Assessing Conflict Management Practice. A case study of Aleta land polypropylene bag Factory SNNPR, Hawassa Ethiopia


Bachelor Thesis, 2016
44 Pages, Grade: 3.58

Excerpt

Table of content

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
1.2. Statement of the Problem
1.3 Research questions
1.4 Objective of the study
1.4.1. General objective
1.4.2. Specific objectives
1.5. Significance of the Study
1.6. Scope and Limitation of the Study
1.7. Research Methodology
1.7.1. Research design and strategy
1.7.2. Source and type of Data
1.7.3. Sampling Design and technique
1.7.4. Method of Data collection
1.7.5. Data analysis
1.8. Organization of the Study

CHAPTER TWO REVIEW LITERATURE
2.1 Definition of Conflict
2.2. Transitions in Conflict Thought
2.2.1. The Traditional View of Conflict
2.2.2. The human Relation View of Conflict
2.2.3. The Interactions View of Conflict
2.3. Stages of Conflicts
2.3.1. Latent Conflict
2.3.2. Perceived Conflict
2.3.3. Felt Conflict
2.3.4. Manifest conflict
2.3.5. Conflict aftermath
2.4. Sources of conflict
2.4.1. Differences in perception
2.4.2. Limited resources
2.4.3. Departmentalization and Specialization
2.4.4. Environmental Change
2.5. Functional Versus Dysfunctional Conflict
2.6. The consequences of Dysfunctional conflict
2.6.1. Changes within groups
2.6.2. Emphasis on loyalty
2.6.3. Rise in autocratic leadership
2.6.4. Focus on activity
2.7. Forms of conflict in organization
2.7.1. Inter organizational conflict
2.7.2. Inter group conflict
2.7.3. Inter personal conflict
2.7.4. Intra personal conflict
2.8. Role conflict
2.8.1. Intra-sender conflict
2.8.2. Inter-sender role conflict:
2.8.3. Inter role conflict:
2.8.4. Person role conflict
2.8.5. Role- Over load conflict
2.9. Strategies for managing conflict
2.9.1. Clarification of goals and objectives
2.9.2. Resource distribution
2.9.3. Personnel policies and procedures
2.9.4. Non- monetary rewards
2.9.5. Development of interpersonal/group process skills/
2.9.6. Group activities
2.10. Managing conflict through stimulation
2.10.1. Communications
2.10.2. Heterogeneity
2.10.3. Competition
2.11. Managing conflict through resolution
2.11.1. Problem solving
2.11.2. Subordinate goals
2.11.3. Expansion of resources
2.11.4. Avoidance
2.11.5. Forcing
2.11.6. Smoothing
2.11.7. Compromise
2.12. Third-party conflict resolution
2.13. Types of third-party intervention

CHAPTER-THREE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
3.1. Introduction

CHAPTER FOUR CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
4.1 Conclusion
4.2 Recommendations

References

Appendix

Acknowledgment

First and foremost thanks to the almighty God, who permits the smooth accomplishment of this research and this come true with his great contribution Next I would like to express my deepest gratitude for my parents for their support in many aspects. Thirdly, I would like to address thanks for my advisor Mr. Abdulaziz A. who has a second chance and put his trust on us to conclude this study. In addition to this, thanks go to the manager and employees of Aleta land polypropylene bag factory in Hawassa who had given immediate and valuable responses in both questionnaires and interviews.

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

Today’s organizations may face greater potential for conflict than ever before in history. The market place, with its increasing competition on globalization, magnifies different among people in terms of personality, values, attitudes, perceptions, languages, culture, and national background, with the increasing diversity of the workforce. Furthermore, comes potential incompatibility and conflict. Estimates show that managers spend about 21 percent of their time dealing with conflict. That is the equivalent of one day every week, and conflict management skills are a major predictor of managerial success. The accompanying organizational reality feature describes how “emotional intelligence” relates to the ability to manage conflict.

Not all conflict is bad. In fact some types of conflict encourage new solutions to problems and enhance the creativity in the organization. In these cases, managers will want to encourage the conflict. Therefore, managers should stimulate functional conflict and prevent or resolve dysfunctional conflict. This is the key to conflict management. However, the difficulty lies in trying to text the difference between dysfunctional and functional conflict. The consequences of conflict can be positive or negative. (Nelson and Debra, 1956).

Nelson and Debra (1956 ) identify different form of conflict in the organization including inter organizational, inter group, interpersonal and intra personal conflict. It is important to note that the prefix inter means “between” where as the prefix intra means “within” managers have at their disposal a variety of conflict management styles. Avoiding, accommodating, competing, compromising, and collaborating. One way of classifying styles of conflict management is to examine the styles. Assertiveness (the extent to which you want your golas met) and cooperativeness (the extent to which you want to see the other party’s concernment. (Robbins and Stephen, 1943 ). This research will focus on conflict between groups or individuals in Aleta land polypropylene bag factory.

In general the main purpose to conduct this study is that conflict seriously affects performance and disorders the goals and objectives of the organization. While conflict management is very important to run smoothly the organizations activities.

1.2. Statement of the Problem

Aleta land polypropylene bag factory as an organization has a group of individual who have different interests and unique characteristics shaped by cultural, social and biological background under the same goal and objective of the organization.

This situation with other conflicting factors put the interaction among individual and groups within the organization. Conflict is inevitable at all levels of the organization. It is obvious that conflict occurs within an organization. The occurrences of conflict have an effect on the overall performance and disorder the goals and objectives of the organization. Thus, conflict management is very essential to run smoothly the organization’s activities. Therefore to result in a positive effect, conflict need to be managed carefully.

1.3 Research questions

So this study would be answered the following research questions:

- What are the causes of conflict in Aleta land pp bag factory ?
- What methods of conflict resolution are used ?
- What are the outcomes of the conflict ?

1.4 Objective of the study

1.4.1. General objective

The general objective of the study was to assess conflict and conflict management in case study of Aleta land propylene bag factory SNNPR, Hawassa.

1.4.2. Specific objectives

The Specific objectives of this study were:

- To find out the source of conflict in the organization.
- To identify what techniques are used to resolve conflict in the organization
- To know the positive and negative outcomes of conflict in the organization.

1.5. Significance of the Study

The study finding can have a base line data to the other researcher who will conduct similar studies and benefit to Aleta land polypropylene bag factory employees to manage conflict. It contributes piece of knowledge about conflict management in organization. It is also benefit to a researcher to develop the knowledge of conducting research work and to put the theoretical knowledge in to practice.

1.6. Scope and Limitation of the Study

The study was focused on “conflict and conflict management only in Hawassa, Aleta land polypropylene bag factory that is geographically restricted. Hence, it is difficult to assess the attitude of the whole employees and also due to time, budget and respondents constraint,40 employees taken in to consideration as representative of targeted population.

1.7. Research Methodology

1.7.1. Research design and strategy

The research design used in the study was basically descriptive in nature .Descriptive research permits the explanation of phenomena .A survey research was used in this study to investigate conflict management and its practice of employees in Hawassa a case study of Aleta land polypropylene bag factory. The study was adopt both quantitative and qualitative research approach which to find out the sources of conflict and used to resolve conflict in the organization ,would be attained using quantitative approaches ,the postive and negative outcomes of conflict was measured by qualitative approach.

1.7.2. Source and type of Data

The data type used for conducting this study was both quantitative and qualitative type of data that collected from primary and secondary source of data. Primary data were raw data which was gathered by using questionnaires and interview. Whereas, the secondary sources data were collected from organizational records, books, internets, published documents, etc..

1.7.3. Sampling Design and technique

The study was used the probability sampling technique in conducting this study. Among the probability sampling techniques the stratified sampling design was used because the population is heterogeneous with respect to departments.

The study was used 40 samples among 80 employees including their management.

Population (N)=80 Sample size (n) =40

Sample frame= Total no of employees in each dept x n

Total no of population (N)

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Source : organizational data

1.7.4. Method of Data collection

Data required for this study was collected from both primary and secondary sources of data. The primary data was gathered by questionnaires and interview. Questionnaires were distributed and filled by the employees of the organization. In addition, the manager of the organization was interviewed to get additional data. And the secondary sources were organizational records.

1.7.5. Data analysis

The study was summarized the response of sample population by grouping or classifying the data similar responses together in order to avoid repetition of ideas. In order to assess the conflict management practice the study was used quantitative and qualitative data analysis method. The study was applied descriptive statistics like frequency, percentage in order to analyze data and compute the raw data in each scale. The reason for choose this method of data analysis is that it allows describing, summarizing and presenting the quantitative data in tabular form.

1.8. Organization of the Study

The proposed reasearch was organized in to four chapters. The first chapter deals with the introductory part of the paper in which background of the study, statement of the problem, objectives of the study, significance of the study, delimitation and limitation of the research methodology used, and organization of the paper . The second chapter deals with the literature review. Third chapter is data analysis and interpretation, chapter four conclusion and recommendation were presented.

CHAPTER TWO REVIEW LITERATURE

2.1 Definition of Conflict

There has been no shortage of definition of conflict. Despite the divergent meanings the term has acquired, several common themes underlie most definitions. Conflict must be perceived by the parties to it; whether or not conflict exist is a perception issues. If no one is aware of conflict, then it is generally agreed. That no conflict exists. Additional commonalities in the definition are opposition or incompatibility and some form of interaction. These factors set the conditions that determine the beginning point of the conflict process. (Kumar and metal, 2001; 438)

We can define conflict, then, as a process that begins when one party perceives that another party has negatively affected, or is about to negatively affects, something that the first part cares about. This definition is purposely broad. It describes that point in any ongoing activity when an interaction ‘crosses over’ to become and interpret conflict. It encompasses the wide range of conflict that people experience in organizations incompatibility of goals, difference over interpretations of incompatibility of goals, difference over interpretations of fact, disagreements based on behavioral expectations and the like. Finally, our definition is flexible enough to cover the full range of conflict levels from overt and violent acts to subtle forms of disagreement (Robbins, 1943:400)

2.2. Transitions in Conflict Thought

It is entirely appropriate to say there has been conflict over the role of conflict in groups and organizations. One school of thought has argued that conflict must be avoided that it indicates a malfunctioning within the group. We call this the traditional view. Another school of thought, the human relations view, argues that conflict is a natural and inevitable outcome in any group and that it need not be evil but rather has the potential to be a positive force in determining group performance. The third, and most recent, perspective proposes not only that conflict can be a positive force in a group but explicitly argues that some conflict is absolutely necessary for a group to Perform actively. We label this third school the interactions view. Let's take a closer look at each of these view.

2.2.1. The Traditional View of Conflict

The early approach to conflict assumed that all conflict was bad. Conflict was viewed negatively and it was used synonymously with such terms as violence, destruction and irrationality to reinforce its negative connotation. Conflict, by definition, was harmful and was to be avoided. The traditional view of conflict was consistent with the attitudes that prevailed about group behavior in the 1930 and 1940’s. Conflict was seen as a dysfunctional outcome resulting from poor communication, a lack of openness and trust between people and the failure of managers to be responsive to the needs and aspirations of their employees.

The view that all conflict is bad certainly offers a simple approach to looking at the behavior of people who create conflict. Because all conflict is to be avoided, we need merely direct our attention to the causes of conflict and correct those malfunctions to improve group and organizational performance.

2.2.2. The human Relation View of Conflict

The human relations view of conflict argued that conflict was a natural occurrence. In all groups and organizations. Because conflict was inevitable the human relations school advocated acceptance of conflict. Proponents rationalized its existence; it cannot be eliminated, and there are even times when conflict may benefit a group’s performance. The human relations view dominated conflict theory from the late 1940s through the mid—1970s.

2.2.3. The Interactions View of Conflict

Whereas the human relations view accepted conflict, the inter actionist view of conflict encourages conflict on the grounds that a harmonious, peaceful, tranquil and cooperative group is prone to becoming static, apathetic, and non responsive to needs for change and innovation. The major contribution of the interactions view, therefore, is encouraging group leaders to maintain and ongoing minimum level of conflict- enough to keep the group viable, self- critical and creative.

The interactions view does not propose that all conflict are good. Rather, some conflict support the goals of the group and improve its performance; these are functional conflict, constructive, forms of conflict. In addition, there are conflict that hinder group performance, these are dysfunctional conflict, or destructive forms of conflict (Robbins, 1943:401).

2.3. Stages of Conflicts

Conflict can be more readily understood if it is considered as dynamic process. “Process” here indicates a series of events. Each conflict is made up of a sequence of interlocking conflict episodes.

The stages of conflict namely, latent conflict, perceived conflict, felt conflict, manifest conflict and conflict aftermath.

2.3.1. Latent Conflict

Each episode of conflict begins with a “latent conflict”: important sources of organizational conflict such as competition for scarce resource divergence of sub unit goals, competition for positions in the organization, role conflict are present, but the conflict has not year emerged. Latent conflict provided the necessary antecedent conditions for conflict in organizations. Here participants only anticipate conflict.

2.3.2. Perceived Conflict

Here the basic sources of conflict like divergent goals, competition for scarce resources do not exist. Conflict results in due to the parties misunderstanding of each others’ true position., such a conflict can be resolved by improving communication between the a parties.

2.3.3. Felt Conflict

A and B working in a departmental store are in serious disagreement over the interpretation of the policy” customer is the king” and are arguing for hours together. Of this episode does not make. A tense or anxious and has no effect on A's relationship with B then it can be safely conclude that conflict is not ‘felt’ by parties. Even though people perceive that there is a basis for conflict, conflict will not arise unless the difference become personalized or internalized (felt).

2.3.4. Manifest conflict

This is the stage for open confrontation. It takes the form of conflicts full, behavior including open aggression, sabotage, apathy, withdrawal, latter prefect obedience to rules etc, all of which reduce organizations effectiveness.

2.3.5. Conflict aftermath

The aftermath of a conflict may be either positive or negative for the organization depending on how the conflict is resolved. If the conflict is genuinely resolved, It can lead to a more enduring and cooperative relationship between organizational enduing and cooperative relationship between organizational participants; if the conflict is merely suppressed but not resolved, the latent conditions of conflict may be aggravated and explode in more violent and series forms. This legacy of conflict is called “ conflict aftermath” (Kumar and Mittal, 2001: 440).

2.4. Sources of conflict

2.4.1. Differences in perception

We all see things in different ways. We all have our own, unique picture or image of how we see the ‘real’ world. Differences in perception result in different people attaching different meanings to the same stimuli. As perceptions become a person’s reality, value judgments can be potential major sources of conflict.

2.4.2. Limited resources

Most organizational resources are limited, and individuals and groups have to front of rather share. The greater the limitation of resources, then usually the greater the potential for conflict. In an organization with reducing profits or revenues he potential for conflict is likely to be intensified.

2.4.3. Departmentalization and Specialization

Most work organizations are divided in to separate departments with specialized functions. Because of familiarity with the manner in which they undertake their activities, departments tend to turn inwards and to concentrate on the achievement of their own particular goals. Differing goals and internal environments of departments are also potential sources of conflict.

2.4.4. Environmental Change

Changes in an organizations external environment, such as shifts in demand, increased competition, government intervention, new technology or changing social values, can cause major areas of conflicts. (Laurin and Mullins, 1999:818).

2.5. Functional Versus Dysfunctional Conflict

Not all conflict is bad. In fact, some types of conflict encourage new solutions to problem and enhance the activity in the organization. In these cases, managers will want to encourage the conflict. Therefore, managers should stimulate functional conflict and prevent or resolve dysfunctional conflict. This is the key to conflict management. However, the difficultly lies in trying to tell the difference between dysfunctional and functional conflict. The consequences of conflict can be positive or negative.

Functional conflict is a healthy, constructive disagreement between two or more people. Functional conflict can produce new ideas, learning, and growth among individuals. When individuals engage in constructive conflict, they develop a better awareness of themselves and others. In addition, functional conflict can improve working relationship, because when two parties work through their disagreements, they feel they have accomplished something together.

Functional conflict can lead to innovation and positive change for the organization. Because attends to encourage creativity among individuals, this positive form of conflict can translate in to increases productivity.

Dysfunctional conflict is un healthy, destructive disagreement between two or more people. Its danger is that it takes the focus away from the work to be done and places the focus on the conflict itself and the parties involved. A key or recognizing a dysfunctional conflict is that its origin is often emotional or behavioral. Individuals involved in dysfunctional conflict tend to act before thinking, and they often rely on threats, deception, and verbal abuse to communication. In dysfunctional conflict, the losses to both parties may exceed any potential gain from the conflict. (Nelson and DebraL, 1956:378).

2.6. The consequences of Dysfunctional conflict

Behavioral scientists have spent more than three decades researching and analyzing how dysfunctional inter group conflict affects those who experience it. They have found that groups, placed in a conflict situation tend to react in fairly predictable ways. We shall now examine a member of the changes that occur within groups and between groups as a result of dysfunctional inter group conflicts.

2.6.1. Changes within groups

Many changes are likely to occur within groups involved in inter group conflict. Unfortunately, these changes generally result in either a continuance or an escalation of the conflict.

Increased group cohesiveness

It is clear that when groups are engaged in a conflict their cohesion tends to increase. Competition, conflict, or perceived external threat usually result in group members putting side individual differences and closing ranks. Members become more loyal to the group, and group membership becomes more attractive. This increase on cohesion is necessary to mobility group resources in dealing with the “enemy’ and tends to result in the suppression of internal disagreements.

2.6.2. Emphasis on loyalty

The tendency of groups to increase in consequences suggests that conformity to group norms becomes more important in conflict situations. In reality it is not unusual for groups to over conform to group norms in conflict situations. In such situations group goals take precedence over individual satisfaction as members are expected to demonstrate their loyalty. In major conflict situations interaction with members of “the other group” may be completely out lowed.

[...]

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Details

Title
Assessing Conflict Management Practice. A case study of Aleta land polypropylene bag Factory SNNPR, Hawassa Ethiopia
College
Hawassa University
Course
management
Grade
3.58
Author
Year
2016
Pages
44
Catalog Number
V351361
ISBN (eBook)
9783668379244
ISBN (Book)
9783668379251
File size
626 KB
Language
English
Tags
successful operation, organization, conflict resolution
Quote paper
Yirgalem Abera (Author), 2016, Assessing Conflict Management Practice. A case study of Aleta land polypropylene bag Factory SNNPR, Hawassa Ethiopia, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/351361

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