the terminally sick people. To date more than 55 people are on a programme paid by government.

Proposing new ideas is one reason that Participant G wanted to be a proponent for change .

“I always wanted to take action that would improve the quality of life of the residents in the community. Being in a position to make policy in my organisation could accomplish that.”

Innovation that affects the lives of people is consistent with many women’s style of Leadership. Seeing a need for change and then acting upon this need is a characteristic found throughout the interviews conducted.

Participant F cited the need for new ideas to make herself visible in the area. She looked for women who had experience in the construction field, but could not find many. Her idea was to hold training seminars and by the time the training was done, she had 43 women signed up who wanted participate when there is an opportunity created by government or mines to put up building projects in Bojanala. Participant F was also aware of the unpopularity associated with building in certain parts of town considered undesirable. With her influence, she worked to change this perception. She says

Many young women, women and also men got employed in the Expanded Public Works Programme, through the efforts of the organisation and people are forever thankful as they have and jobs and salaries”.

- Sub-theme 4.3 Taking charge

In her research, Eagly (2007) describes the leadership styles of women in relation with particular situations. Many of the women interviewed found themselves at some point in their work faced with situations in which no one else was choosing to act. It was in these cases that the women felt what they described as a desire, an obligation, or even a challenge to take charge of the situation and make a required change.

Participant B reflected on this occurrence in her own experiences. “

“If a need for change is observed, and the change does not happen because no one steps up to do anything, then I step up”.

Her definition of effective leadership referenced this concept of taking charge to incite change.

“Leadership happens when you want to change the status quo and then you have two choices: you can sit around and complain about it or you get into the process of changing it.”

This sort of take-action approach was echoed by Participant G as she discussed the development of her career over the years. As a leader, she cares about the issues and wants things to get done. She recalled several experiences that were her “eye-openers” in life. People saw a problem, but they would not question it. As Participant G recalls,

Sometimes you just have to make a leap of faith. As I was moving up the ranks, sometimes I'd be in a meeting and think, ‘we really need a decision here,’ and realize a beat later it was me who had to make that decision. Leadership is about presenting confidence and decisiveness. Of course it's best if this is how you're really feeling at the moment but it's possible—in fact necessary—to make decisions you're not 100 percent sure of. The longer you do it the more natural going with your gut becomes. And then soon you start giving advice like ‘just go with your gut.’

Participant A echoed such sentiment too:

“I was taking the initiative because someone needed to do something.” This does not always result in popularity, but all of the women agreed that was a sacrifice they were willing to make. Being well-liked did not outweigh the need to take action when it was warranted.

She told stories of her own challenges with insecurity and described how she moved past these issues in order to take her own advice, to take advantage of situations that arose for her.

- Sub theme 4.4 having a vision

In their research on transformational Leadership, Kouzes and Posner (2001) emphasize the importance of a leader s vision in influencing followers and influencing the Participant-follower relationship. The model of leadership that the women articulated was characterized by a strong vision along with a total commitment to that vision and an ability to inspire others to share it. Many of the women interviewed expressed similar ideas about their own leadership as well as that of Participants they would want to follow.

Participants B described an effective leader as

Someone who is capable of making change and allowing, or perhaps encouraging, the organization to follow through on that change. The vision needs to be carried out or it becomes worthless.”

Participant A also emphasized the importance of having a vision and added that this vision may need to be changed or adapted. Participant G shared the sentiments:

“It is vital”, she said, “to be able to defend one’s vision, and if you cannot, then you need to admit it, adapt it, and move on.” Discovering this vision and then carrying it out may best be accomplished through a cooperative effort. My role as a Participant's role is to raise people's aspirations for what they can become and to release their energies so they will try to get there.”

Participant A mentioned her experiences

“I have felt in the past that opportunities passed me by because they were looking for men…And in some ways maybe that freed me up, so that I…have this unconventional approach…I really did things my own way…When people first think about Leadership, they turn to men, and being a female Participant has been a little different course.”

Collaboration is something Participant G advocated in her position. The concept of collaboration was present in the interview with Participant A. Collaborating and working with others is Participant E’s favourite part of her job. She works closely with the people who will most directly feel the results of the programs she helps to develop.

“I want to go look at a project that I was involved in and helped bring to fruition. I get to visit with the people and find out how it’s going to affect their lives.”

This connection as a Participant is what worked for many of the Participants according to their shared experiences.

4.5 FOCUS GROUPS INTERVIEW

The Second part of the research interviews was conducted through the Focus Groups. Five Focus Groups were organised in five CNDC sites, with a new sets of questions. A set of questionnaires were applied. In these Focus groups respectively women shared their rich experiences, journeys and their own challenges regarding their leadership and management role in the development of the CDNC’s. The Focus Group provided useful understanding on how or why leaders hold certain beliefs about their leadership role and including their work in the communities.

According to De Vos, Strydom, Fouché and Delport (2005:268) a focus group interview is a technique involving the use of in-depth group interviews in which participants are selected because they are a purposive, although not necessarily representative sampling of a specific population, this group being focused on a given topic. Lewis (2005:188) defines a focus group interview as a carefully planned discussion designed to obtain perceptions in a defined area of interest in a permissive, non-threatening environment. According to Rubin & Rubin, 2005:212), this type of interview will yield both a more diversified array of responses, and afford a more extended basis for designing systematic research into the situation at hand.

The Second part of the research was conducted through the Focus Groups. Five Focus Groups were conducted in five CNDC sites, with a new sets of questions. In these Focus groups women shared their rich experiences, journeys and their own challenges regarding their leadership and management role in the development of the CDNC’s.

Major themes and sub themes emerged from the in-depth interviews with participants. Below are the summaries of the themes

(1) Shared Leadership: the interactive influence process among individuals in groups for which the objective is to lead one another to the achievement of group personal reflection of how Participants sees themselves and define their roles and responsibilities;
(2) Challenges and obstacles: Many experienced challenges based on gender roles and stereotypes although not all found these issues to be significant in their career journeys;
(3) Self-efficacy played a role in the success of the participants as leaders. Many women described their capability for Leadership as well as experiences that built confidence. One of the main goals of the study was to elicit definitions of successful Leadership from the Participants;
(4) The theme of effectual Leadership styles developed as participants reflected on their own styles of Leadership as well as the styles of those they respect as leader within the community.

THEME 1: Shared Leadership

OBJECTIVE 1: To explore the leadership and management roles played by women in the development of Community Nutrition and Development Centre’s (CNDC’s)

Objective number one of this study intended to examine women’s management and leadership function, the type of leadership used in the development of CNDC’s

The first theme of the Focus Group (FG) respondents was based on shared Leadership. Pearce and Conger (2003:47) present the most widely cited definition of shared Leadership as a dynamic, interactive influence process among individuals in groups for which the objective is to lead one another to the achievement of group or organizational goals or both..

As Pearce, Manz and Sims (2009) summarize, all definitions of shared leadership consistently include a process of influence that is built upon more than just downward influence on subordinates or followers by an appointed or elected leader. Nearly all concepts of shared leadership entail the practice of broadly sharing power and influence among a set of individuals rather than centralizing it in the hands of a single individual who acts in the clear role of a dominant superior

Participants provided their own leadership understanding of collective and shared Leadership. Participant M, FG4 was responding to what is meant by shared Leadership.

"A true leader not only mentors for the people who are following, but also shares the leadership and develops the leadership within the group or the membership. It also means providing opportunities for all people to be in leadership roles relating to family, extended family, clans and community

Another leader, Participant F, FG2 in echoed the sentiments above:

"If you want to be a Participant, you have to also be the lady who is cleaning up the place. A true Participant is a great follower. If you can't follow, how do you think can you lead?"

The response indicates that a leader, who was also a follower, was someone who would listen to others, ask them for their opinion and suggestions, and allow them to be involved in making decisions. Shared Leadership involves all the informal leaders of the community. Informal leaders can be volunteers at community events and tribal ceremonies. The focused is on the relationship between the leader and follower.

The central principle is that leader develop different exchange relationships with their followers, whereby the quality of the relationship alters the impact on important leader participant and member outcomes (Gerstner & Day, 2004:245). Thus, Leadership occurs when Participants and followers are able to develop effective relationships that result in mutual and incremental influence (Uhl-Bien, 2006:87).

- Participant G, FG3

“This is my community, I lived here all my life and I know every child and parent,

“Working in my community has given me a great pleasure, I have become part of the Leadership that brings change.

Participant J, FG3 stated:

Living and working in this area, has given me a great pleasure, my community knows me and I know them. Those who come to the centre for food they appreciate our help and we hope they also benefit from our work. That is what keeps me coming and wanting to help.

Participants interviewed felt so confident that they have built a good relationship with their communities, The leader know each other in their first name, some they know their families and as such both the leader and members feel at ease with each other

Objective 3: To investigate challenges and constraints experienced by women in the Community Nutrition and Development Centres;

Objective number three of this study intended to identify the challenges faced by women leaders/managers in CNDC’s and Community Development. Understanding these challenges is a prerequisite to improving the quality of women leadership and for empowering women leaders in the organizational position.

Theme 2: Challenges and Obstacles

When research participants‟ were asked to explain the challenges faced by women leaders/managers in the CNDC’s, the following main themes were identified, namely, social and cultural stereotypes, psychological factor, gender role, negative perceptions on competencies of women leaders among women themselves and lack of confidence.

- Sub- theme 2.1 : Social and Cultural Stereotypes

The research respondents agreed that socio-cultural stereotypes are part of the society culture which constraint women leadership in the CNDC and Communities at large. One among the CNDC Participant A in an interview session said:

“Despite the Government of south Africa initiatives towards promoting equal opportunity and fair treatment in employment through the elimination of unfair discrimination; and implementing affirmative action measures, yet, there is a need to change a mind-set among men to appreciate the potential of women in leadership…..”

Another Participant F commented that:

“I think people expect and prefer women potentials in leadership. The only set back is that women lack agentic traits such as confidence, aggressiveness and self-direction unlike men, because they are communal. Stereotypes about leaders generally reseamble stereotypes of men rather than those of women. As a result, women are placed at a disadvantage in most leadership role.

Participants reported that removing socio-cultural stereotypes involves a transformation in the community‟ mind-sets, males, processes and organizational culture. The challenge women face with gender stereotyping, is that the deep conditioning about gender has affected their self-esteem and the perception of their own leadership capabilities (Ledwith 2011:168).

Cultural beliefs also manifest themselves in the working environment. Male employees and beneficiaries are part of society and they carry with them their cultural beliefs at their places of employment, for example belief that women are inferior to men and thus cannot be leaders/managers over them. Lessing (2004) points out that men have greater credibility as authority figures, whereas women tend to be recognised for stereotypical qualities such as sympathy, creativity, openness and patience, and thus are viewed as less suited for leadership.

- Sub – theme 2.2 Psychological Factor

Participants reported psychological factor as one among the challenges faced by women interviewed. Participant mentioned during the interview session had this to say;

… Ah! “I think women suffer from psychological factors as they cannot control their emotions due to short tempered. You know most of these educated young girls are arrogant; and because of this they are not taken seriously by subordinates; sometimes they can be absent without authorization; come late to work and leave early before knock off time…!”

Another respondent Participants E argued against that statement when she said that;

“It is not fair to generalize the mistake of one person to all, women can control their emotions, it is a function of age…look at our matured state, you will realize how confidence we are in every task that we do….”

- Sub theme 2.3 Balancing Reproductive and Workplace Functions

Balancing reproductive and workplace functions was also mentioned by respondents as one among challenges facing women in leadership. Helgesen (2005) supports the findings above saying that social issues are challenges that originate from home. Apart from being employees, women as part of the family play a central role of caring for the home. Ledwith (2011:168) indicates that the attitude of populace in our society revealed that women are essentially nurturers, and homemakers.

It was however mentioned that despite that challenge of balancing reproductive and workplace functions, a significant number of women that entered the workforce has increased in numbers over the last two decades (Marthur-Helm, 2002). He however concurs with the view that more women than men are faced with the challenge of choosing between family and their career. The Employment Equity Act No. 55 of the Republic of South Africa (1998) states that even where women are well qualified and experienced, the predominance of men in leadership has resulted in a culture in which men behaviour patterns are perceived to be norms and women often find it difficult to be accepted as equals by their men colleagues.

Other emphasis seen in the result shows that women are respected as men as the mother of nation. Despite this fact, and the fact that employees are professionally trained, yet there is a continued perception among them which views women managers/leaders as unconfident as such need to prove themselves more as leaders/managers to men.

- Sub theme 2.4 Gender Roles

Studies involving women in Leadership roles indicate the majority of women believe their biggest obstacle to advancement is a mind-set favouring candidates that fit in a male-dominated environment (Eddy, 2009:12). Stereotypical male images still persist about gender roles and effective Leadership (Coleman, 2005:12). This creates a belief that male is superior and female is inferior, meaning that female qualities are undervalued.

Participant I FG4

“It seems to me that to stand out in a man’s world, women have to compensate for their gender with outstanding performance every single time. It is good in the sense that women get better and better [in] what they do, but, on the other hand, it is extremely tiring...”

In addition, the perception of male privilege resulting from a patriarchal culture and the socialisation process creates internal barriers for women such as lack of confidence and lack of motivation or aspiration (Mitroussi & Mitroussi, 2009:504).

Many women in this study referred to expected roles that existed as they began their career journeys. Participant F, FG2 says as a woman working in the construction field,

“Working in a heavily male-dominated industry, I struggle to strike a balance—to be one of “them” and to be myself. Sometimes I feel it affects my spontaneity…. I constantly feel the need to be on guard.”

Male and female roles in leadership are identified and described in many research studies and often the males appear more dominant. Interestingly, Participant F, FG2 provided an explanation of an experiment that indicates women may give away the leadership role rather than have it taken from them.

“In many situations, it is the men who will take the risks and the women will not. An experiment was done in a group and they would ask men and women to have somebody become a leader of the group. More often than not, a man became the leader. But in many instances, women would say, ‘Why don’t you be the leader?’

So they would give the title away. And some people might say they took the title by giving it away. But it’s very interesting that women often times do not take those roles, because they may perceive them as being either inappropriate, or it’s more appropriate that the man do it.”

Within this scenario, women may have similar gender role expectations as men, resulting in behaviours that may become obstacles to effective female leadership.

- Sub-theme 2.5 Networking

The women respondents pointed out lack of networking in a boardroom to be one among the setback facing women. Although this study does not compare women leadership from men leadership, yet, it is important to understand that women leaders lack access to social network where informal decisions are taken. As such, it impacts on their formal organizational leadership

THEME 3: Self-Efficacy and Identity

Objective 2: To examine the leadership and management characteristics women possess in the in the CNDC’s

Caughron and Mumford (2011:350) characterises women leaders as those who create a shared vision, energise others by communicating that vision at many levels, stimulate others to think in different ways and to excel, give individual consideration to others, and provide an organisational climate that helps others to accomplish activities of value and feel appreciated. Helgesen (2003:33) says the have followers who perform at a higher level and who are more satisfied with their work than other employees

Holmes (2006:6) describe women leader as those who engage in an ongoing quest for quality, looking for opportunities to make things better…know [their] organisation’s norms and culture very well but [are] also willing to risk challenging those norms when they are negative or dysfunctional…Learn from others and their mistakes…have the ability to create a shared vision enabling others to act…believe in people

Participants described their capabilities for leadership as well as experiences that built confidence in their leadership. Participant E, FG2 exuded this air of confidence as she described her current role as executive director:

“I don’t have to wait for everybody else to figure out what needs to get done. I can do what I want to do, so that’s nice. I believe in changes and I make sure they happen. I am a dreamer with a big vision”

- Sub –theme 3.1 Influence of others

Previous studies examining the backgrounds of women involved in community leadership, have found that influential people in the lives of these women help shape their identities as future leaders. (Vinkenburg et al. 2011:12).The individual experiences described by the women in this study may explain their desires and abilities to influence others

Participant F, FG2 recalled how her childhood experiences contributed to her personality as a future leaders.

“Growing up, I was often responsible for what was happening at the house. My parents said, ‘You’re in charge.’ And so I’ve always been the type of person who took charge. And I remember just at a young age being in a meeting and just taking over. I learned how to do that without offending people.”

As a result, she became much more receptive to life’s lessons as complex and ambiguous.

“After my divorce in 1994, powerful mass protest, women’s rights, disabilities rights, I began to claim the Leadership role which others recognized in me,” Participant A FG1, intimated.

Whereas parents were an influence for FG2 Participant F and D, becoming a parent was an experience that Participant K, FG 4 described as instrumental in her development as a leader.

“Parenting taught me effectively that I was a leader and transformed me in many significant ways. It changed my outlook on life as well as my approach to leadership in general.”

- Sub- theme 3.2 The Confidence to Succeed

A leader is a person who has ability to influence others’ behaviour because of recognized knowledge, skills, or abilities (Kreitner & Kinicki, 2010:180). Leaders are perceived to have expertise in well-defined functional areas but not outside them. To have power, followers must perceive the power holder to be credible, trustworthy, and relevant. Efficacy is the ability to produce a desired result; a leader needs to believe in her own competence in order to be effective. (Robbins, & Judge, (2011:202).

As she continued describing her goals, however, it was obvious that this statement was not meant to imply a need for power. As she described how she started the centre and became the director, she referred to having great boards that always did what she wanted them to do.

Confidence in one’s abilities is often strengthened through experiences that test the resolve of the individual.

Participant B FG1, identified such experiences of her own that gave her confidence as a member of the ward committee member and a Participant in the CNDC.

“I think I realized that I did have the ability to do of things. I just didn’t give up. Not that you’re always going to be successful on everything, but maybe on the things that really mattered.” Taking risks is a way that one of the Participants illustrated confidence in her Leadership abilities”.

Participant F FG recalled how she has had to convince many people of her vision along the way, starting with her husband.

“When I began earning extra money and putting it into home improvements, he became convinced that I did indeed know what I was doing.” When I first started in the construction business, I was taking phone calls, handling the business, and setting up deals. I was just a receptionist”

She was told by a colleague that she did not need any help, she just needed the confidence, and that was a turning point for her. Her role as a leader developed from this experience.

As she described her business philosophy, Participant F, FG2 stated ,

“I did my homework and knew what I was going to do and how much it was going to cost and what the profit would be. I had the money, I had the plan, and I had the facts.” It was this confidence that encouraged others to seek out her expertise and guidance.

When she was approached by her current company, she told them she would run it for two months, just to get things going. After twelve years, she is still there as the director.

- Sub theme 3.3 Impacting Society

Bond et al. (2008:123) indicated that women who remain engaged in leadership positions reap various rewards. Often the reward is intrinsic in nature, such as having a positive impact on society, rather than extrinsic. Participant H FG3 discussed how much she enjoyed seeing how the programs she helped to establish have made a difference.

“I just thoroughly enjoy seeing people succeed. I like helping people learn how to communicate effectively. I remember helping an employee, telling him I would like to edit his reports, so he could see how he might improve. He told me later that was the best training he ever had. That’s the kind of reward that I’ve gotten.”

Both of these women made a tangible impact on the lives of people within the community.

Identifying with those whom one leads as well as serves was an important factor in

Participant J FG3’s leadership identity.

“We have a lot of diversity among our community, young, old, poor, and I just felt like I was one of them.” I feel that I am making an impact on the community, both as a woman and a leader.”

Ultimately, she said, she was here to do a job. The tough decisions associated with her position, those that really affected the community, were what transformed her as a leader and as a person.

- Sub- theme 3.4 Personal characteristics

Leatherwood and Williams (2008:198) found characteristics such as flexibility, work ethic, integrity, and good communication skills are factors in effective leadership. The Participants in this study identified similar characteristics in their own experiences as leaders within the community.

A similar ability to adapt to challenging situations was also essential to Participant G, FG4’s success in the leadership arena. Some had expressed doubt that she would be accepted; they were surprised to find that she could not only do the work, but that she had developed relationships with people whom they thought would be unaccepting. Participant B, FG1 stated.

“I attribute a great deal of my achievement to studying the issues and being prepared,”

Patience is traditionally a characteristic that women identify as helpful within their leadership roles. Participant C, FG2 however, identified her lack of patience as her motivation for becoming a leader. If no one steps up, she always steps in and gets something done. This is not always accomplished without fear or trepidation. She recalled experiences that made her consider her fears.

“I knew I had to do it, so I overcame the fear. And now when I meet something that just scares the heck out of me, I say to myself, ‘Look, you have no choice. You have to do it, so find a way.’”

Objective 3: To establish whether leadership style influences women in the CNDC’s;

Objective number four of this study intended to examine women in the leadership style in the development of the CNDC’s. Understanding the leadership preference or style of women leaders in a particular the community is a prerequisite towards understanding influences in these leadership styles, and necessitates women leaders’ empowerment.

When research participants‟ were asked to explain whether women what leadership style they display, the following themes were identified, namely, leadership style, Motivations and empowering and preferred women leadership styles

THEME 4 Effectual Leadership Styles
- Sub-theme 4.1 Leadership Style

Leadership style is the manner and approach of providing direction, implementing plans, and motivating people. What is the best style of leadership? There is no definitive answer to this question, but a number of approaches have been suggested.

Leaders vary their styles depending on the theory that informs their practices, their experience in the field, the issue that needs to be addressed and so forth. When research participants were asked on what type of leadership style do women use? Majority of the interviewed Participants, argued that women as leaders are inclined to the transformational approach. This is because transformative leadership favours their feminine values of nurturing and caring. This however was neglected by one Participants staffs during an interview session who said;

…Ah! “I think women prefer situational leadership. In situational leadership there is no "best" style of leadership. Women leadership varies depending on the task, job or function that needs to be accomplished …!”

Since this study revealed that majority of respondents, most women leadership to incline to the transformational approach because it favours their feminine values of nurturing and caring.

According to Burns, transforming leadership is a process in which "leaders and followers help each other to advance to a higher level of morale and motivation". It is not based on a "give and take" relationship, but on the leader's personality and ability to make a change through example, articulation of an energizing vision and challenging goals.

The inclusive style that Participant G, FG3 used took into account the opinions of her followers . The ability to be a good listener played a key role in her success as a Participant.

My style of leadership is participatory leadership. That is, I try to involve all stakeholders in the decision-making process. And then I exercise my faith, my best judgment, after reviewing and synthesizing input from others. I listen. It is more than hearing people; it is listening to what they are saying. One thing that makes me effective is that I do my homework. I never accept statements as facts unless I have done the research to confirm those reasons. Listening to the advice and counsel of Participants who had similar experiences in their community has helped me learn from their successes and failures.

Transforming leaders are idealized in the sense that they are a moral exemplar of working towards the benefit of the team, or community. Bond et al. (2008:123) extended the work of Leatherwood and Williams (2008:198) by explaining the psychological mechanisms that underlie transforming and transactional leadership. According to him, the extent to which a leader is transformational is measured first, in terms of his influence on the followers. Thus, Bond et al. (2008:123) focuses upon the connections formed between leaders and followers.

Sub-theme 4.2 Motivations and Empowering

According to Magner (2008:131), Transformational leader capture the trust of people through coaching, inspiring and empowering others. Empowerment is described as having reliability, fulfilment in achievements, and influence over what and how to do things, acknowledgement for opinions and suggestions, and the confidence that one is being valued and appreciated (Laurent & Bradney, 2007:123). Leaders change individuals and communities they serve. They do not live for themselves but their communities. Although they appreciated being recognized for their work, prestige did not drive them. Participant K, FG4) says about her work:

“So for me, impact is changed lives, healed bodies, minds, and spirits. Especially women who begin to glimpse who they are and go forth. That really matters to me.”

Participant A FG1

“It’s shocking to have to try and raise a million rands every year, two million rand to build a building you need and if that’s not where your gifts are, it is the tough part. But the balancing pleasure of seeing people enjoy themselves and benefit from what they are doing…People who were inactive and now they can get up and take a walk and they make new friends, and now have a plate of food every day. It’s a thrilling business and I just love that. To see people blossom in all kinds of ways.”

Participant K, FG4s commenting on change:

“But I would say that more concretely is when I actually see a change in the individuals that we work with. So to our youth training program, to actually see the penny drop, to see people shift in terms of how they view food as a social justice issue, in terms of how they suddenly see their own role in the world, in terms of not just having to be receivers of whatever is handed out to them, but being an agent of change. I think that’s what keeps me motivated.”

The women’s other measures of success included having changed policy and supporting a healthy, thriving, sustainable organization. Participant I FG3 explained:

“The big, hairy idea of success is that, you know, we’ll build a movement, and we’ll do a national direct service programme, and then on the shoulders of that, a training program that serves even more kids, and then on the shoulders of that, an advocacy and policy sort of approach that creates a system where the expectation is that kids have access to healthy, safe play.”

Another Participant C FG1 responded

“I would say there would be some measure of success when I am able to leave and other young people from the neighborhood are running the work, which is what we’re planning, that process and that transition now. When that happens, then I’ll feel like yes, I did something right.”

- Sub-theme 4.3 Preferred Leadership Styles

In her study on Leadership, Coleman (2003:55) determined that gender has an influence on the self-perceptions of leaders. There are as many leadership styles as there are people who see themselves as leader (Addy, 2001). The motivations of women often determine their methods of leading. As many studies have shown, some leaders have a relatively task-oriented style— emphasizing behaviour that accomplishes assigned tasks—and others have a more interpersonally oriented style—emphasizing behaviour that maintains positive interpersonal relationships” (Eagly, 2007:7).

Participant B FG1, states that her leadership style is based on communication and participation. She also views herself as directive and tuned in her subordinates.

My leadership is based on communication. I concert people, I am directive in so far as I give guidance leaving people independent. Every single employee is a vital link in the chain. I have a wide open communication with them but tasks are very well-defined. I have weekly meetings with my teams during which I control the progress of what was done, and then I take action depending on the result. To take decisions, I stand back, I ask for individual perception, and then I try to get a global feeling. I never imposed decisions, I never needed to do it. In case of bad decisions, I never hesitate to put myself into perspective. I always take into account both spheres which are the individual and the group

Participant G, FG4 focused on facilitation and working toward a common goal as key attributes of a successful Participant.

“Successful leadership is the ability to get the job done. You can have lots of personality and lots of money, but if you don’t get the job done, then you are not a very good leader. You have to have the ability to convene people and facilitate people with different ideas toward a common goal. You have to have the vision and an understanding of the steps to get there. You have to have the ability to let others lead. In a group, you have to be willing to be open-minded.

Participant L, FG4, says

“I am an idea person; I will listen to anybody’s idea if they take the time to formulate it. I believe in nurturing people. Empathy is important…I have a tremendous amount of empathy for social service organizations and that’s why I like to partner with them”.

A calm outward and consideration for others were Participant FFG3’s primary keys to effective leadership. It is as important to nurture leadership in others as it is in oneself. Successful Leadership has so much to do with getting good people around you and letting them do what they do best.

“One of my biggest strengths would be connecting people. I got a call from a man who was just furious with how my CNDC was doing things. Before the call was over, he had agreed to come in that afternoon. He sat down and visited with me and we figured out how he could volunteer and help solve the issue. Turn the situation around—that’s what works for me. A leader has to be aware of the things that are around you and the opportunities and try to take advantage of them”.

According to Participant L FG4

“A good leader is somebody who engenders confidence, who is strategic and looks at the big picture, and has a vision for the organization, company, or entity”. It is one who is able to see out to the future and have a strategic plan for the future. “I am very intuitive with people and I can tell when people are feeling or not feeling good or how they’re reacting to a situation. So I’m very cognizant of my co-workers’ attitudes and feelings. I am a hard worker, and I put in many more hours than most people. I’m a perfectionist, so I like things to be done well and done right. That takes extra time. I didn’t realize that I can come across very intense”.

Women leaders have a different attitude towards power than men do. Whereas men are seen to concern themselves with the power vested in them in leadership positions, women do not concern themselves with it to the same extent. They know they have the power “they do not flaunt it. If they exercise it, then they do it subtly (Goleman et al, 2002:270). Women in positions of leadership are able to optimise different skills and assets developed while carrying out their academic duties. In the main they are able to understand and handle conflict better (Van Wart, 2013).

The style of leadership they exercise is mostly consultative and participatory. They are more likely to extend their natural tending and caring attitude to staff and beneficiaries; they therefore encourage staff members to go higher whilst frequently senior women mentor younger ones, give advice and listen to problems. Women also tend to be more transformational in their leadership style than men and their feminine qualities of caring and nurturing are what may be required by organisational cultures of the future.

4.6 Conclusion

This chapter presented the findings and discussion from the study on the role played by women in Leadership and management in the development of the CNDC’s in Bojanala Municipality as case of studies. All four objectives were covered, using open ended unstructured question to interview participants through two type interviews, i.e. One to One and the Focus Group, resulting in 8 themes that emerged, reflecting on what the leader’s roles and responsibilities, including the unintended roles and other supporting functions leaders play in the development of their communities. The study revealed that majority of women leading utilizes the transformational approach to leadership. The use of this approach was grounded by the fact that it favours women feminine values of nurturing and caring. Apart from utilizing the transformational approach to leadership, compliments of efficiency and effectiveness in their leadership style were more awarded to women in their community engagement. Their role has effectively improved and impacted the lives of many people in the communities. In the next chapter a summary of the conclusions and recommendation of the study is provided. The Research Objectives and Research Questions were used and answered.

CHAPTER FIVE : CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1 Introduction

The aim of study was to assess the Leadership and Management Role Played by Women in the Development of Community Nutrition and Development Centres (CNDC’s) in the North West Province. This chapter focuses on the findings from Primary Research in relation with the Literature Review, present a summary of the study, draw conclusions and make recommendations for present and future research based upon the findings. The conclusions are based on the purpose, research questions and results of the study. The implications of these findings and the resultant recommendations will also be explained.

5.2 Findings from the Study

5.2.1 Findings from the Literature Review

According to what the literature exposes, there are several major documents, deal with women leadership and their role in community development. According to Gilchrist (2009:122) development implies total improvement of the individual, his/ her milieu and environment. Aref and Ma’rof (2009:110) mentions that development is about people, it’s about quality of life of people and their capacity to improve the conditions of their existence to reach control and utilise their resources for greater productivity and enjoyment It is about the autonomy and self-respect of the individuals as a free member of his community. It is brought about by people.

The leadership that emerges from this work is consistent with previous work (Goodman, 2009:345) and with the transformational leadership model. According to Bass and Riggio (2006:157) transformational leadership model consists of four components:

Consistent with the transformational leadership model, these qualities include creating and communicating a shared vision (Crosby & Bryson, 2005:223). Williams (2002:121) states that being innovative, taking risks, and expressing dissatisfaction with the status quo Effective leaders also appear to have highly developed relational skills, with an ability to establish shared meanings, listen actively, build trust, and manage conflict William (2002:123). Some evidence suggests that leaders may exhibit more relational skills when leading within collaborations and networks than when leading solely within their own organizations (Lyman et al., 2009). According to Magner (2008:131), Transformational leaders capture the trust of people through coaching, inspiring and empowering others (Laurent & Bradney, 2007:123). These women, who were largely able to define their own organizational role, gravitated toward a leadership style (transformational) that does not conflict with gender roles. However, it is also possible that these leaders were reflecting general trends toward a more transformational style, considered to be more effective in the current culture Bass and Riggio (2006:157). Further research in this area will help elucidate the relative importance of organizational versus gender roles in leadership style in community development

5.2.2 Findings from the Primary Research

Findings below will be discussed are based on the four research questions.

- Research Question 1. What leadership and management role do women play in the development of the CNDC?

The finding from the research reveals two important themes addressing a research question. These are Expected Mandates which focussed on the achievement of key objectives of the CNDC’s and the role women leaders are expected to perform. The process include of setting and achieving goals through the execution of five basic management functions; planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling that utilizes human, financial, and material resources in an efficient manner. The second theme, the inadvertent roles, which records other supporting functions played by women leader in the development of their communities. These are important transformational roles meant to bring about concrete changes in the lives of the communities in Bojanala, Women play a pivotal role in leadership and management, they are responsible to manage and leader their own CNDC’s and other programme in the organisations, working and leading their own communities and beneficiaries. Their work encompasses providing and serving nutritious meals and assisting with food security programmes. The women mentioned that they also provide life skills programmes and other empowerment programmes to their beneficiaries. Life skills programmes include beadwork, baking, food gardening.

- Research Question 2. Do women possess leadership and management characteristics?

The finding in the study shows few themes related to the research question, Power versus influence revealed a concern for the community and the need for female presence in leadership positions within that community. Stories centred on reasons for becoming a leader and how women in leadership can influence others. Within the theme of inciting change, the importance of innovation and vision emerged as key factors in effective leadership, including shared leadership as a dynamic, interactive influence process among individuals in groups for which the objective is to lead communities to the achievement of group or organizational goals or both. This influence process involves peer, or lateral, influence and at other times involves upward or downward hierarchical influences.

The second most mentioned characteristic was to have the ability to inspire people not only in their team but all around them.

The findings also revealed that the women in this study reported they used a transformational leadership style as they encouraged innovation, considered individual needs and emphasised mentoring and coaching their staff members.

Women’s common values of inclusion and connections are important to leadership, and community concern and care are essential to children’s education regardless of leaders’ gender. It is interesting to find that though the women in this study regarded masculine attributes as more appropriate for leadership they did not integrate them in their leadership style.

- Research Question 3. Does leadership styles have an impact on women in the development of Community Nutrition and Development Centres?

Since these women have experiences in leading other people, naturally they are quite comfortable and confidence in the present position. They are also well-qualified and thus possess the necessary knowledge to be a leader. They know the decision making process and able to make a sound decision. Still they encourage others to be involved in the decision making process and avoid making all decision themselves. They view and believe that consensus is a very important element in reaching to a decision. They will give much opportunity for people to speak or give their opinion before decisions were made. Most of the time, they presented themselves as resource person to the community and not as decision-maker for others. Rather than emphasizing on duties they have to perform as leaders of the CNDC’s they emphasized more on their service to the community.

In leadership practices, these women are more egalitarian. They enhance the ability of the group without drawing too much of attention to themselves, thereby making people believe that their main role is to help the community members come together. These women also believe that they operate differently than most men. The difference is a natural one arising from women’s “nurturing nature” and from their motherhood experiences. This can be seen from their statements about women such as they are “more caring and “more sensitive” than men.

- Research Question 4. Do challenges and constraints have an impact on women leadership?

The study findings showed that women leaders in the respective organisation, are faced by a number of challenges such as social and cultural stereotypes, psychological factor, the problem of balancing reproductive and workplace functions and lack of networking.

Other mentioned challenges included negative perceptions on competencies of women leaders among women themselves and lack of confidence. In an attempt to discuss the identified main themes, it was reported that stereotypes about leaders generally resemble stereotypes of men rather than those of women. As a result, women are placed at a disadvantage in most leadership role.

Apart from understanding challenges facing women in leadership or management position in the Organisation, this part went on to explore the similarities and differences in the challenges facing women in leadership or management position., women leaders lack confidence in their own abilities, and poor gender relations at work, and low self-esteem.

The study showed that the women leaders believe that by becoming a leader they are helping to empower other women to do something that is important to them by providing a platform and opportunity to develop themselves and to discuss and share their feelings and needs.

5.3 Conclusions

The socio-economic problems in Bojanala Municipality have stimulated Women Leader in different communities to engage in strategies which enable them to uplift their standards of living and promote their social functioning. In an attempt to address their community problems, women, in particular, engage in activities that lead to the process of community development. This study confirms the important role Women Leaders play in the development of the CNDC. The twenty women interviewed have made important contributions, from the development of food access programs for vulnerable and poor people to the formulation of food secured communities. Collectively, they have helped to improve the health and nutrition status of thousands of people.

5.4 Recommendations

The research has found that t Women Leaders already involved in community development and are at advance stage. They have contributed enormously to the upliftment of the community. What they need is to strengthen their capacity to be more confident about their abilities and talents. This can be done by exposing them to more leadership capacity building process so that they can be empowered to contributed meaningfully to their own communities and also improve chances to get tin to the formal markets.

There is also a need to encourage women leaders to work through the moments of self-doubts, by commending them to ignore that inner voice that may discourage taking tough decision, speaking up and getting outside their comfort zone.

To sustain the development of women leaders in community development, the researcher suggest the following actions:

- A key role in building women’s capacity is good quality education that encourages independent, critical thought, fosters self-confidence and provides woman leaders with a vision of their future.
- More rigorous public campaigns to challenge gender stereotypes and the establishment of programmes to increase women leaders’ role.
- In view of the difficulty women have in entering leadership positions, alliance building and women’s organisations can assist them to enter such positions, particularly in government and parastatal organisations. Organisations whose members often comprise women activists have been successful in campaigning for the appointment of women to key positions.
- Create opportunities for these leaders to document their experience and development as community leaders;
- Strengthen and create environment women leaders would be free to lead without having to be compared to male leaders;
- Through documentation and dissemination of information, women leader can share the “best practices” and learn from each other;
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- Cultivate new leaders through exposure and capacity building and training including mentoring and exchange programmes.

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- making opportunities available for women to improve their credentials, to attend conferences, present papers, publish, organise and participate in symposia

5.5 Area for Further Research

Area for further research could be the inclusion of women with more diverse cultural or ethnic backgrounds. The question of how gender affects leadership would be worth investigating. This study could remain qualitative in nature as it explored the journeys of a more diverse population. Themes could be derived and explained in a similar fashion.

Additional research in this area could expand the worldview of advocacy and explore more fully the barriers and stereotypes present in today’s society. The intent of this study would narrow the themes identified in the present study and focus on one aspect in particular. Further studies in this area would also expand upon the influences women leaders have on teens and young girls as potential future leaders. Educational opportunities and policies could be topics of research within this scope of study.

5.6 Conclusion

This study confirms the important leadership and management role by women leaders in the development of Community Nutrition and Development Centres in Bojanala District Municipality. The twenty women interviewed have made important contributions to the quality of the people and community development at large. Collectively, they have helped to improve the health of thousands of people. The qualitative methodology utilised was effective in addressing the aims and the goals of this research. The nature of face to face and group interviews allowed better great interaction between the Researcher and the Respondent. The themes and sub themes that arose were offered as results and were linked to the overall aim of the study. A thorough literature control was used to ensure the validity of the result

The conclusion and recommendations made in this chapter are reflections of the overall research study. The recommendation are useful for the intervention in community Development, and further study will be beneficial to Women Leaders and young women who are inspiring to be leaders. It is only be hoped that the study will at least stimulate further research and subsequent change in this field. Only by added research in this field will a greater knowledge based be which will ultimately, in its guiding of practice, enhances the services rendered to the development of the CNDC’s and Community Development.

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Appendix A: Letter of Granting Permission to Conduct the Study Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Appendix B: Letter to Respondents

Mpho Putu

333 Mondeor, 2091, Mobile no. 084 8360966, email:mphoputu@gamil.com

Dear Participant

My name is name is Mpho Putu. I am a MBA student at Regent Business School. I am conducting a research study as part of the requirements for my MBA dissertation, entitled: Assessing the Leadership and Management Role Played by Women in the Development of Community Nutrition and Development and I would like to invite you to participate.

The research looking at women participation and contribution in your CNDC. If you decide and agree, I will meet with you for an interview to discuss your role as a leaders in your CNDC. The meeting will take place at Tlapa CNDC on the 12 June 2016 at 2 pm The interview will be audio recorded so that I can accurately reflect on what is discussed. The tapes will only be reviewed by members of the research team who will transcribe and analyse them. They will then be destroyed.

Participation is confidential. Study information will be kept in a secure location. The results of the study may be published or presented at professional meetings, but your identity will not be revealed.

I will be happy to answer any questions you have about the study. You may contact me at 084 836 0966 if you have study related questions or problems.

I will call you within the next week to see whether you are willing to participate.

With kind regards,

Mpho Putu

Mpho Putu

333 Mondeor, 2091, Mobile no. 084 8360966, email:mphoputu@gamil.com

Dear Participant

My name is name is Mpho Putu. I am a MBA student at Regent Business School. I am conducting a research study as part of the requirements for my MBA dissertation, entitled: Assessing the Leadership and Management Role Played by Women in the Development of Community Nutrition and Development and I would like to invite you to participate.

The research looking at women participation and contribution in your CNDC. If you decide and agree, I will meet with you for an interview to discuss your role as a leaders in your CNDC. The meeting will take place at Tlapa CNDC on the 4 June 2016 at 900 pm. The interview will be audio recorded so that I can accurately reflect on what is discussed. The tapes will only be reviewed by members of the research team who will transcribe and analyse them. They will then be destroyed.

You may feel uncomfortable answering some of the questions. You do not have to answer any questions that you do not wish to. Participation is confidential. Study information will be kept in a secure location. The results of the study may be published or presented at professional meetings, but your identity will not be revealed. There is no compensation for responding nor is there any known risk.

I will be happy to answer any questions you have about the study. You may contact me at 084 836 0966 if you have study related questions or problems.

Thank you for your consideration. If you would like to participate, please contact me at the number listed below to discuss participating.

With kind regards,

Mpho Putu

Appendix C: Letter to Respondents

Mpho Putu

333 Mondeor, 2091, Mobile no. 084 8360966, email:mphoputu@gamil.com

Dear Participant

My name is name is Mpho Putu. I am a MBA student at Regent Business School. I am conducting a research study as part of the requirements for my MBA dissertation, entitled: Assessing the Leadership and Management Role Played by Women in the Development of Community Nutrition and Development and I would like to invite you to participate.

The research is looking at women participation and contribution in your CNDC. If you decide and agree, your will be asked to participate in a group discussion about your role as a leaders in your CNDC. The meeting will take place at Kgothatsanang CNDC on the 04 June 2016 at 2 pm and should last for about 40 minutes the group interview will be audio recorded so that I can accurately reflect on what is discussed

Because we will be talking in a group, we cannot promise that what you say will remain completely private, but we will ask that you and all other group members respect the privacy of everyone in the group. You may feel uncomfortable answering some of the questions. You do not have to answer any questions that you do not wish to. Participation is confidential. Study information will be kept in a secure location.

I will be happy to answer any questions you have about the study. You may contact me at 084 836 0966 if you have study related questions or problems.

Thank you for your consideration. If you would like to participate, please contact me at the number listed below to discuss participating.

With kind regards,

Mpho Putu

Appendix D: Research Instrument

Question to be used for the One to One Interviews (8 participants)

1. When you think about the word “leadership”, what comes to mind? How do you define leadership (Objective 1)
2. Describe your own leadership and management qualities that has made you a successful leaders? (Objective 2)
3. What are some of leadership roles played by women in this organisation? (Objective 1)
4. What has been the constraints in your leadership development (objective 4)
5. Share some of the changes you have seen in your community a as result of your leadership in your CNDC (0bjecive 4)
6. Describe situations in which you are most successful as a leader (objective 4)
7. How does your leadership style impacted your work in your community (0bjective 3)
8. In what way has your leadership qualities assisted in community development (Objective 2)
9 What leadership traits you observed from your colleagues that assisted you in your leadership community moving forward (Objective 3)
10. Describe how has other women leaders influenced you (Onbective1)

Question for the Focus group (4 x 3 focus group)

1. How would you describe your management and leadership function in your current responsibilities in the CNDC’s (Objective 1)
2. In your opinion, what are the characteristic of a good leader? Why is important to you in your leadership? (Objective 2)
3. Describe the leadership styles displayed by women leaders in your CNDC and community (objective 4)
4. What are some transformational moments you have experiences in your leadership (Objective 1)
5. There are many ways to define success, and many different yardsticks to measure it by. How do you define success in terms of your work? Describe as best you can anything that has helped you become successful, by your own definition (Objective 3).

Appendix E: Interview Schedule

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

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Details

Titel
Assessing leadership and manangement role played by women in the development of Community Nutrition and Development Centres
Autor
Jahr
2016
Seiten
115
Katalognummer
V340864
ISBN (Buch)
9783668306301
Dateigröße
1002 KB
Sprache
Deutsch
Schlagworte
leadership, women leaders, management, South Africa
Arbeit zitieren
Mpho Putu (Autor), 2016, Assessing leadership and manangement role played by women in the development of Community Nutrition and Development Centres, München, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/340864

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