The GI Bill. It's History, Iterations, and Economic Impact


Term Paper (Advanced seminar), 2015
26 Pages, Grade: 4.0

Free online reading

“…The members of the armed forces have been compelled to make greater economic sacrifice and every other kind of sacrifice than the rest of us, and they are entitled to definite action to help take care of their special problems.”1 President Franklin Delano Roosevelt uttered those words as he affixed his signature to Public Law 78-346: “The Serviceman‟s Readjustment Act.” The Serviceman‟s Readjustment Act, commonly known as the GI Bill, and it‟s many iterations throughout American history sparked an economical and educational bounce that continues to affect the United States even today, some seventy years later. Given the success of this legislation, one would assume that it was wildly popular as it made its way through Congress; in fact, the GI Bill saw an uphill battle, fighting politicians, veteran‟s organizations, and even government entities. Yet despite all this, with the hard work and determination of a dedicated group of individuals, the GI Bill would pass both Houses of Congress and be signed on the President‟s desk in the Oval Office. Originally geared towards the returning veterans of World War II, the GI Bill would be expanded several times to include Korean veterans, Vietnam Veterans2, and veterans who did not serve during times of conflict.3 Following the 9/11 attacks, the GI Bill was again revised with the passage of the Post 9/11 Veterans Educational Assistance Act of 2008 to enhance benefits and ensure aid offered to returning veterans was adequate to match the rising costs of attending college.4 In a day and age where veterans command one of the highest regards in American society, it is hard to conceive of a reason not to pass such legislation; indeed, one could almost think it completely logical to do anything possible to support the American serviceman: yet, this piece of legislation was born out of a time where American servicemen were not held in the same regard. Why was it necessary to pass this common sense legislation?

I. Veteran services prior to the Serviceman’s Readjustment Act

It is not unknown that the United States was born and received a baptism by fire; with the signing of the Declaration of Independence came the certainty that the United Kingdom would send Redcoats to put down the upstart colonists: to meet one of the mightiest and best trained Armies at the time, the United Colonies raised their local militias. As sudden as there was a United States of America, there was an American veteran. For the most part, the veteran came back alive and well; he could pick back up his plow and return to making a living and raising a family. Unfortunately, with the uncertainty that is war comes the certainty of casualties: if the American veteran comes back wounded, he might not be able to pick up that plow and support his family. As early as 1776, the Continental Congress provided pensions to those returning veterans who were wounded.5 Following the Civil War, states took it upon themselves to up the support of wounded veterans by establishing State Veteran Homes (SVHs); first established in 1864, SVHs were built to support the veteran, his spouse, and eligible Gold Star Parents.6

II. World War I Veterans

With the turn of the Nineteenth Century, came the inclusion of the United States of America in global politics; with this inclusion into global politics, came the decisions to send American troops to war. The most graphic, and most relevant to the then forthcoming GI Bill, event of this era was the First World War. After a brief phase of mobility, the First World War would eventually grind to a halt: trench warfare prevailed, creating a slaughter that came on unprecedented levels. Machine guns and poison gas were deployed for the first time in an unprecedented manner; they only contributed to the slaughter, which grew worse as the war wore on. The Great War had involved mainly the European powers; but on 17 April, 1917 Congress voted to declare war on Germany and her allies. The United States found herself involved in a war that would involve, for the first time in American history, the deployment of American soldiers to Europe. Some two million “doughboys” would be deployed to France with the American Expeditionary Force, under the command of General John J. Pershing.7 In the year and seven months that would pass, some 50,000 doughboys would be Killed-In-Action (KIA), with over 200,000 wounded in their service in France.8 After nineteen months of warfare, the Great War would come to an end on the 11th of November, 1918.

In nineteen months, a young American drafted into the United States Army would find himself plucked from his home, trained to fight, engage the enemy, see and inflict death, and finally see peace again. After eventually catching a boat across the Atlantic, he would march in a parade celebrating his nation‟s triumph, and finally take a train home, where he would reunite with his family again. After hanging up his uniform, the veteran would go find employment; and, in the lead up and during the Roaring Twenties, finding a job was not really an issue. Save for American farmers suffering in the Mid-West9, returning doughboys were able to capitalize upon a nation celebrating economic and military triumph. At the instance of Veteran Service Organization (VSOs) like the American Legion, Congress passed the World War Adjusted Compensation Act, also known as the Bonus Act; the Bonus Act guaranteed veterans of the First World War additional pay based upon their time in service and time deployed overseas.10 The act mandated, however, that payments would not be made until 1945; some twenty-one years after the passage of the act, much to the disgust of veterans and VSO‟s, particularly the American Legion, alike.11

III. Veteran Service Organization Highlight: the American Legion

Founded in Paris following the end of the First World War by representatives of every division in the American Expeditionary Force, the American Legion has been at the forefront of fighting for veterans and their families. Having been formed by World War I veterans looking to re-establish the camaraderie that they had experienced in the military, the Legion was able to swell its ranks substantially. With this exponential growth in membership, came political power: barely three years after its establishment in 1919, the American Legion played a pivotal role in establishing the Veterans Bureau, the predecessor to the modern day Department of Veteran‟s Affairs.12 As the Great Depression swallowed the country, the American Legion dedicated itself to assisting American veterans in finding employment, job training, and making the most of the meager benefits offered to them. In July 1932, the American Legion would march with the Bonus Army in an effort to receive an early disbursement of their promised additional pay, guaranteed by the World War Adjusted Compensation Act of 1924.13 In 1943, in a hotel room writing on stationary, Past National Commander of the American Legion Harry Walter Colmery would hand write the genesis of what would become the Serviceman‟s Readjustment Act; it‟s with the hard work and dedication of the American Legion that, over the objections of other VSO‟s, politicians, and government agencies that the original GI Bill would be signed into law by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt.14

IV. The Great Depression and Bonus Expeditionary Force

The ten or so years that encompassed the Great Depression were some of the hardest years in American History: in between 1929 and 1933 alone, 11,000 of the 25,000 banks in the United States failed; in the same time frame, industrial output dropped to 54% of its 1929 output; the Great Depression would make fifteen million American workers unemployed, roughly 30% of the American work force.15 Yet Americans weren‟t just hit economically: because of the lack of work, lack of wages, and lack of food, American morale tumbled. “The majority of people were hit and hit hard. They were mentally disturbed you‟re bound to know, „cause they didn‟t know when the end of all this was comin‟. There was a lot of suicides that I know of…”16 noted Ms. Peggy Owsley, who was interviewed by Studs Terkel for his oral history of the Great Depression, Hard Times. A shroud of darkness had fallen upon the country; to many, it seemed that things could not get much worse. Yet the decisions of President Herbert Hoover would prove otherwise.

Nobody could claim that Walter Waters had not done his part for his country: Waters was deployed to the American-Mexican border with the Idaho National Guard to engage Pancho Villa and his bandits; when the United States finally entered World War I, Waters was deployed to the trenches of France with the Oregon National Guard; after serving his country for many years, he was Honorably discharged.17 After leaving the United States Army, Waters found himself struggling to find work; he drifted from city to city, noting that his fellow veterans were more often than not also struggling to find work. After struggling for years, he became fed up: taking note that industrial special interest groups were able to make things happen in Washington D.C., Waters went to work setting up a special interest group for veterans. Waters spread the word, and quickly found about 300 fellow veterans who were willing to march in what was called, the “Portland Bonus March.”18 Like a snowball rolling down a slope, the March grew larger and larger; by the time it reached Washington, D.C. there was some 20,000 supporters.19 As the organization grew, Waters would find himself elected leader; he enacted restrictions that kept the March accountable and popular: there would be no drinking, pan-handling, or anti- government talk.20 These restrictions paid off: police departments refused to arrest the marchers; both the Indiana and Pennsylvania National Guards utilized government issued trucks to transport the marchers; when the growing movement came to tolls, the operators would let them pass without molestation.21

As Waters and his now 20,000 strong movement came to the nation‟s capital, it quickly became apparent that suitable housing was not going to be available; thus, the marchers established a shanty town, built largely with trash, just south east of Capitol Hill on a floodplain of the Anacostia River.22 The marchers and their Hooverville were protected largely by the Chief of Police, a veteran of the First World War himself. With a basecamp established, Waters initiated marches through Washington; columns of veterans and their supporters, marching with military precision, made their way to pass the White House: several times the marchers would pass the White House, almost as troops march in review before their commander.23 “We‟ll stay here until the [legislation to give the veterans their pay -Burke] is passed…till 1945, if necessary,”24 Waters would implore to anybody who would take the time to hear the marchers. It was a peaceful assembly that could only occur in a democracy and was put on by the very men who had fought to preserve that right to peacefully assemble; but that was not how President Hoover saw the Bonus Expeditionary Force: he saw the veterans as vagrants who needed to be removed, and ordered the United States Army to do so.

On July 28th, 1932, after repeated orders to vacate the city, elements of the 12th Infantry Regiment and 3rd Cavalry Regiment, supported by gas and six tanks, moved into the shanty-town that served as the headquarters of the Bonus Army.25 Three of the most influential men of the Second World War commanded the troops: then-Army Chief of Staff Douglas McArthur; his aide, Major Dwight D. Eisenhower; and the commander of the tank corps, Major George S. Patton.26 McArthur led the unit, sitting atop a white horse as his medals gleamed in the sunlight; the men of the Bonus Army were in shock as they were greeted by the column: yet as it came closer, the veterans fell back on their training and began to fight back. These veterans and their families began throwing bricks, swinging pieces of wood, and hurling insults at the column: yet, having benefitted from special riot control training ordered by McArthur, the soldiers continued their onslaught.27 Then came the order to deploy gas; the soldiers dawned their masks, and began throwing canisters of tear gas into the shanty-town, showing no regard for the women and children: “One of the soldiers threw a bomb…we all began to cry,” a women with her husband and child explained, “We got wet towels and put them over the faces of the children. About half an hour later, my baby began to vomit. I took her outside in the air and she vomited again. The next day, she began to turn black and blue and we took her to the hospital.”28 By the end of the attack on Bonus Army, two veterans lay dead and over a thousand injured.29 The event would cost Hoover the election of 1932. Whereas his predecessor met the veterans with bayonets, newly elected President Franklin Roosevelt took a different approach when a much smaller contingent of Bonus Army members came back to Washington: he sent his wife, Eleanor.30 Eleanor broke bread with the veterans and their families, promising to share their plight personally with the President; in response, President Roosevelt gave veterans the highest priority when hiring men for the Civilian Conservation Corps.

V. Writing the GI Bill

By the time the United States entered the Second World War, the Great Depression was largely over; an explosive increase in government spending, as well as the threat of war, prompted the immediate mobilization of the army as well as war industries. Jobs were no longer scare; and with the bombing of Pearl Harbor in 1941, the country had a new burden to face: destroying Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy, and Imperial Japan. Yet even as the war crept in the early stages, the idea of post-war benefits for veterans simmered in the minds of politicians and the leaders of the veteran community. “…The burden of war falls on the citizen soldiers who has gone forth, overnight to become the armored hope of humanity…Never again, do we want to see the honor and glory of our nation fade to the extent that her „men of arms,‟ with despondent heart and palsied limb, totter from door to door, bowing their untamed souls to the frozen bosom of reluctant charity, as we saw after the last war,” Harry Colmery, father of the GI Bill would write.31 Colmery, a veteran of the First World War and a Past National Commander of the American Legion, would lock himself in his hotel room over the holiday period of 1943-1944 and handwrite on stationary the genesis of what would become the Serviceman‟s Readjustment Act.32

The whole idea behind Colmery writing the Serviceman‟s Readjustment Act was to avoid the mistakes made in the past and to ensure that World War II veterans were not given the raw deal that the World War I veterans received. After hand-writing the genesis of the GI Bill, Colmery would turn to the legislative allies of the American Legion, particularly Senator Ernest McFarland and Representative Edith Nourse Rogers.33 The GI Bill would face an uphill battle in Congress: politicians on both sides of the aisle worked the bill over, at one point almost deciding to scrap the entire thing.34 After months of debate, the passage of the bill was stuck in gridlock: the House of Representatives had voted to approve, but was one vote short of approval. After finding this out, the American Legion went to work: they contacted Representative John Gibson of Georgia; Gibson, who had just returned home from Washington, was immediately picked up by a member of the American Legion in the early morning hours of June 8th, 1944. Pausing only to stop by the Elk Club to borrow some cash, Gibson was put into a car and given a police escort to the closest Army Air Field, Waycross Army Air Base; once there, Gibson climbed aboard a plane sent by newspaper magnate William Randolph Hearst.35 As the plane landed, Representative Gibson was met by legislative aides of the American Legion, who drove him straight to Capitol Hill to vote on the bill.36 As Representative Gibson marched into the hallowed halls of Congress, he declared: “Americans are dying today in Normandy in the greatest invasion in all of history. I‟m going to hold a press conference after this meeting and castigate anyone who dares to vote against this bill.”37 Two weeks later, on June 22, 1944, President Roosevelt would sign Public Law 78-346, “The Serviceman‟s Readjustment Act” into law.38

VI. Different Iterations of the GI Bill.

It‟s estimated that by 1947, half of all American college students were World War II veterans; of the sixteen million World War II veterans, over half took advantage of GI Bill job training or educational benefits.39 By 1950, the number of college graduates grew by over 300,000, causing schools to scramble to find classrooms and dorms for the continual growth of new students.40 With the outbreak of the Korean War in 1950, veterans groups prompted Congress to expand GI Bill benefits to a new group of veterans: in 1952, Congress would pass Public Law 550, “The Veteran‟s Readjustment Act of 1952.”41 The bill also recognized the fact that a number of World War II veterans, already eligible for the GI Bill, were serving again in the Korean War; veterans of both wars were eligible for an extra year of benefits: almost 700,000 veterans a year were expected to utilize the benefits under P.L. 550.42

In 1966, another expansion to the GI Bill was made: Congress would pass Public Law 89-538, the “Veteran‟s Readjustment Benefits Act of 1966;” the law would extend GI Bill benefits to veterans who had not served during World War II or the Korean War.43 President Lyndon B. Johnson hailed the passage of the legislation, noting that: “One hundred and sixteen Members of the House of Representatives, in our Congress, received training under the GI bills, as did 11 United States Senators, 12 of the Governors of our States, 3 members of the President's Cabinet, 1 Justice of the Supreme Court, 6 of our astronauts, and 5 of the President's Special Assistants here in the White House.”44 The GI Bill had impacted two eras worth of veterans; and the impact was profound: “The first two GI bills cost $21 billion,” President Johnson announced, “Our economists now estimate that they resulted in a return of some $60 billion in Federal taxes for that $21 billion invested.”45 Yet there was a hidden desire behind the passage of the bill: the Vietnam War was heating up, and more American troops were being deployed to South East Asia; the expansion of benefits was used as a recruitment tool, offering educational benefits and job training in return for a few years of service. Of the almost thirteen and a half million eligible veterans to take advantage of the “Cold War GI Bill,” eight million did.46

With the end of the Vietnam War came a low point in American military morale.47 To add to the morale issue, the military had problems finding quality candidates for the newly reformed all-volunteer arm. In an effort the boost morale, create better incentives to join the military, and continue to strengthen the military, Congress passed Public Law 98-525: better known as the Montgomery GI Bill (MGIB), what started as a three year pilot program expanded into the most successful iteration of the GI Bill till the Post 9/11 GI Bill.48 The MGIB provided active-duty troops and veterans the ability to pay for a college degree, vocational/professional licensing, prep courses and apprenticeships/on the job training.49 The MGIB also allowed for service-members who are Missing in Action (MIA), suffered a service-connected permanent disability, or having died of a service-connected permanent disability to transfer their MGIB benefits to a spouse or dependent.50 With the success of the MGIB, Congress expanded it to members of the “Selected Reserve,” which would include members of any state‟s National Guard; the MGIB-SR would be available to any member of the Selected Reserve who agreed to a six year service contract.51

In terms of active participants, the Post 9/11 GI Bill has been the most successful iteration of the GI Bill. As of FY2012, some 600,000 veterans were taking advantage of the benefits offered to them of the Post 9/11 GI Bill in some way, shape, or form.52 The passage of the Post 9/11 GI Bill aimed for four objectives: Providing a parity of benefits for both Active Duty and members of the Selective Reserve; comprehensive benefits; recruitment; and retention of service-members.53 As of FY2013, with the participation of over 750,000 veterans, servicemembers, and dependents, a participant in the Post 9/11 GI Bill saw an average of $13,465 dispersed to them.54 In a study supported by the Student Veterans of America, National Student Clearinghouse, and the Department of Veteran Affairs that looked at half a million veterans who used the GI Bill, researchers found that 51.7% of individuals utilizing the GI Bill had received a “post-secondary educational credential,” which is defined as a certificate of training or degree.55 After signing the Post 9/11 GI Bill into law, President Obama noted that, “This is not simply a debt that we are repaying to the remarkable men and women who have served -- it is an investment in our own country…The veterans who are here today…can lead the way to a lasting economic recovery and become the glue that holds our communities together. They, too, can become the backbone of a growing American middle class.”56

VII. Benefits Today

There are two active iterations of the GI Bill as of 2015: The Montgomery GI Bill (MGIB) and the Post 9/11 GI Bill. The MGIB required a service-member having been a member of the military after 30 June, 1985 as well as having met one of three service requirements: a minimum of three continuous years on Active Duty; National Guard or Selective Reserve members serve two continuous years of Active Duty upon joining the military, as well as an additional four years of reserve duty; or at least thirty months of Active Duty, if having been discharged for a service-connected disability or faced with being separated due to a reduction of force (draw down of the military).57 Special circumstances also existed for those participating in Veteran Educational Assistance Programs (VEAPs). Educationally speaking, participants needed a high school diploma or an equivalent certification.58

MGIB funding can be dispersed in a variety of ways: as of October, 2012, participants could receive up to $1,564 in as a Monthly Allowance; the Tuition Assistance “Top-Up” Program gives branches the ability to pay a part of the tuition and costs for Active Duty service- members; Advance Payments disperse the first full month of the Monthly Allowance, which is sent to the school with the excess being dispersed to the student; for recipients entering “High Tech industry” path of education in which the expenses are double the Monthly Allowance, the recipient is eligible to receive the term‟s total payments upfront, at the cost of shortening the recipient‟s entitlement period.59 The MGIB also allows for the payment of other entitlements: Tutorial assistance (up to $100 a month for tutors), payment of licensing and test fees (at the expense of one month less on entitlement, per test), as well as paying for admission fees into a school.60 The MGIB allowed for a service-member to accrue an additional $5,400 if they invested an additional $600 into the MGIB while serving on Active Duty.61 Members of the Selective Reserve can get the same benefits as those getting MGIB-Active Duty if they are eligible.

The Post 9/11 GI Bill was designed specifically with the modern American veteran in mind. Eligibility differs from the MGIB: service-members have to have completed an aggregate of 90 days on Active Duty; once that requirement is met, a service-member must either be discharged honorably or continue to serve with honor.62 It should be noted that almost the entirety of today‟s Active Duty troops are eligible to receive benefits from the Post 9/11 GI Bill or the MGIB; service-members must pick an iteration of the GI Bill, and cannot benefit from both.63 Post 9/11 GI Bill benefits can be applied to the following endeavors: educational courses at an institution of higher learning; licensing and certification tests; entrepreneurship courses; college admissions tests (such as the SAT or ACT); preparatory courses; and college credit equivalency tests (such as AP Exams).64 It should also be noted that after the first full year of implementation, the cost was at $5.5 billion in 2010; some two years later, the tax payers paid $10.2 billion to foot the Post 9/11 GI Bill.65

VIII. Economic Impact of the GI Bill

The economic impact of the GI Bill has been enormous. It is highly unlikely that the original framers of this monumental legislation had any idea just how dramatic the impact to the economy or indeed American society would be. Nor, could it be argued, did the politicians and activists who championed the GI Bill expect the cost: some $14.5 billion (adjusted for inflation that comes to $114.7 billion) to send 7.8 million veterans to school or to receive on the job training; on average, each veteran got roughly $1,859 ($14,700 when adjusted for inflation)66 Yet every success requires some investment; while this was a heavy investment by the American people, the investment paid off: “One hundred and sixteen Members of the House of Representatives, in our Congress, received training under the GI bills, as did 11 United States Senators, 12 of the Governors of our States, 3 members of the President's Cabinet, 1 Justice of the Supreme Court, 6 of our astronauts, and 5 of the President's Special Assistants here in the White House,”67 President Johnson explained at an anniversary event of the signing of the Serviceman‟s Readjustment act. “The first two GI bills cost $21 billion,” President Johnson announced, “Our economists now estimate that they resulted in a return of some $60 billion in Federal taxes for that $21 billion invested.”68 Americans took the education they were provided with and opened businesses, farms, found white collar jobs, bought houses, and started families. “The educational level of World War II and Korean war veterans averages about 2 years above the level of nonveterans. This difference exists primarily because of what the GI bills were able to do,” President Johnson would say at the GI Bill anniversary event, ” We made the most promising investment that a nation can make, an investment in the talent and the ambition of our citizens. The return on that investment has doubled and has redoubled ever since.”69

The Serviceman‟s Readjustment Act saw an amazing response in terms of the number of eligible veterans and the number of eligible veterans who took advantage of the benefits afforded to them. Since the Serviceman‟s Readjustment Act has expired, it‟s much more simple to see the benefits it provided across the board; with regards to the Montgomery GI Bill and the Post 9/11 GI Bill, one will have to wait to see the results. What are available are the usage statistics: since its implementation, over two million veterans and active duty troops have utilized the Montgomery GI Bill, with an average disbursement of $7, 483 for active duty troops and $3, 089 for members of the Selective Reserve.70 Between 2009 and 2011, some 900,000 active duty troops and veterans have taken full advantage of the Post 9/11GI Bill, with an average disbursement of $13,871. As with those who wrote the original iteration of the GI Bill and those who wrote the many iterations that followed: the basic idea was to pay back those who wrote a blank check to the United States government, to be cashed in at any time during their service with their lives.

XIV. Conclusion

“…The members of the armed forces have been compelled to make greater economic sacrifice and every other kind of sacrifice than the rest of us, and they are entitled to definite action to help take care of their special problems.”71 President Franklin Delano Roosevelt uttered those words as he affixed his signature to Public Law 78-346: “The Serviceman‟s Readjustment Act.” The Serviceman‟s Readjustment Act, commonly known as the GI Bill, and it‟s many iterations throughout American history sparked an economical and educational bounce that continues to affect the United States even today, some seventy years later. Given the success of this legislation, one would assume that it was wildly popular as it made its way through Congress; in fact, the GI Bill saw an uphill battle, fighting politicians, veteran‟s organizations, and even government entities. Yet despite all this, with the hard work and determination of a dedicated group of individuals, the GI Bill would pass both Houses of Congress and be signed on the President‟s desk in the Oval Office. Originally geared towards the returning veterans of World War II, the GI Bill would be expanded several times to include Korean veterans, Vietnam Veterans72, and veterans who did not serve during times of conflict.73 Following the 9/11 attacks, the GI Bill was again revised with the passage of the Post 9/11 Veterans Educational Assistance Act of 2008 to enhance benefits and ensure aid offered to returning veterans was adequate to match the rising costs of attending college.74 In a day and age where veterans command one of the highest regards in American society, it is hard to conceive of a reason not to pass such legislation; indeed, one could almost think it completely logical to do anything possible to support the American serviceman: yet, this piece of legislation was born out of a time where American servicemen were not held in the same regard. From the ashes of the Bonus Army arose a phoenix that continues to effect American society today.

Bibliography

Primary Sources:

- Cleland, Max. “Gibson‟s Midnight Ride Saves G.I. Bill.” The Rockmart Journal. May 6, 1992
- Department of Veterans Affairs. “America‟s Wars.” Office of Public Affairs. http://www.va.gov/opa/publications/factsheets/fs_americas_wars.pdf. May 2015.
- Dortch, Cassandria. “GI Bills Enacted Prior to 2008 and Related Veteran‟s Educational Assistance Programs: A Primer.” Congressional Research Service. 22 October, 2012. https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R42785.pdf
- Dortch, Cassandria. “The Post 9/11 Veteran‟s Educational Assistance Act of 2008 (Post 9/11 GI Bill): Primer and Issues.” Congressional Research Service. 28 July, 2014. https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R42755.pdf
- "GI Bill Extended To Korea Veterans." In CQ Almanac 1952, 8th ed., 205-7. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly, 1953. http://library.cqpress.com/cqalmanac/cqal52-1378844.
- Government Publishing Office. “Public Law 89-358, Veterans Readjustment Benefits Act of 1966.” Federal Digital System. http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/STATUTE- 80/pdf/STATUTE-80-Pg12.pdf
- Headquarters, Department of the Army. “Montgomery GI Bill (MGIB).” MyArmyBenefits. http://myarmybenefits.us.army.mil/Home/Benefit_Library/Federal_Benefits_Page/Montg omery_GI_Bill_(MGIB).html
- Johnson, Lyndon B. “Remarks Upon Signing the “Cold War GI Bill” (Veteran‟s Readjustment Benefits Act of 1966).” March 3, 1966. The Presidency Project. http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=27461
- Library of Congress. “SS.2 - Post 9/11 Veterans Educational Assistance Act of 2007.” Congress.gov. https://www.congress.gov/bill/110th-congress/senate-bill/22/text
- National Archives. “Veteran‟s Readjustment Benefits Act of 1966.” National Archives Catalog. March 3, 1966. https://research.archives.gov/id/299924
- Obama, Barack. “Remarks by the President on the Post 9/11 GI Bill at George Mason University.” Office of the Press Secretary. 3 August, 2009. https://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/remarks-president-post-911-gi-bill-george- mason-university
- Roosevelt, Franklin. “Franklin Roosevelt‟s Statement on Signing the GI Bill.” FDR Presidential Library. http://docs.fdrlibrary.marist.edu/odgist.html
- Smith, Christopher. “Tribute to Harry Colmery by Michael J. Bennett.” Congressional Daily Record. 24 June, 2002.
- Terkel, Studs. "Hard Travelin'" In Hard Times: An Oral History of the Great Depression, 45. Abridged ed. New York: Pantheon Books, 1970.
- "The Bonus, the President, and the Legion." New Outlook, October 4, 1922. http://www.unz.org/Pub/Outlook-1922oct04-00181.

Secondary Sources:

- Anderson, David. “The Military and Diplomatic Course of the Vietnam War.” The Oxford Companion to American Military History. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.
- Batten, Dayne. “The GI Bill, Higher Education and American Society.” Grove City College. http://www2.gcc.edu/orgs/GCLawJournal/articles/spring%202011/GI%20Bill.pdf
- “Belated Thank You to the Merchant Mariners of World War II Act of 2007“ http://www.usmm.org/urgent.html
- Conway, Kylie. "WWII Veteran Shares Story of Using G.I. Bill." NEWS10 ABC. November 11, 2015. Accessed November 11, 2015. http://news10.com/2015/11/11/wwii-veteran-shares-story-of-using-g-i-bill/.
- “Education Fact Sheet for Guard and Reserve” http://www.gibill.va.gov/pamphlets/DOD_Flyer.pdf
- Department of English, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. “About the Great Depression.” Modern American Poetry Site. http://www.english.illinois.edu/maps/depression/about.htm
- Gannon, Michael. "When GI Joe Came Marching Home ..." Queens Chronicle. November 10, 2015. Accessed November 14, 2015. http://www.qchron.com/editions/queenswide/when-gi-joe-came-marching- home/article_e92d4873-b383-5994-afe9-21594ceeea6b.html.
- General Certificate of Secondary Education (UK). “USA 1919-1941: Agricultural Problems in the 1920‟s.” GCSE.org.uk. http://www.gcsehistory.org.uk/modernworld/usa/problemsinagriculture.htm
- Herbold, Hilary. "Never a Level Playing Field: Blacks and the GI Bill." The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education: 104. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2962479?origin=crossref&seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
- “History - The American Legion.” American Legion. http://www.legion.org/history
- Kingseed, Wyatt. "A Promise DENIED: The Bonus Expeditionary Force." American History, 06, 2004. 28, http://search.proquest.com/docview/224068767?accountid=9858.
- Lyon, Jared. “The GI Bill‟s Impact on Past, Present and Future.” Syracuse University. June 21, 2013. http://vets.syr.edu/the-gi-bills-impact-on-the-past-present- and-future/
- Marken, Stephanie. "Returning Vets Don't Feel Their College Understood Their Needs." Gallup.com. November 10, 2015. Accessed November 11, 2015. http://www.gallup.com/poll/186548/returning-vets-don-feel-college-understood- needs.aspx.
- McEnaney, Laura. "Veterans' welfare, the GI Bill and American demobilization." Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics Spring 2011: 41+. LegalTrac. Web. 24 Nov. 2015. http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?id=GALE%7CA259840790&v=2.1&u=culaw_main&it =r&p=LT&asid=3a3326a0be2d3dd861587e95981499f.
- McMillian, James. Ernest W. McFarland: Majority Leader of the United States Senate, Governor and Chief Justice of the State of Arizona : a biography. Sharlot Hall Museum Press. 2006. p. 113.
- Mettler, Suzanne. Soldiers to Citizens: The G.I. Bill and the Making of the Greatest Generation. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005. 22.
- National World War II Museum. “Primary Source Doucment: The GI Bill of Rights.” Learn: Teachers and Students. http://www.nationalww2museum.org/learn/education/for-teachers/primary-sources/gi- bill.html
- National Association of State Veterans Homes. “About NASVH.” NASVH.org. http://www.nasvh.org/Join/history.cfm
- Nix, Elizabeth. "Why Are American Soldiers Called GIs?" History.com. November 10, 2015. Accessed November 10, 2015. http://www.history.com/news/ask- history/why-are-american-soldiers-called-gis.
- Public Broadcasting Service. “Veterans of Foreign Wars.” History Detectives - Special Investigations. http://www.pbs.org/opb/historydetectives/feature/veterans-of- foreign-wars/
- Rosales, Steven. "Fighting the Peace at Home: Mexican American Veterans and the 1944 GI Bill of Rights." Pacific Historical Review, 2011, 597-627. Accessed November 24, 2015. http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1525/phr.2011.80.4.597.
- Ross, David B. “Preparing for Ulysses: Politics and Veterans During World War II” Columbia University Press, 1969
- Kai Ryssdal. “How the GI Bill changed the Economy.” Marketplace. October 6, 2009. http://www.marketplace.org/topics/economy/how-gi-bill-changed-economy.
- Stanley, Marcus. 2003. “College Education and the Midcentury GI Bills”. The Quarterly Journal of Economics 118 (2). Oxford University Press: 671-708. http://www.jstor.org/stable/25053917.
- The Library of Congress. “U.S. Entered World War I - April 17, 1917.” America‟s History with America‟s Library. http://www.americaslibrary.gov/jb/jazz/jb_jazz_wwi_1.html
- United States Department of Veteran Affairs. “History - Department of Veteran Affairs (VA).” VA.gov. http://www.va.gov/about_va/vahistory.asp
- Voices Education Project. “Walter W. Waters - Leader of the Bonus Army.” Voices Compassion Education. http://voiceseducation.org/content/walter-w-waters- leader-bonus-army
- Wollney, Easton. "GI Bill Helps Tech Students Reach Goals." The Daily Toreador. November 11, 2015. Accessed November 11, 2015. http://www.dailytoreador.com/news/gi-bill-helps-tech-students-reach- goals/article_b8213844-88ee-11e5-a0e5-9363fb6e8216.html.
- Wright, James. 2008. "The New GI Bill: It's a Win-Win Proposition.". The Chronicle of Higher Education 54, no. 36: A34, http://search.proquest.com/docview/214660102?accountid=9858.

[...]


1 Franklin Roosevelt. “Franklin Roosevelt‟s Statement on Signing the GI Bill.” FDR Presidential Library. http://docs.fdrlibrary.marist.edu/odgist.html

2 Headquarters, Department of the Army. “Montgomery GI Bill (MGIB).” MyArmyBenefits. http://myarmybenefits.us.army.mil/Home/Benefit_Library/Federal_Benefits_Page/Montgomery_ GI_Bill_(MGIB).html

3 Government Publishing Office. “Public Law 89-358, Veterans Readjustment Benefits Act of 1966.” Federal Digital System. http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/STATUTE-80/pdf/STATUTE-80- Pg12.pdf

4 Library of Congress. “SS.2 - Post 9/11 Veterans Educational Assistance Act of 2007.” Congress.gov. https://www.congress.gov/bill/110th-congress/senate-bill/22/text

5 United States Department of Veteran Affairs. “History - Department of Veteran Affairs (VA).” VA.gov. http://www.va.gov/about_va/vahistory.asp

6 National Association of State Veterans Homes. “About NASVH.” NASVH.org. http://www.nasvh.org/Join/history.cfm

7 The Library of Congress. “U.S. Entered World War I - April 17, 1917.” America’s History with America’s Library. http://www.americaslibrary.gov/jb/jazz/jb_jazz_wwi_1.html

8 Department of Veterans Affairs. “America‟s Wars.” Office of Public Affairs. http://www.va.gov/opa/publications/factsheets/fs_americas_wars.pdf. May 2015.

9 General Certificate of Secondary Education (UK). “USA 1919-1941: Agricultural Problems in the 1920‟s.” GCSE.org.uk. http://www.gcsehistory.org.uk/modernworld/usa/problemsinagriculture.htm

10 Public Broadcasting Service. “Veterans of Foreign Wars.” History Detectives - Special Investigations. http://www.pbs.org/opb/historydetectives/feature/veterans-of-foreign-wars/

11 "The Bonus, the President, and the Legion." New Outlook, October 4, 1922. http://www.unz.org/Pub/Outlook-1922oct04-00181.

12 “History - The American Legion.” American Legion. http://www.legion.org/history

13 Ibid.

14 Ibid.

15 Department of English, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. “About the Great Depression.” Modern American Poetry Site. http://www.english.illinois.edu/maps/depression/about.htm

16 Terkel, Studs. "Hard Travelin'" In Hard Times: An Oral History of the Great Depression, 45. Abridged ed. New York: Pantheon Books, 1970.

17 Voices Education Project. “Walter W. Waters - Leader of the Bonus Army.” Voices Compassion Education. http://voiceseducation.org/content/walter-w-waters-leader-bonus-army

18 Ibid.

19 Ibid.

20 Ibid.

21 Ibid.

22 Kingseed, Wyatt. "A Promise DENIED: The Bonus Expeditionary Force." American History, 06, 2004. 28, http://search.proquest.com/docview/224068767?accountid=9858.

23 Ibid.

24 Ibid.

25 Ibid.

26 Ibid.

27 Ibid.

28 Ibid.

29 Ibid.

30 Ibid.

31 Mettler, Suzanne. Soldiers to Citizens: The G.I. Bill and the Making of the Greatest Generation. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005. 22.

32 Honorable Smith, Christopher. “Tribute to Harry Colmery by Michael J. Bennett.” Congressional Daily Record. 24 June, 2002. http://congressional.proquest.com/congressional/docview/t17.d18.c497419a0b00188b?accountid =9858

33 McMillian, James. Ernest W. McFarland: Majority Leader of the United States Senate, Governor and Chief Justice of the State of Arizona : a biography. Sharlot Hall Museum Press. 2006. p. 113.

34 United States Department of Veteran Affairs. “History - Department of Veteran Affairs (VA).” VA.gov. http://www.va.gov/about_va/vahistory.asp

35 Cleland, Max. “Gibson‟s Midnight Ride Saves G.I. Bill.” The Rockmart Journal. May 6, 1992

36 Ibid.

37 Ibid.

38 Ibid.

39 National World War II Museum. “Primary Source Doucment: The GI Bill of Rights.” Learn: Teachers and Students. http://www.nationalww2museum.org/learn/education/for- teachers/primary-sources/gi-bill.html

40 Ibid.

41 "GI Bill Extended To Korea Veterans." In CQ Almanac 1952, 8th ed., 205-7. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly, 1953. http://library.cqpress.com/cqalmanac/cqal52-1378844.

42 Ibid.

43 National Archives. “Veteran‟s Readjustment Benefits Act of 1966.” National Archives Catalog. March 3, 1966. https://research.archives.gov/id/299924

44 Lyndon B. Johnson. “Remarks Upon Signing the “Cold War GI Bill” (Veteran‟s Readjustment Benefits Act of 1966).” March 3, 1966. The Presidency Project. http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=27461

45 Ibid.

46 Dortch, Cassandria. “GI Bills Enacted Prior to 2008 and Related Veteran‟s Educational Assistance Programs: A Primer.” Congressional Research Service. 22 October, 2012. p. 49 https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R42785.pdf

47 Anderson, David. “The Military and Diplomatic Course of the Vietnam War.” The Oxford Companion to American Military History. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

48 Dortch, Cassandria. “GI Bills Enacted Prior to 2008 and Related Veteran‟s Educational Assistance Programs: A Primer.” Congressional Research Service. 22 October, 2012. p. 49 https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R42785.pdf

49 Ibid., 13.

50 Ibid., 16.

51 Ibid, 20.

52 Ibid., 34.

53 Dortch, Cassandria. “The Post 9/11 Veteran‟s Educational Assistance Act of 2008 (Post 9/11 GI Bill): Primer and Issues.” Congressional Research Service. 28 July, 2014. https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R42755.pdf

54 Ibid., 23.

55 Ibid., 26

56 Obama, Barack. “Remarks by the President on the Post 9/11 GI Bill at George Mason University.” Office of the Press Secretary. 3 August, 2009. https://www.whitehouse.gov/the- press-office/remarks-president-post-911-gi-bill-george-mason-university

57 Dortch, Cassandria. “GI Bills Enacted Prior to 2008 and Related Veteran‟s Educational Assistance Programs: A Primer.” Congressional Research Service. 22 October, 2012. p. 49 https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R42785.pdf

58 Ibid., 9.

59 Ibid., 13.

60 Ibid., 14.

61 Ibid., 15.

62 Dortch, Cassandria. “The Post 9/11 Veteran‟s Educational Assistance Act of 2008 (Post 9/11 GI Bill): Primer and Issues.” Congressional Research Service. 28 July, 2014. https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R42755.pdf

63 Ibid., 4.

64 Ibid., 6.

65 Ibid., 23.

66 Dortch, Cassandria. “GI Bills Enacted Prior to 2008 and Related Veteran‟s Educational Assistance Programs: A Primer.” Congressional Research Service. 22 October, 2012. p. 49 https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R42785.pdf

67 Lyndon B. Johnson. “Remarks Upon Signing the “Cold War GI Bill” (Veteran‟s Readjustment Benefits Act of 1966).” March 3, 1966. The Presidency Project. http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=27461

68 Ibid.

69 Ibid.

70 Dortch, Cassandria. “GI Bills Enacted Prior to 2008 and Related Veteran‟s Educational Assistance Programs: A Primer.” Congressional Research Service. 22 October, 2012. p. 49 https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R42785.pdf

71 Franklin Roosevelt. “Franklin Roosevelt‟s Statement on Signing the GI Bill.” FDR Presidential Library. http://docs.fdrlibrary.marist.edu/odgist.html

72 Headquarters, Department of the Army. “Montgomery GI Bill (MGIB).” MyArmyBenefits. http://myarmybenefits.us.army.mil/Home/Benefit_Library/Federal_Benefits_Page/Montgomery_ GI_Bill_(MGIB).html

73 Government Publishing Office. “Public Law 89-358, Veterans Readjustment Benefits Act of 1966.” Federal Digital System. http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/STATUTE-80/pdf/STATUTE-80- Pg12.pdf

74 Library of Congress. “SS.2 - Post 9/11 Veterans Educational Assistance Act of 2007.” Congress.gov. https://www.congress.gov/bill/110th-congress/senate-bill/22/text

26 of 26 pages

Details

Title
The GI Bill. It's History, Iterations, and Economic Impact
Grade
4.0
Author
Year
2015
Pages
26
Catalog Number
V345654
ISBN (Book)
9783668357839
File size
933 KB
Language
English
Tags
bill, history, iterations, economic, impact
Quote paper
Matthew Burke (Author), 2015, The GI Bill. It's History, Iterations, and Economic Impact, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/345654

Comments

  • No comments yet.
Read the ebook
Title: The GI Bill. It's History, Iterations, and Economic Impact


Upload papers

Your term paper / thesis:

- Publication as eBook and book
- High royalties for the sales
- Completely free - with ISBN
- It only takes five minutes
- Every paper finds readers

Publish now - it's free