Health aspects and food safety in urban and peri-urban agricultural production in India. Farms and railway gardens across the Mumbai Metropolitan Region


Scientific Study, 2016

45 Pages


Excerpt

Table of contents

Table of figures

Table of tables

List of abbreviations

Abstract

1. Introduction

2. Materials and Methods
2.1 Study area
2.2 Site description, produce sampling and analysis
2.3 Data analyses
2.4 Statistical analysis

3. Results
3.1 Soil element and heavy metal concentration
3.2 Produce element and heavy metal concentration
3.3 Heavy metal transfer and translocation
3.4 Heavy metal exposure and hazard index

4. Discussion

5. Conclusions

Acknowledgements

References

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Firstly we thank God Almighty whose blessing were always with us and helped us to complete this research work successfully.

The first author would like to thank Prof. Dr. Andreas Buerkert for providing an opportunity to do research work under his guidance at the University of Kassel, Germany. I (first author) express my sincere affection towards him for all his encouragements, valuable comments, suggestions, contributions, personal attention and motivation during the research days. My (first author) deep appreciation goes to Prof. Dr. D. Chandrasekhram from the Department of Earth Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay (IITB), Mumbai for his academic aid, permission to use the laboratory facility and consideration towards me. I cannot ever forget his vital support in my research work in Mumbai. I (first author) thank Trupti Gurav for giving me good suggestions, familiarizing me with the complicated instruments and showing personal care and attentions during my stay in IITB, Mumbai.

We wish to thank our beloved Manager Rev. Fr. Dr. George Njarakunnel, Respected Principal Dr. V.J. Joseph, Bursar Shaji Augustine, Vice Principal Fr. Joseph Allencheril, and the Management for providing all the necessary facilities in carrying out the study.

We lovingly and gratefully indebted to our teachers, parents, siblings and friends who were there always for helping us in this project.

Prem Jose Vazhacharickal*, Jiby John Mathew and Sajeshkumar N.K

*Address for correspondence

Assistant Professor

Department of Biotechnology

Mar Augusthinose College

Ramapuram-686576

Kerala, India

premjosev@gmail.com

Table of figures

Figure 1. Map of Mumbai Metropolitan Region (India) showing the location of the three selected railway gardens (RG1 - RG3) and farms (F1 – F3) used in the study. The black dots indicate the position of the gardens (after World Bank, 2013)

Figure 2. Climatic data for Mumbai Metropolitan Region, India during study period (2011-2013) along with 50 years (1955-2005) average value. Source: Regional Meteorological Center, Mumbai

Figure 3. Four major UPA production systems from the Mumbai Metropolitan Region, India: (top left) Railway Garden; RG, (top right) Farm; F, (bottom left) Terrace Garden; TG and (bottom right) Balcony Garden; BG

Figure 4. Urban and peri-urban agriculture in Mumbai metropolitan region a) paddy fields in vacant land, b) vegetables cultivating near railway tracks, c) different stages of okra fruits, d) ornamental plant selling near open highway roads, e) lady worker harvesting flowers in basket, f) flowers packed for distributing in local market. (Authors own image)

Figure 5. Urban and peri-urban agriculture in Mumbai metropolitan region a) circular concrete tank for irrigation, b) taro plants in a farm, c) African snails attacking papaya plants, d) ornamental flower production in poly-houses, e) terrace garden system, f) harvested taro leaves ready for distribution in market. (Authors own image)

Figure 6. Urban and peri-urban agriculture in Mumbai metropolitan region a) street vendors selling locally produced vegetables, b) bricks made from good quality agriculture field soils, c) farmers collecting spinach, d) harvested spinach leaves, e) Malabar spinach seeds kept for drying, f) disease infected spinach leaf. (Authors own image)

Figure 7. Urban and peri-urban agriculture in Mumbai metropolitan region a) removal of agricultural top soil for construction of houses, b) slash and burn agriculture system, c) farmers transporting hay in bullock carts, d) brick production in brick klins, e) farmer washing white radish, f) swine wandering in urban wastes. (Authors own image)

Figure 8. Urban and peri-urban agriculture irrigation sources in Mumbai metropolitan region a) waste water irrigation source near railway track, b) waste water irrigation source near slum, c) irrigation water samples for analysis, d) and f) waste water cannels as irrigation water sources, e) collection of irrigation water samples. (Authors own image)

Table of tables

Table 1. Site description and soil properties (0-20 cm; n=3) of the selected farms (F1, F2 and F3) as well as railway gardens (RG1, RG2 and RG3) in the Mumbai Metropolitan Region, India during 2011-2013

Table 2. Total concentration (range and mean + SE, mg kg-1) of copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), strontium (Sr) and cobalt (Co) in the surface soil (0-20 cm; n=6) of six UPA gardens across the Mumbai Metropolitan Region, India during 2011-2013

Table 3. Concentration of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), strontium (Sr) and cobalt (Co) in different crop parts of six UPA gardens across the Mumbai Metropolitan Region, India during 2011-2013. Values (mean + SE) in mg kg-1 dry weight

Table 4. Pearson correlation coefficients between plant (edible part) heavy metal concentration of six UPA production systems (n=55) in the Mumbai Metropolitan Region, India during 2011-2013

Table 5. Metal transfer factor (MTF) of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), strontium (Sr) and cobalt (Co) from soil to different crops based on ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) extractable heavy metals in the surface soil (0-20 cm) of six UPA gardens across the Mumbai Metropolitan Region, India during 2011-2013

Table 6. Translocation factor (TF) of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), strontium (Sr) and cobalt (Co) from root to shoot of different crops in six UPA gardens across the Mumbai Metropolitan Region, India during 2011-2013

Table 7. Daily intake (mg kg-1 d-1) and health risk index of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), strontium (Sr) and cobalt (Co) from crops in six UPA gardens across the Mumbai Metropolitan Region, India during 2011-2013

Table 8. Daily intake (mg kg-1 d-1) and health risk index of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), strontium (Sr) and cobalt (Co) from crops in six UPA gardens across the Mumbai Metropolitan Region, India during 2011-2013

Table 9. Target hazard co-efficient (THQ) of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), strontium (Sr) and cobalt (Co) from different crops in six UPA gardens across the Mumbai Metropolitan Region, India during 2011-2013

List of abbreviations

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Abstract

Urban and peri-urban agriculture (UPA) provide a significant role in ensuring urban food security, income generation and livelihood strategies and supports Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Quantitative data about the phytoavailability and food chain transfer of heavy metals in Mumbai Metropolitan Region (MMR) is scarce. This study was conducted to characterize the elemental and heavy metal transfer among major UPA production systems (farms and railway gardens), in MMR eliciting the soil to root translocation as well as its localization in produce. It comprises a detailed two year onsite examination of three farms (F1-3) and three railway gardens (RG1-3) across MMR. Potential risk assessments were conducted by metal transfer factor (MTF), metal translocation (TF), daily intake of metals (DIM), health risk index (HRI), average daily dose (ADD) and target hazard quotient (THQ) as well as total metal and element content in comparison with different safety standards. Copper concentration in soils ranged from 29.7 - 545.1 mg kg-1, with highest and lowest concentrations observed at RG3 and RG2 respectively. The shoots of white radish accumulated Sr concentrations up to 424.1 mg kg-1 at RG2. Strontium had a TF up to 32.25 in comparison with Co, Cu, Zn, Ni and Cr with a maximum of 5.93, 5.32, 3.41, 1.71 and 1.47 respectively. Average daily dose of Zn was between 1.3 × 10-1 and 3.6 × 10-1 mg kg-1 d-1 while Ni had a daily dose of between 4.6 × 10-2 and 7.4 × 10-2 mg kg-1 d-1. The estimated values of ADD were below the world standard levels except for Zn and Ni, there is a relative absence of health risk imposed by the ingestion of these vegetables produced in UPA systems in MMR.

Keywords: Heath risks; Heavy metals; Phyotoxicity; Wastewater use

1. Introduction

The contribution of Urban and peri-urban agriculture (UPA) towards urban livelihood strategies, waste recycling, better space utilization, employment, income generation and food security (Ezedinma and Chukuezi, 1999; Ruel et al., 1999; Schiere and Van der Hoek, 2001; Obuobie et al., 2006; Hill et al., 2007; Sinha, 2009) is often appreciated by Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) as well as Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). UPA promotes local and sustainable food production reducing the ecological foot prints as well as urban heat island (De Zeeuw, 2011; Dubbeling and De Zeeuw, 2011; Custot et al., 2012) and reduction of “food dollar” (Bellows et al., 2004). Due to the commercial and intensive nature of UPA production systems, the major risks involves excessive nutrient balances (Predotova et al., 2010; Abdulkadir et al., 2013), ground water leaching (Predotova et al., 2010), heavy metal contamination (Rattan et al., 2005; Singh et al., 2009; Abdu et al., 2011a; Ghosh et al., 2012), nematodes (Ensink et al., 2007; Yadav and Tandon, 2010; Safi and Buerkert, 2012) and fecal pathogens (Feenstra et al., 2000; Raschid‐Sally et al., 2005; Safi and Buerkert, 2012). These factors often challenge the motto of “Good practice urban agriculture” which is an effectively regulated agriculture to provide safe food for the city dwellers (Gangopadhyay, 2011).

Elements and trace elements play a major role in plant nutrition and their reduced intake leads to loss of vigor, vitality and nutritional deficiency symptoms (Marschner, 1995; Kirkby, 2012). On the other hands the excessive accumulation of these elements in soil leads to phyotoxicity, stunted growth, senescence and ion antagonistic mechanisms (Raskin et al., 1994; Furini, 2012). The source of origin of these elements includes lithogenic, pedogenic and anthropogenic nature while their bioavailability differs. The geological and biological alterations of earth crust were considered to be slow while the man-made changes in the anthrosphere were quick and often irreversible (Kabata-Pendias, 2011). The natural sources includes weathering, volcanic eruptions, forest fires and biogenic sources while anthropogenic sources includes atmospheric deposition, application sewages, industrial co-products and wastes, fertilizers and agrochemicals (Alloway, 1995; Kabata-Pendias and Mukherjee, 2007; Hooda, 2010; Kabata-Pendias, 2011). Point and nonpoint-source pollution also alter the availability and the bioavailability of these metals depend on the soil type and metal species (Pierzynski, 2005). Long term application of untreated wastewater results in accumulation of heavy metals in above toxic levels in soil which may leads to reduced retention and profound leaching (Khan et al., 2008; Sridhara et al., 2008). The accumulation of heavy metals in soils and plants are of increasing concern due to food chain contamination and the subsequent health risks. The absorption of the heavy metals by plant varies with metal species and their efficiency is monitored by plant uptake or soil to plant transfer factor. Transfer factor is a better indicator if crops are grown in variable soil metal contents (Rattan, 2005).

Mumbai, a heavily populated industrial city whose population in 2009 reached 21 million, thus becoming the fourth largest urban agglomeration in the world (O'Hare et al., 1998; Krishna and Govil, 2005; UN, 2010). The major UPA production system in Mumbai Metropolitan Region (MMR) involves Railway Garden (RG), Farm (F), Balcony Garden (BG) and Terrace Garden (TG) with a great diversity of vegetables (Vazhacharickal and Buerkert, 2012; Vazhacharickal et al., 2013). Railway gardens grow a variety of vegetables such as okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L) , spinach (Spinacia oleracea L) , red amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus L) and taro (Colocasia esculenta L) which were irrigated with wastewater. On the other hands farms which are less intensively oriented and uses water from a variety of sources including bore well, rivers and ponds (Vazhacharickal and Buerkert, 2012; Vazhacharickal et al., 2013). The knowledge about health aspects and food safety in such production systems in MMR is still scarce. We therefore conducted field experiment studies with the purpose (1) to characterize the elemental and heavy metal contents in produce (2) to assess the status quo of metal transfer and translocation, average daily dose and target hazard co-efficient.

2. Materials and Methods

2.1 Study area

The MMR covers an area of 4,355 km2 with a population density of 4,065 per km2 (MMRDA, 2010) and spread across four Districts (Figure 1). The climate is characterized by tropical wet and dry with average annual rainfall amounts to 2,642 mm and mean annual temperature is 26.8 °C (averages from 1955-2005; Regional Meteorological Center Mumbai, 2010). A detailed study was conducted from June 2011 to May 2013 in three farms (F1, F2 and F3) and three railway gardens (RG1, RG2 and RG3) along the Central and Harbor lines of Indian Railways across MMR. The mean annual rainfall for the study period were 2,675 mm and mean annual temperature 27.1 °C with monsoon (rainy season; June to September), post-monsoon (October to November) cold dry (December to February) and hot dry (March to May) seasons. Maximum rainfall occurs from June to September mainly due to the South West Monsoon, while temperatures were highest in May and November (Figure 2).

2.2 Site description, produce sampling and analysis

The six experimental gardens located in the MMR were known by the location names as well as the corresponding abbreviations (Table 1). The various soil types include sandy loam (F1, RG1 and RG3), clay (F2), clay loam (F3) and sandy clay loam (RG2). All the railway gardens were irrigated with wastewater, while the others depend on bore well (F1) and river waters (F2 and F3).

Three fixed experimental plots (A, B and C) of size 2m x 2m were randomly selected in each garden and continuously monitored for the research period (June 2011- May 2013). At each location, fresh produce samples were collected from the experimental plot during harvesting of crops including okra, eggplant (Solanum melongena L), red amaranth, white radish (Rhaphanus sativus var. longipinnatus L.H.Bailey), green amaranth (Amaranthus tritis L) and rice (Oryza sativa L). The samples were collected by placing 0.2m x 0.2m square metal framework in the four corners and center of the experimental plot. The individual samples were screened for primary cleaning, weighed and then pooled together. Before pooling the samples were sorted and separated depending on roots and stem with leaves. The samples were later washed thoroughly with distilled water and hard samples were cut into smaller pieces to facilitate proper drying and smooth powdering. The samples were dried in hot air oven (Meta Lab 02, Meta-Lab Scientific Industries, Mumbai, India) at 60 °C for 48 h. The dried samples were re-weighed and powdered using a waring blender (MG 172A, Preethi Kitchen Appliances Pvt Ltd, Chennai, India).

Samples were analysed for heavy metals, micro nutrients and trace elements including lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), strontium (Sr), lithium (Li), barium (Ba), cobalt (Co), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) and boron (B). To estimate total heavy metals, micro nutrients and trace elements concentration, 0.5 g powdered samples were weighed and transferred to Teflon crucibles. Then 7 ml nitric acid (HNO3; 65%), 1 ml hydrogen peroxide (H2O2; 30%) were added and digested for 10 minutes at 220 °C / 1000 W) using microwave digester (Milestone Inc, Shelton, USA). After complete digestion, the samples were filtered through a Whatman filter paper No 42 (GE Healthcare UK Ltd, Buckinghamshire, UK) and made up to 25 ml, stored in polyethylene volumetric flasks and analysed using ICP-AES (Spectro Arcos FHx12a, Spectro Analytical Instruments Inc.,Tokyo, Japan) with a known concentration of multi-element standards ranging from 10 to 1,000 ppm (Merck, Rahway, NJ, USA).

2.3 Data analyses

2.3.1 Metal transfer factor (MTF)

The ability of a plant to accumulate metal as a function of its concentration is referred as metal transfer factor (MTF) also known as bio-accumulation factor (Cui et al., 2004; Ghosh and Singh, 2005; Abdu et al., 2011b).

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

where Cplant and Csoil are the metal concentrations in edible portion of the vegetables and in soil. The transfer factor for the plant available heavy metals was calculated as a ratio above mentioned with the respective ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) extractable concentration in soil.

2.3.2 Metal translocation (TF)

Translocation of metals from root to shoot or shoot to root can be expressed as translocation factor (TF), calculated from below equation:

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

where Cshoot is the concentration of heavy metals in the above ground portion and Croot is their concentration in below ground (Ghosh, and Singh, 2005; Abdu et al., 2011b).

2.3.3 Daily intake of metals (DIM)

The daily oral intake of metals (DIM) through the consumption of produce (Cui et al., 2004; Li et al., 2006; Abdu et al., 2011b) was calculated according to the following equation:

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

where D is the daily produce consumption (g d-1) and M is the mean concentration of the metal in contaminated crop (mg kg-1, fresh weight basis). Based on the studies of Tripathi et al. (1997), the average vegetable consumption of the inhabitants of Mumbai was considered as 105 g d-1 (fresh weight; including non leafy vegetable). The per capita consumption of urban vegetable consumption in India is 197 g d-1 while the recommended consumption from Indian Council for Medical Research (ICMR) was 125 g d-1 (Vepa, 2004).

2.3.4 Health risk index (HRI)

The Health risk index (HRI) through the consumption of produce was assessed based on the DIM and the oral reference dose (RfD) of Cu, Zn, Cr, Ni, Sr and Co were respectively (US-EPA, 2002; Khan et al., 2008) and calculated from the below equation:

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

2.3.5 Average daily dose (ADD)

Average daily dose (ADD) was commuted from the following equation (Abdu et al., 2011b):

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

where C is the concentration of contaminant in the environmental sample (produce; mg kg-1), IR is the ingestion rate per unit time (kg d-1, L d-1), ED is the duration of exposure (years), EF is the exposure frequency (days per year), BW is the body weight (kg) and AT is the average time (years).

2.3.6 Target hazard quotient (THQ)

The health risks associated the consumption of contaminated produce can be assessed using target hazard quotient (THQ). The THQ is a ratio of determined dose of a pollutant to a reference dose level and is based on the following equation (Zheng et al., 2007; Zhuang et al., 2009; Abdu et al., 2011b):

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

where EFr is the exposure frequency (per 365 days), ED is the exposure duration over 60 years, FI is food ingestions (g person-1 d-1), MC is the heavy metal concentration in produce (µg g-1, on fresh weight basis), RfD is the oral reference dose (mg kg-1 d-1), BW is the average body weight for an adult (60 kg) and AT is the averaging time for non-carcinogens (365 days per year multiplied by the number of exposure years). Oral reference doses were based on US-EPA values on fresh weight basis. If the THQ is less than one, the exposed population is unlikely to experience the adverse effects (Chien et al., 2002).

2.4 Statistical analysis

The survey results were analysed by descriptive statistics using SPSS 12.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) and graphs were generated using Sigma plot 7 (Systat Software Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Pearson linear correlations among plant heavy metals across the selected gardens were computed using SPSS.

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Figure 1. Map of Mumbai Metropolitan Region (India) showing the location of the three selected railway gardens (RG1 - RG3) and farms (F1 – F3) used in the study. The black dots indicate the position of the gardens (after World Bank, 2013).

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Figure 2. Climatic data for Mumbai Metropolitan Region, India during study period (2011-2013) along with 50 years (1955-2005) average value. Source: Regional Meteorological Center, Mumbai.

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Details

Title
Health aspects and food safety in urban and peri-urban agricultural production in India. Farms and railway gardens across the Mumbai Metropolitan Region
College
Mar Augusthinose College  (Mar Augusthinose College)
Course
Biotechnology
Authors
Year
2016
Pages
45
Catalog Number
V343270
ISBN (eBook)
9783668347939
ISBN (Book)
9783668347946
File size
3395 KB
Language
English
Tags
Heath risks, Heavy metals, Phyotoxicity, Wastewater use
Quote paper
Dr. Prem Jose Vazhacahrickal (Author)Jiby John Mathew (Author)Sajeshkumar N.K. (Author), 2016, Health aspects and food safety in urban and peri-urban agricultural production in India. Farms and railway gardens across the Mumbai Metropolitan Region, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/343270

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