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Occurrence of Malaria and Its Prevention in Ethiopia
According to the Gale Encyclopedia of Nursing and Allied Health, malaria is a possibly dangerous communicable “disease” transmitted by any of the “parasite” class linked to the “genus plasmodium mosquitoes” (Fallon and Frey, 2013, p, 1). Malaria is curable through using medical procedures, but patients usually relapse; it is particularly acute in southern part of Sub Saharan Africa (Fallon and Frey, 2013). The World Health Organization (WHO) claims that just in the year 2015, 214 million people were infected by malaria as per reports collected from 95 countries; out of this about 400,000 have died, and nine out of ten deaths were in Sub Saharan Africa (African News Service, 2016). In the same source, as described during the observation of “World Malaria Day”, the occurrence of malaria in Ethiopia is not different from the phenomenon in Sub Saharan Africa, where the disease is the first public health risk in Ethiopia in which 60 percent of its population exposed to the disease (2016, p, 1). In order to understand more about malaria’s occurrence and the prevention strategies undertaken in Ethiopia, it is necessary to discuss the causes, effects, treatments, and prognosis.
People become infected by malaria when they are stung by a “female anopheles mosquito” searching for a “blood meal”, and the mosquito transmits a “protozoon of the genus Plasmodium” whose reproduction is undertaken in both the human and the transmitting insect (Fallon and Frey, 2013, p, 1). The spread of malaria fluctuates largely based on “altitudinal and climate variations” where its occurrence time of a year correlates with agricultural land preparation period (Aregawi, M. et al, 2014, p, 1). As indicated in the same source, out of the country’s 94 million population in 2013, 68% have contracted by malaria (2014). In most parts of the country, rainfall is seen as complimentary factor for the spread of malaria, particularly in the years 2006 through 2010 (Aregawi, M. et al, 2014, p, 4).
It is also important to discuss the effects of malaria. The initial effect is cold and fever for all types of malaria in many situations. The fever progresses through three steps, starting with unmanageable trembling for almost two hours, followed by a fast increase in temperature close to 106°F (41.1°C), in which the temperature remains for three to six hours, and then, unexpectedly, the patient starts to sweat plentifully, which instantly diminishes the fever (Fallon and Frey, 2013). In Ethiopia, malaria is a prominent “cause of outpatient visits, health facility admissions and inpatient deaths” which resulted in high disease occurrence and death rate (African News Service, 2016, p, 1). Furthermore, since the proliferation period of malaria matches with the major agricultural land preparation and harvesting season of agrarian society, it has sizable hindrance on farm production, thereby weighing down the overall economic growth of the country (African News Service, 2016).
Additionally, treatment for prevalence of malaria must be considered. The procedure employed to manage malaria, the type of medication used, and the time period it takes to cure the disease depend on where the malaria was transmitted and how ill the contracted person is, except for falciparum malaria that has to be treated in higher medical center (Fallon and Frey, 2013). Moreover, as described in the same source, types of drugs to be provided are: chloroquine for vivax – relatively less lethal and malaria other than falciparum, and quinine in combination with chloroquine for falciparum – severe malaria (2013). Considering the impact of malaria, the Ethiopian government along with its development associates have undertaken several avoidance and combating schemes for years that moved the country a long way in terms of downgrading the problem of malaria (African News Service, 2016). With regard to this, the interventions made by the government of Ethiopia are, providing “insecticide-treated bed-nets” free of charge, undertaking “anti-malarial chemical spray” regularly, and deploying massive “health extension workers” along with “artemisinin-based combination therapy” (African News Service, 2016, P, 2). As explained in the same source, because of the aforementioned intervention, demise caused as a result of malaria reduced by 55% percent, and the under-five demise is reduced by 73 percent (2016).
In conclusion, even with praiseworthy “anti-malaria” interventions such as applying anti-insect substance, disseminating “long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets (LLINs)”, and educating specialized workers, the disease is continuing to be the foremost health threat in Ethiopia (African News Service, 2016). In general, the number of patients staying in hospital because of malaria were 54 percent lower and the demise caused by malaria were 68 percent lower in 2011 than that forecasted by inclination during 2001 – 2005, though the decrease was not adequately substantial (Aregawi, M. et al, 2014). Therefore, as indicated in World Health organization’s (WHO) “technical strategy” document, to quit “Malaria Transmission”, Ethiopian government has to compile and scale-up best practices, put forward its commitment, and initiate all stakeholders and work in collaboration with them (African News Service, 2016, p, 2.). If these actions are undertaken by the government, malaria will no longer be a major health threat of the country.
African News Service, 2016
http://allafrica.com/stories/201604261098.html, April 2016.
"Enhancing Efforts to Eliminate Malaria [editorial]." Africa News Service, 26 Apr. 2016. Global Issues in Context,montgomerycollege.idm.oclc.org /login?url=http://ic.galegroup.com/ic/gic/ViewpointsDetailsPage/ViewpointsDetailsWindow?disableHighlighting=false&displayGroupName=Viewpoints&currPage=&scanId=&query=&prodId=GIC&search_within_results=&p=GIC%3AOVIC&mode=view&catId=&limiter=&displayquery=&displayGroups=&contentModules=&action=e&sortBy=&documentId=GALE%7CA450606708&windowstate=normal&activityType=&failOverType=&commentary=&source=Bookmark&u=rock77357&jsid=4a1dc5fde5f40c533e5cfd391d967e6b Accessed 2 Nov. 2016.
Fallon, L. & Frey, R. (2013). Malaria. In N. Brigham (Ed.), Gale Encyclopedia of Nursing and Allied Health, Vol. 4. (3rd ed.). Detroit: Gale, Cengage Learning. Retrieved November 07, 2016, from Nursing Resource Center via Gale: http://find.galegroup.com/nrcx/start.do?prodId=NRC
Aregawi, M., Lynch, M., Bekele, W., Kebede, H., Jima, D., Taffese, HS. …
Coosemans, M. (2014). “Time series analysis of trends in malaria cases and deaths at hospitals and the effect of antimalarial interventions, 2001 – 2011, Ethiopia”. Public Library of Science, 9 (11). DOI 10.1371 /journal. pone. 0106359
- Quote paper
- Temesgen Atew (Author), 2016, Occurence of Malaria and its Prevention in Ethiopia, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/349134