TABLE OF CONTENTS
List of Tables
Background of the Study
Statement of the Problem
Significance of the Study
Scope and Limitation
Definition of Terms
Related Literature and Studies
Presentation, Interpretation, and Analysis of Data
Summary of the Findings
APPENDIX A: LETTER TO THE PRINCIPAL APPENDIX B: LETTER TO RESPONDENTS APPENDIX C: QUESTIONNAIRE APPENDIX D: CURRICULUM VITAE
APPENDIX E: DITRIBUTION OF RANKING OF POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE BEHAVIOR IN PILOT CLASS
APPENDIX F: DITRIBUTION OF RANKING OF POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE BEHAVIOR IN LOWER-HETERO CLASS
APPENDIX G: FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF HIGH SCHOOL TEACHERS’ MANAGEMENT OF TIME IN PILOT CLASS
APPENDIX H: FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF HIGH SCHOOL TEACHERS’ MANAGEMENT OF INSTRUCTION IN PILOT CLASS
APPENDIX I: FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF HIGH SCHOOL TEACHERS’ MANAGEMENT OF CLASSROOM ENVIRONMENT IN PILOT CLASS
APPENDIX J: FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF HIGH SCHOOL TEACHERS’ MANAGEMENT OF RELATION IN PILOT CLASS
APPENDIX K: FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF HIGH SCHOOL TEACHERS’ MANAGEMENT OF DISCIPLINE IN PILOT CLASS
APPENDIX L: FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF HIGH SCHOOL TEACHERS’ MANAGEMENT OF TIME IN LOWER-HETERO CLASS
APPENDIX M: FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF HIGH SCHOOL TEACHERS’ MANAGEMENT OF INSTRUCTION IN LOWER-HETERO CLASS
APPENDIX N: FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF HIGH SCHOOL TEACHERS’ MANAGEMENT OF CLASSROOM ENVIRONMENT IN LOWERHETERO CLASS
APPENDIX O: FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF HIGH SCHOOL TEACHERS’ MANAGEMENT OF RELATION IN LOWER-HETERO CLASS
APPENDIX P: FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF HIGH SCHOOL TEACHERS’ MANAGEMENT OF DISCIPLINE IN LOWER-HETERO CLASS
The researcher would like to extend his deepest gratitude to all individuals who helped him to finish this challenging task. With grateful and loving heart, the researcher would like to acknowledge the following:
To the researcher’s supportive and responsible parents, MR. RODERICK AND MRS. LORENZA G. MORENO, who willingly and unconditionally lend their helping hands and supporting all the researcher’s needs.
To the researcher’s ever beautiful sister, ROSE ANN, who advised not to give up when the researcher’s feel weak.
To the researcher’s good auntie, MA’AM ROCELL A. MORENO, who taught to value time and shared her experiences.
To the researcher’s handsome adviser, MR. FERDINAND S. PAUNIL, who taught and enlightened the researcher’s mind about this subject.
To the researcher’s energetic and supportive specialist and grammarian, MRS. LORELYN N. SALTOC, who patiently edited the whole chapters of this thesis and gave plenty and witty advices.
For the best mathematician and statistician in town, MR. VICTOR S. DISILIO, who shared his knowledge to compute and interpret the data collected.
For the researcher’s oral committees, DR. AMELITA O. BALAGTAS, MA’AM MARY JANE S. CARANDANG AND MR. JONATHAN D. VILLARUZ, who shared their expertise and advices to improve the quality of this research paper.
To the researcher’s second mother, MRS. EDITHA C. MAGPANTAY, who filled and solved the researcher’s problems regarding gadgets and for her unending support.
To researcher’s best friends, MARYLOU A. MARIOT AND WENCHIE CRISTOBAL, who gave inspiration and advices to finish this thesis.
And above all, to ALMIGHTY GOD who gave me strength and knowledge to cope everyday learning and shared HIS belongings to fill the researcher’s needs.
THANK YOU AND GOD BLESS ALL OF YOU!
This undergraduate thesis is humbly dedicated to all the people who shared their expertise and unending support to help the researcher in finishing and completing all the requirements in the course RESEARCH SEMINAR (TR102).
With all grace and enthusiasm, the researcher would like to dedicate this thesis to the following people:
The present study is about the secondary teachers’ management strategies regarding their students’ classroom behavior in Pilot and Lower-hetero sections in Manuel S. Enverga University Foundation Candelaria, Inc. within the school year 2014-2015.
This study has three important purposes - (1) to identify the behaviors of students in Pilot and Lower-hetero classes, (2) to determine the management strategies of teachers regarding their students’ classroom behavior and (3) to view the differences between the management of high school teachers regarding the behaviors of students in Pilot and Lower-hetero class. Moreover, the researcher aims to improve the managerial skills of teachers with the aid of the findings and able to use to develop an intervention program.
The respondents of the study are twenty four (24) faculty members of Secondary Education level in Manuel S. Enverga University Foundation Candelaria, Inc. and were chosen through the use of purposive sampling method. Criteria were set so that the researcher would come up with the appropriate number of respondents. Respondents were given two sets of questionnaires with the same contents: one for Pilot class and other is for Lower-hetero class. First part was designed to identify the behavior of students and the second was designed for the management of teachers in pilot and lower- hetero classes based on time, instruction, classroom environment, relation and discipline.
The researcher sought the permission of the administrator/school principal during the data gathering procedure. The questionnaire was administered, collected, tallied, tabulated and interpreted.
The study revealed that the students from pilot class are identified to be class achievers and the lower-hetero class is classroom helpers. Teachers, on the other hand, identified that both students from pilot and lower-hetero classes are exhibiting aggressive behaviors. Teachers also revealed that they ALWAYS manage their time, instruction, classroom environment, relation and discipline. In terms of differences, they revealed that there is SIGNIFANT DIFFERENCES in time and discipline with the t- computed values of 1.82 and 2.7 respectively. However, they found out that there is NO SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES in terms of instruction and relation with the t-computed values of 0.12 and 0.59 respectively and has NO DIFFERENCE in classroom environment with the t computed value of 0.
For having a well-managed classroom that would surely help teachers and influence the learning of students, the researcher suggests the following recommendations:
- The administrator may improve the classroom management skills and approaches of the teachers by setting up many seminar-workshops.
- The administrator may seek the help of the guidance counselor to monitor the behavioral problems of each student.
- The administrator may conduct a special meeting with their teachers to discuss the classroom and behavior problems.
- The teachers may attend seminars which are tailored to improve their skills and approaches in managing student behavior and classroom.
- The teachers may try other approaches that will be best suited to the individuality of the learners.
- The teachers may provide checklist of behaviors twice a month so that they will recognize the behaviors of students and if it is unnecessary, they may provide intervention to improve the student’s behavior.
- The teachers may double their efforts in budgeting their time especially when they’re teaching the Lower-hetero class.
To Future researchers
- The future researchers may conduct further study to find out which management strategies are more effective to Pilot and Lower-hetero class, or they may also do an experimental study wherein these management strategies in Pilot class will be used in the Lower-hetero class. o The future researchers may also do a qualitative study to view the different strategies done by the teachers in Pilot and Lower-hetero classes.
LIST OF TABLES
TABLE 1: RANGE SCALE AND DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS FOR QUESTIONNAIRE’S POTENTIAL CHOICES
TABLE 2: MEAN SCORING AND RANKING OF STUDENTS’ POSITIVE BEHAVIORS IN PILOT CLASS AND LOWER-HETERO CLASS
TABLE 3: MEAN SCORING AND RANKING OF STUDENTS’ NEGATIVE BEHAVIORS IN PILOT AND LOWER-HETERO CLASSES
TABLE 4: WEIGHTED MEAN DISTRIBUTION AND ANALYSIS OF HIGH SCHOOL TEACHERS’ MANAGEMENT OF TIME IN PILOT AND LOWER-HETERO CLASSES
TABLE 5: WEIGHTED MEAN DISTRIBUTION AND ANALYSIS OF HIGH SCHOOL TEACHERS’ MANAGEMENT OF INSTRUCTION IN PILOT AND LOWER-HETERO CLASSES
TABLE 6: WEIGHTED MEAN DISTRIBUTION AND ANALYSIS OF HIGH SCHOOL TEACHERS’ MANAGEMENT OF CLASSROOM ENVIRONMENT IN PILOT CLASS
TABLE 7: WEIGHTED MEAN DISTRIBUTION AND ANALYSIS OF HIGH SCHOOL TEACHERS’ MANAGEMENT OF RELATION IN PILOT AND LOWER-HETERO CLASSES
TABLE 8: WEIGHTED MEAN DISTRIBUTION AND ANALYSIS OF HIGH SCHOOL TEACHERS’ MANAGEMENT OF DISCIPLINE IN PILOT AND LOWER-HETERO CLASSES
TABLE 9: T-TEST ANALYSIS BETWEEN HIGH SCHOOL MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES AMONG PILOT AND LOWER-HETERO CLASS 39
THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND
People come in different manners. They come in community which has different culture, background, sex, and languages. They have their own preferences and wants in life. One cannot ignore that everybody embraces diversity. School also embraces diversity that’s why teacher is tasked to consider their students’ individual differences.
Education is the most important need of every human in this world. Through education, it is inevitable for teachers to help his/her students reach their goals and become successful individuals as the product of their hard work. Addressing these voluminous objectives require teachers to encompass the beauty of their oath as they start to work on the field of teaching profession.
Teachers are equipped with the knowledge and skills to instruct and promote learning in an institution. To be an effective teacher, they should internalize the professional and personal attributes of being a teacher. Professional attributes of the teacher include: 1) use his/her knowledge to instruct his/her students, 2) execute the best teaching practice to instruct his/her students, 3) has disposition and skills for working in a reflective, collegial and problem-solving manner, and 4) view teaching as a lifelong process. On the other hand, teachers’ personal attributes include: 1) passion for teaching, 2) high sense of humor, 3) internalize values and attitudes in teaching which include open-mindedness, fairness and impartiality, sincerity and honesty and professionalism, 4) long rope of patience and 5) enthusiasm (Corpuz et al, 2007). They are also multi-faceted individuals due to numerous works associated to them. Sometimes, they referred to as parent, friend, counselor, manager.
Most of the time, teachers and students are exchanging their insights inside the classroom. According to Chalam (2003), “classroom is a distinct unit with its own set of norms, role relationships, expectations and atmosphere”. This is a room wherein children are being evaluated academically and behaviorally. The most difficult yet challenging work to teachers is managing students’ behavior within the classroom (Kratochwill, 2006).
There are two types of behavior namely positive and negative behaviors. Positive behaviors include exceptional work ethic, excellent manners, class leader, classroom helper, positive role model, excellent academic student, shows great concern for school, and involved in school activities. On the other hand, Gonzales (2006) classified the behavior of individual into two parts namely inappropriate behavior and study skills problem. Inappropriate behavior are behavior that interferes with classroom instruction, impedes social interaction with teacher and peer and endangers others whereas study skills problems are behavior that interferes the special student’s academic performance and/or the teacher’s ability to assess academic progress.
Classroom management is very important concern for teachers. If misbehavior among students not been addressed, the whole preparation of teacher which includes the delivery of lesson, objectives and expected outcomes will be affected and even might result to more trouble. So, in response to this situation, teachers employed techniques in teaching-learning process. Classroom management includes all of the things a teacher does in pursuit of two important objectives, to encourage learners in all classroom activities and to set up a productive working environment (Kounin, 2005). It is therefore important for teachers to make sure that all of the activities are ready before the instruction takes place.
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Nowadays, teachers are challenged to the numerous behavior problems in a particular institution. Behavioral problems appeared to be more severe than those of the previous years. Problems such as bullying, grave misbehavior, indecent actions, and other related problems within the school. Students’ curiosity, triggered with numerous factors, may result to an open ended possibility including violence and/or aggressive actions. The learning styles of individuals are affected if these problems are not considered. So in response to this situation, strengthening of classroom management is the major concern of every institution (Nemer, 2008).
Records show that students from Enverga Candelaria tend to misbehave as shown at the Office of Prefect of Discipline. Mr. Gerardo A. Bajar revealed that the most common cases are: tardiness, indecent actions, fighting, bullying, grave misbehaviors and others.
Classroom management helps teachers address the great numbers of behavior problems among their students. They formulate techniques and internalize it to teaching methods. Through effective management, students build a strong relationship and establish a highly secured environment against ill-mannered actions.
Since the researcher noticed that the effects of behavior problems affect the teaching-learning process of both teachers and students, the researcher conducted this study to identify the different classroom management strategies that are considered effective by high school teachers of MSEUF - CI in dealing with students’ classroom behavior in pilot and lower-hetero classes. The researcher also believes that the teachers have different methods in understanding the diversity among students and addressing behavior problems. Thus, they were able to develop management strategies to deal with different classroom behavior.
This study is primarily concerned with the high school teachers’ management strategies towards classroom behavior among pilot and lower-hetero classes. The study is based on theories, models and its philosophy, concepts, strategies, overall effectiveness and respect for diversity.
Classroom Management has been one of the major concerns of teachers. A poorly managed classroom produces students who can exhibit inappropriate behavior. If the teacher did not address this problem efficiently, more trouble is expected. In addition, classrooms with frequent disruptive behavior have less academic engaged time, and the students in disruptive classroom tend to have low grades and do poorer in standardized test (Shinn, Ramsey, Walker, Stieber, & O’Neill, 1987 as cited by Oliver et.al, 2011)
In the study of Oliver, et. al (2011), he determined that teachers’ classroom management practices reduce behavior problems. He also identified variety of techniques which are very useful in managing classroom. He also said that focusing on classroom management is more effective in modifying student behavior than relying on instruction only.
One of the bases of this study is the work of Kounin in the late 1970’s. His substantial management theory focuses on the teacher’s part of managing the instruction and handling students’ behavior at the same time. Moreover, he stressed on maximizing students’ learning through effective instruction techniques which incorporates discipline. He identified seven principles in handling students’ discipline such as riffle effect, withitness, overlapping, effective transitions, smoothness, momentum and group alerting. His studies explain teachers’ way of addressing misbehavior through having clear feedback in students’ actuations and attending two or more problems at the same time. In addition, Kounin’s work is more on preventive measure than reactive measure.
Another theory was made by B. F. Skinner (1954) as cited by Salandanan (2011). Although his work does not primarily focus on the management perspective, its implication would be beneficial on shaping students’ behavior. His Behavior Modification Theory states that individual behavior is being modified through the process of reinforcement. Appropriate behavior will recur once individual is being reinforced. Reinforcement comes into two forms: 1) Positive Reinforcement and Negative Reinforcement. Positive reinforcement is in the form of rewards which strengthen student appropriate behavior and tend to the repetition of the said behavior. Negative reinforcement, on the other hand, also strengthens the behavior of individual through eliminating inappropriate behavior.
Finally, Lev Vygotsky (1934) as cited by Corpuz et al (2010) said that individuals are on the so called “Zone of Proximal Development”. He said that individuals are learned through the help of MKO’s (More Knowledgeable Other) though the proper guidance and help of those individuals. Once that the students pass through the limit of the zone, inappropriate behavior of individual can occur. Thus, teachers’ way of managing them is a vital part of the learning process of them.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
This study dealt with the different management strategies of high school teachers towards classroom behavior among the pilot and lower-hetero classes in MSEUFCI S.Y. 2014 - 2015.
The research study aimed to shed light to the following questions:
1. What are the classroom behaviors of students in pilot and lower-hetero sections in terms of
1.1 positive behavior, and
1.2 negative behavior?
2. How do teachers manage the pilot and the lower-hetero sections in terms of
2.3 classroom environment,
2.4 relation, and
3. Is there significant difference in management strategies employed by the High School teachers in dealing with students’ classroom behavior in pilot and lower - hetero classes?
* There is no significant difference in management strategies employed by the High School teachers in dealing with students’ classroom behavior in pilot and lower - hetero classes.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Since the teachers are facing numerous behavior problems committed by the students, this study will help to solve the problems encountered by the teachers in dealing with students’ classroom behaviors. Specifically, the study had the following importance:
To the administrators and principals
Through the findings of the study, they will able to identify the more effective way in dealing with the students’ classroom behavior in pilot and lower-hetero sections. Thus, they will be able to create programs tailored to train teachers in handling students’ behavior.
To the teachers
Knowing that each student is unique and each requires different approach, the teacher may classify the best strategy suited to the individuality of the learners. Thus, they will be able to establish harmonious relationship among learners and to promote best learning with their students as well.
To the students
The students will no longer wonder why teachers treat students from different sections differently. The stigma of being the teacher’s pet and/or teacher’s public enemy number 1 will finally be put in rest for they will understand that teachers’ behavior towards them is a result of how they behave in class.
To the parents
The parents will understand that the different strategy employed by teachers in dealing with their students is to best address the variety of behaviors exhibited by their children.
To the future researchers
They will come up with other studies such as the effectiveness of management strategies employed by the teacher in pilot and lower-hetero classes and the application of those management strategies from pilot class to lower-hetero class and vice versa. This can also be used as their reference in the future.
illustration not visible in this excerpt
Figure 1: Difference between the High School Teachers ’ management strategies employed among the pilot class (independent variable) and lower-hetero class (independent variable) regarding the students’ classroom behaviors .
Figure 1 represents the conceptual paradigm of the study. It shows the management strategies employed by the high school teachers regarding students’ classroom behavior of pilot and lower-hetero classes. This is based on the five areas of concern inside the classroom namely time, instruction, relation, classroom environment and discipline.
SCOPE AND LIMITATION
This study focused on the students’ classroom behaviors among pilot and lower-hetero classes and the High School teachers’ management strategies based on time, instruction, relation, classroom physical environment and discipline which affect the learning process of the students. This was limited to twenty four (24) respondents who were currently employed as high school faculty members of Manuel S. Enverga University Foundation Candelaria, Inc. and handling both the pilot and lower - hetero classes at the same time. This study was conducted at Brgy. Malabanban Norte Candelaria, Quezon and within the School Year 2014 - 2015.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
The following key terms are used by the researchers in conducting this study.
Aggressive behavior - pertains to behavior and attitude which prompt the students’ hostility.
Classroom Behavior - pertains to the attitudes and actions of students inside the room.
Classroom Physical Environment - pertains to the place where learning and sharing of ideas takes place. It also refers to the space, arrangements of learning resources and the climate inside it.
Discipline - pertains to the attitude of an individual which exhibits controlled pattern of good behavior.
Instruction - refers to the teachers’ job of imparting knowledge, skills and virtues to learners. This also includes the lesson, teaching process and the teaching strategies by the teachers.
Lower - hetero Class - refers to the students’ group or section with varied ability and performance in terms of scholastic achievement. This is also refers to the class/section besides the pilot class.
Management Strategies - refers to the techniques used by teachers to control the students’ behavior.
Pilot Class - refers to the students’ group or section with the same range of ability and performance in terms of scholastic achievement.
Relation - refers to the kind of interaction between teachers and learners.
Time - refers to allotted hours for students learning.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
This chapter deals with the investigation of related literature and studies obtain from books, journals, and other materials that provide support to this study. This chapter focuses on views and opinions of some authors and findings of some researchers and studies about management strategies of High School Teachers.
In the 2006 survey conducted by the American Psychological Association (APA), it was revealed that the utmost need of the teachers was on the management of the classroom. Teachers are concerned with the safety of the students regarding violence and/or aggression and in doubt about the interferences of the lesson.
Cioco (2003) defined classroom management as the “way of reflecting on the teacher’s role, on learner’s work, on the teaching - learning dynamics and a way, too, assessing the effects of the teacher’s practices in the classroom.” For Rodriguez, it refers to issues of supervision, refereeing, facilitating and even academic discipline.
Classroom management refers to the wide variety of skills and techniques that the teachers use to keep students organized, orderly, focused, attentive, on task and academically productive during class. Although they have different meanings about classroom management, they all agreed for its purposes: a) to establish an orderly environment for learning and b) to enhance student social and moral growth (Evertson and Weinstein 2006).
TEACHERS AS MANAGERS
Being a teacher is the noblest profession. It is a profession that calls for public service. Teacher is a public trust and such a teacher should render service as expected of him as molder of the youth both in elementary and secondary levels (Barrun, 2000).
Teachers exhibit different personalities in our community. They can be our parents, managers, friends, counselors, and others. However, the most challenging job for them is being a manager inside the classroom.
According to Guzman (2003), management is a trying job that can only be handled successfully by people with special talents. Teachers are very talented individuals. They associate their talents in their lessons so that it will become more meaningful.
As a classroom manager, teachers should consider the four areas of concern: 1) establishing classroom climate, 2) conducting class efficiently, 3) reaching all students and 4) establishing discipline. In establishing a good classroom environment teacher should consider the look and feel of the classroom. Managing time efficiently and students effectively are two concerns for conducting a class. In reaching your students, teacher should evaluate and reflect on the delivery of the lesson,
motivation in learning and teaching strategies. Finally, in establishing discipline, teacher should create an atmosphere of consistency and mutual response (Zauber, 2003).
Before the instruction takes place, teacher should embrace four basic activities namely planning, organizing, leading and controlling (Wright and Noe, 2003 as cited by Moreno, et. al 2014). Teacher should start on planning so that there will be a guide for the organizing of events. After doing those first two processes, leading takes place as they execute the planned and organized events. Controlling takes place if the teacher knows the limitation of the planned events.
CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT AND DISCIPLINE
Classroom Management and Discipline are different. But most of the time, people misunderstood their differences. People believed that they are synonymous because it deals with one discipline - the behavior of individual.
Classroom management is all of the things that teacher does inside the classroom. As classroom managers, teachers manage the resources to facilitate learning. These resources include management of time, learning materials and the learners themselves. A poor managed classroom exhibits inappropriate behavior made by the student. On the other hand, discipline is the controlled behavior. It is just one aspect to be considered in managing the classroom. If teacher cannot control the behavior of the students learning will not occur (Corpuz and Salandanan, 2007).
The purpose of discipline is to help child acquire knowledge, power, habits, interests and ideals which are designed for the well - being of him and his fellows, that discipline is a matter of education (Mueller, as cited by Caguoin, 2006).
According to Casino (2010), behavior is what a man does, what he thinks, feels or believes. It is the mirror of what really are as a person. It is the proof of our works, words and emotions. There are two types of behavior namely positive and negative behaviors. Positive behaviors include exceptional work ethic, excellent manners, class leader, classroom helper, positive role model, excellent academic student, shows great concern for school, and involved in school activities. On the other hand, Gonzales (2006) classified the behavior of individual into two parts namely inappropriate behavior and study skills problem. Inappropriate behavior are behavior that interferes with classroom instruction, impedes social interaction with teacher and peer and endangers others whereas study skills problems are behavior that interferes the special student’s academic performance and/or the teacher’s ability to assess academic progress.
Moreover, disruptive behaviors are any behavior that, through intent, interferes with teaching and learning, threatens others, oversteps society’s standards of moral, ethical or legal behavior. Tabuloc (2001) classified the behavior of students into four groups such as: 1) Specific acts in aggressive behavior which include noisiness, teasing, unnecessary talking, quarreling, disorderliness, argumentativeness, inquisitiveness, anger, outbursts, being domineering, critical of others, resentful of criticism, interrupting, 2) Delinquent - related behavior such as untruthfulness, fights, destructiveness, cutting classes, staying away from home considerable lengths of time, taking articles that belong to -thers, disobedience, and smoking, 3) Withdrawing behaviors that include shyness, neglect of school work, lack of confidence, unsocial behavior, sensitiveness, worry about things, nervousness, fearfulness and 4) Non - compliant behavior such as untidiness, sloppiness in appearance, poor way of dressing, careless, forgetfulness and silly behavior.
Due to the interferences, the learning process has been affected. In addressing the current issues, researchers all over the world conducted studies and contributed some strategies for classroom management that the teacher can use to promote learning.
CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES
Different studies of management were focused primarily in five areas of concern. These are the management of time, instruction, classroom environment, relation and discipline. A study of Sanchez (2007) with the title “Classroom Management Approaches: A Basis for an Intervention Program” revealed that teachers use different strategies in handling student’s behavior. He also identified its strengths and weaknesses and recommended an intervention program regarding it.
MANAGEMENT OF TIME
The most important aspect of learning is time. Fred Jones (2007) noted that teachers in a typical classroom loss about half their teaching time because of student’s disruptive behavior. If the teacher cannot control disruptive behavior, then there will be less or no learning occurs.