Effects of teachers' professional competence on students' academic achievements at secondary school level in Muzaffarabad District


Master's Thesis, 2016
137 Pages, Grade: A

Free online reading

LIST OF CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

ABSTRACT

CHAPTER 1
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Statement of the Problem
1.3 Objectives of the Study
1.4 Hypotheses of Study
1.5 Significance of the Study
1.6 Delimitations
1.7 Methodology
1.7.1 Population
1.7.2 Sample Size
1.7.3 Development of Tool
1.7.4 Pilot Study
1.7.5 Improvement of Research Instrument
1.7.6 Administration and Collection of Research Instrument
1.7.7 Analysis of Data

CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Competence
2.2 Competent Teacher
2.3 Types of Teacher Competencies
2.3.1 Content Competence
2.3.2 Teaching Aids competency
2.3.3 Curriculum Transaction Competency
2.4 Factors Affecting Teacher Competence
2.5 Teachers Standards
2.6 Standards to Measure Teachers Competence
2.6.1 Instructional Planning and Strategies
2.6.2 Subject matter Knowledge
2.6.3 Human Growth and Development
2.6.4 Learning Environment
2.6.5 Assessment
2.6.6 Students Achievement
2.7 Academic Performance
2.8 Academic Failure
2.9 Factors affecting Students Achievement
2.10 Review of related studies
2.11 Summary

CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY AND PROCEDURE
3.1 Population
3.2 Sample of the Study
3.3 Preparation of the Instrument
3.4 Pilot Testing
3.5 Administration of the Tool for Data Collection
3.6 Data Analysis Procedure

CHAPTER 4 ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA
4.1 Analysis of Factors Related to Instructional Planning and strategies
4.2 Analysis of Various Factors Related to Subject Matter Knowledge
4.3 Analysis of Various Factors Related to Students’ Human Growth and Development
4.4 Analysis of Various Factors Regarding Teachers’ Learning Environment
4.5 Analysis of Various Factors Related To Students’ Assessment
4.6 Analysis of Relationship of Teachers Professional Competence Scores and Students Academic Achievement Scores
4.6.1 Comparison of Male Teachers and Female Teachers Professional Competence Scores
4.6.2 Comparisons of Male Students and Female Students Achievements Scores
4.7 Analysis of Open Ended Items

CHAPTER 5 SUMMARY, FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary
5.2 Findings
5.3 Conclusions
5.4 Recommendations

REFERENCES

Appendix-A

Appendix-B

Appendix-C

Appendix-D

Appendix-E

Appendix-F

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

All praise to Allah, the Most Beneficent and the Most Merciful. It is with great submission that I bow my head before Him for giving me the courage to complete this research program in time.

First and foremost, I would like to express my immense heartiest gratitude to my worthy supervisorCol®Dr.Muhmmad.Altaf Qureshi whose experience, noble guidance, kindness, tremendous co-operation, valuable comments, good suggestions and, keen interest in my studies enabled me to complete my research work successfully. My deepest thanks also go to Professor Dr.Muhmmad Rasheed dean Faculty of Education for his guidance and encouragement during my studies. I would take this opportunity to express my gratitude to all my faculty members Dr.Sadia , Dr.Amna Saleem, Dr. Miraj ud Din for their cooperation and guidance.

I feel it incomplete if I don’t pay my special thanks and heartiest compliments to all of my class mates specially Farhat perveen,Raja Safeer and Aqeel. I pay my special thanks for the co-operation ofChaudary.Waseem, Awais Chudary,Saeed,Asim and Rohana, who helped me in data collection.

I pay special gratitude to my brothers Muhammad Siddiq and Muhammad Bisharat for their support and moral help during my research work.

No, acknowledgement could ever adequately express my obligations to my affectionate and adoring parents whose hands always were raised in prayers for me. I pay special tribute to my husband Muhmmad Nazim without whose moral and financial support, the present distinction would have merely been a dream. I wish to express my deepest regards to my children Walija Aroob and Azghan Ahmed who were neglected by me during working for completion on the research project. Finally I pay special thanks to my in-laws who have supported me during my research work.

At the end I must again appreciate my mother for motivating, inspiring and encouraging me to achieve this milestone of learning.

ABSTRACT

Quality education is base for the development of any nation .For quality education the competent teachers are necessary. Every country has designed its own standards to measure proficiency of teachers .Pakistan has also presented its standards for teachers. The study was an effort to see the “Effects of Teachers Professional Competence on Students Academic Achievements at Secondary School level in Muzzafarabad District” in the light of National Professional standards for Teachers(2009).Objectives of study included to identify professional competencies of teachers in public Secondary Schools of Muzaffarabad district, find out the relationship between teachers professional competence and students achievement at secondary schools, compare difference between achievements of female and male students at secondary schools, identify the discrepancies in professional competence of teachers affecting the achievement of students, and to suggest the measures for the improvement of professional competence in teachers. The hypotheses of the study were H1, “There is a significant relationship between teachers’ professional competence scores and students’ achievement scores at Public secondary schools”.H2, “There is a significant difference between professional competence scores of male and female teachers at public secondary schools”.H3, “There is a significant difference between the achievement scores of male and female students at public secondary schools”. The study was delimited to public sector secondary schools, achievements of students of 10th class during session 2014.The study was descriptive in nature and was conducted by survey method. Data were collected for research with the help of questionnaire that was validated by experts and Cronbach Alpha‘s method. Population of the study was 400 female teachers and 456 male teachers. Sample of the study was 424 teachers (200) female and (224) male teachers. Sample was selected by using simple random sampling technique. For concluding results of study, percentage, mean score, Pearson r and t-Test was used. It was found out that male and female teachers were competent. There was significant difference between male teachers’ professional competence scores and female teachers’ professional competence scores. It was found out that there was difference between male students’ achievements scores and female students’ achievements scores. It was recommended that teachers might be trained according to professional standards. IT facilities, libraries, books, helping material, etc. might be provided to teachers.

LIST OF APPENDICES

Appendix-A Letter of Permission

Appendix-B Questionnaire for Teachers

Appendix-C Reliability Table

Appendix–D List of Schools Included in Sample

Appendix –E Teachers’ Professional Competence Scores

Appendix-F Students Achievement Scores

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

List of Key Terms

Teacher Competence: It refers to teacher’s well use of knowledge and skills and attitude in classroom for effective learning of students

Student Achievement: The scores of students in external examination

Differentiated Instruction: Use of various techniques by considering individual needs of students

CHAPTER 1

1.1 Introduction

The strength of an educational system largely depends upon the quality of teachers. A quality teacher is the major criterion for offering the quality education. Teacher has always been considered as one of the noblest human being and as second parent of students. Students are generally influenced by their teachers, because they spend most of their time under the guidance of teachers in schools.

Rahaman (2010, p.4) describes that teachers are professionally trained and certificated to manage and control instructional process in the school. For teaching learning activities, to take place, teacher must prepare lesson plans, produces instructional materials and adopts appropriate teaching strategies to achieve instructional objectives. For effective learning, a teacher needs to be equipped with all these skills and attitudes by which he can help his students to learn.

Teacher’s professional competence includes knowledge and understanding of children and their learning, subject knowledge, curriculum, the education system and the teacher’s role. Professional competence also includes skills such as subject application, classroom methodology, classroom management, assessment and recording. The verbal ability, content knowledge, pedagogical knowledge, certification status, ability to use a range of teaching strategies skillfully, and enthusiasm for the subject characterize more successful teachers. According to Nataša (2011, p.9)

Competency can be defined as the combination of knowledge, skills and or abilities required for performing successful job. A similarly broad understanding of teacher competence is visible in a few other recent competence frameworks. They adopt a concept of competence as ‘an integrated set of personal characteristics, knowledge, skills and attitudes that are needed for effective performance in various teaching contexts. Defined in this way, competencies represent a potential for behavior, and not the behavior itself. Influence in promoting the development of basic skills, desirable work habits, attitudes, values judgment and adjustment to the individual learners environment.

Students’ achievement can be affected either positively or negatively by the school environment. The role of school is very important in the performance of teachers and students. Teachers are the basic element that greatly influences the teaching learning environment through their abilities, potentialities and professional competence. Only the competent teachers are responsible to bring in the desired changes among their students.

According to Tope, (2012, p.5)

The school environment has a strong positive relationship with students’ ratings of their overall school satisfaction, students’ self-esteem, and academic performance. Teacher’s competency enhances a teacher’s ability to create an environment that is fair, understanding, and accepting of diverse students, ideas, experiences, and backgrounds. Teachers have been found to be the single most important factor influencing student achievement.

Teacher competence for improvement purposes is linked to ongoing professional learning and development to improve teaching and learning linked with a set of professional standards. According toWright etal. (1997, p.63), education can be improved by improving the competence of teachers. Competent teachers appear to be effective with students of all achievement levels, regardless of the individual differences in their classrooms.

Teacher competence is an intellectual potency that exist in teacher’s mind and which is realized in doing his/her job according to professional standards. It indicates that teacher competence refers to the ability of teacher to use professional standards efficiently to help, guide and counsel his/her students so that they can get good achievement.

Considering the significant role of a teacher for quality education, the Government of Pakistan with the financial support of USAID, for its educational reforms agenda, developed National Professional Standards for Teachers and distributed widely among teachers, teacher educators and teacher education institutions all over Pakistan.The purpose was to improve the quality of teachers, and subsequently the quality of education for students. The National professional standards for teachers (2009, p.9) include:

1. Subject matter knowledge
2. Human growth and development
3. Knowledge of Islamic ethical values/social life skills,
4. Instructional planning and strategies
5. Assessment,
6. Learning environment,
7.Effective use of communication and proficient use of information/communication technologies,
8. Collaboration &partnership,
9. Continuous professional development and code of conduct,
10.Teaching of English as second /foreign language (ESL, EFL)

The evaluation of teacher competence can serve as a method of both identifying high and low-performing teachers and making professional development more useful by identifying the specific areas in which teachers need help. Teacher with high competence is one of the most significant factors that manipulate the students’ learning as well as serving the school to meet its objectives and missions. According to Mendro(1998, p.262)

If students have a high-performing teacher one year, they will enjoy the advantage of that good teaching in future years. Conversely, if students have a low-performing teacher, they simply will not outgrow the negative effects of lost learning opportunities for years to come.

Competent teachers are the most critical element in improving student achievement and closing the achievement gap. The important difference between the most and least effective classrooms is the teacher. The single most important influence on student learning is the quality of teaching. If teachers are not given the opportunities to improve practices in the classroom, it is the student’s achievement that may be harmed as a result.

Pamela (2005,p.6), states that research on teacher quality supports the fact that effective teachers not only make students feel good about school and learning, but also that their work actually results in increased student achievement. Studies have shown that a whole range of personal and professional qualities are associated with higher levels of student achievement. For example, we know that verbal ability, content knowledge, pedagogical knowledge, certification status, ability to use a range of teaching strategies skillfully, and enthusiasm for the subject characterize more successful teachers.

Teachers’ competencies can be checked in regard to professional standards defined by various educators. The present study encompasses professional standards to measure the professional competence of teachers that is: instructional planning, subject knowledge, human growth and development, learning environment, instructional strategies, and assessment of students which are related to classroom activities.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Teachers’ competence has great influence on students’ achievements, thus the present study was designed to explore the “Effects of Teachers Professional Competence on Students Academic Achievements at Public Secondary Schools of Muzaffarabad District.”

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The following were the objectives of the study:

(i) To identify professional competencies of teachers at public secondary schools of Muzaffarabad district
(ii) To find out the relationship between teachers professional competence and students achievement at secondary schools of Muzaffarabad district
(iii) To compare difference between achievements of female and male students at secondary schools.
(iv) To examine the discrepancies in professional competence of teachers affecting the achievement of students.
(v) To suggest the measures for the improvement of professional competence in teachers.

1.4 Hypotheses of Study

The following were the hypotheses of the study:

. i.There is a significant relationship between teachers professional competence scores and students achievement scores at public secondary schools.
ii.There is a significant difference between professional competence scores of male and female teachers at public secondary schools.
iii.There is a significant difference between the achievement scores of male and female students’ at public secondary schools.

1.5 Significance of the Study

A major concern of schools is to increase students’ achievement. One way to do this is to focus on classroom environment with the teacher as the centre that will influence student achievement and create best environment to facilitate learning. Its significance for the school is to provide them concrete and reasonable basis regarding teacher professional competencies for the improvement of teacher performance. The results of the study will encourage the teachers to enhance more their capacity and provide them guidance for their smooth functioning in classroom. This study will be useful for both teachers and students who may want to know the factors that could affect upon student’s academic performance. The study will bring into light the problems of teachers while teaching and their suggestions to improve the education system. The study also gives teachers awareness about National profession standards of teachers in Pakistan (2009) and their importance for teachers. Lastly, understanding the importance of teachers and their impact on student performance will help school administrators at secondary schools retrain teachers to make their teachings student centered.

1.6 Delimitations

The study was delimited to:

i. The public sector secondary schools only.
ii. Achievements of students of 10th class (2014).

1.7 Methodology

The study was descriptive in nature and survey technique was used to collect data. Documentary study was also used to find out academic achievement of students of 10th class on the basis of their results of 9th class in session 2014 in Public examination held by Board of Intermediate & Secondary Education Mirpur, Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK).

1.7.1 Population

The population of the study was:

TABLE 1.1

Population

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

1.7.2 Sample Size

The sample of schools was selected through simple random sampling technique. (GAY p.125)

TABLE 1.2

Sample Size

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

1.7.3 Development of Tool

A questionnaire was developed for teachers on five point Likert scale.

1.7.4 Pilot Study

Pilot study was conducted for pre testing reliability and validity of questionnaire. The sample size for the pilot study was 24 teachers (12 male and 12 females) Sample for pilot study was not part of the main sample selected for the study. Chronbach’s Alpha formula was used for checking the reliability of questionnaire.

1.7.5 Improvement of Research Instrument

In the light of pilot testing and guidance of the experts and supervisor research instruments was improved. The items which were eliminated were:

i. Makes dedicated attempts for effective learning (item no 3 )
ii. Committed to attain Curriculum objectives (item no 45 )
iii. Awareness of available resources to promote assessment techniques (item no 50)

The items which were rephrased in the expert opinion were:

i. “Uses differentiated instruction technique in classroom” was rephrased as: Uses different techniques in classroom for students learning (item no 23)
ii. “Arranges furniture and equipment to facilitate movement in the classroom” was rephrased as

Takes care of seating arrangements (item no 29)

1.7.6 Administration and Collection of Research Instrument

The researcher personally administered and collected the questionnaires from representative respondents to ensure 100 percent response.

1.7.7 Analysis of Data

The collected data were tabulated, analyzed and interpreted by applying percentage, mean score, t -Test and Pearson coefficient correlation r by using statistical package for social sciences. (SPSS-17)

CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

A review of the relevant literature of the research is presented in this chapter. It explores the significance of teachers in the education system, factors affecting teachers and students’ performance. This chapter also deals with the standards of teacher competence that affect students’ achievement. In the final section, a critical review of the related studies is presented.

2.1 Competence

Teacher is the pivot of education system. With the developments of modern electronic gadgets (internet, cellular phone, TV, radio etc) his importance may have become less but at school level, he is still playing a major role. The task of a teacher is directly related to the nature of the classroom. According to Darling (2006, p300) the 21st century classrooms demand from the teachers “to prepare virtually all students for higher order thinking and performance skills”

Competence is a widely used term in field of education that refers to, “Appropriate prior knowledge, skills, attitudes, and abilities in a given context that adjust and develop with time and needs in order to effectively and efficiently accomplish a task and that are measured against a minimum standard”.(Varvel, 2013, p.5)

According to the above definition competence refers to a wide variety of knowledge,information,skills,abilitites,capabilities,attitude,that make a person able to get adjustment in job and perform well in his job by utilizing his knowledge and skills effectively to achieve school goals and objectives. Competence indicates sufficiency of knowledge and skills to enable the person to act in a various situations by using that knowledge efficiently to complete the requirements of his /her job or career.

The teacher has many tasks to perform in classroom e.g. managing and organizing classroom activities, maintaining record and discipline, contact with parents, creatingconducive environmentfor learning with patience and touch of humor, arranging workshops, helping weak students, guiding intelligent students etc. The competent teacher can handle all above mentioned tasks confidently and effectively.

2.2 Competent Teacher

A competent teacher is versatile in nature and possesses variety of knowledge, abilities, skills, techniques and can effectively apply them according to required situations in his job and his students’ shows significant performance and progress in achievement tests.

According to Vavral (2013, p.5) the competent teacher is “one who effectively and efficiently accomplishes a task (instructs) in a given context (in classroom) using appropriate knowledge, skills, attitudes, and abilities that have adjusted and developed with time and needs.”

He feels responsible for students learning difficulties and takes active steps for their resolutions. He provides friendly environment to students to get aware with their problems and for free expression of their ideas. He provides clear explanations, relevant examples, asks questions to develop students’ confidence, believes in research; maintain classroom management and involvement of society to get latest ideas and demands for enhancement of teaching learning process.

According to Arshad (2007,p.54) the competent teacher is he who has in depth knowledge of subject matter, good verbal and non verbal Communication skills, complete work within time, initiative, take appropriate decisions, get adjustment in every situation, believe in research, cooperative attitude towards pupils, colleagues, parents and administration etc

2.3 Types of Teacher Competencies

According to Isave (2010, p.25),there are three main types of teacher competence, which are discussed below:

2.3.1 Content Competence

Teacher with content competence must have knowledge of objectives of curriculum on national level, institutional level, syllabus, textbooks, ,unit and sub units, in depth understanding of whole curriculum i.e. principles, rules, facts, concepts, diagram, current issues etc. and awareness about references ,handbooks, periodicals, encyclopedia, internet, etc.

2.3.2 Teaching Aids competency

Teachers with teaching aids competency use audio visual aids (TV, computers, sports scientific instruments, Audio Radio Cassette C.D. D.V.D. Mobile Visual projective non-projective aids, and exhibitions) effectively to make learning clear, accurate, durable and practicable.

2.3.3 Curriculum Transaction Competency

Teacher develops teacher -student interaction in respectful, appreciative, encouraging, disciplined, approachable and comprehensive environment. Teachers use variety of methods motivational techniques, models, pedagogical skills by considering resources, individual differences, etc. Teachers provide opportunity to experience things, challenging tasks, self- learning, visits to educational trips, and guide to develop notes, interpretations, observation, and experiments. Teacher plays a cooperative role for students i.e. as a guide, facilitator, helper who tries his best to communicate curriculum objectives and promote students cognitive, affective and psychomotor skills in their excellence

2.4 Factors Affecting Teacher Competence

In every education, system teachers’ performance is considered one of the most significant factors in students’ achievement and school effectiveness. Teachers maintain their high performance with the help of continuous research and professional attitude. The 21st century has faced various challenges (e.g. technological developments, nuclear weapons, natural disasters etc.); to compete in this era critical teachers are essential for students’ progress and high achievement.

Nadeem (2011, p.218) elaborates factors affecting teachers’ performance and competence. The teaching is successful only when it takes place in peaceful and relaxed environment. However, various factors internal or external place obstacles in provision of such an environment. For example low income, misconduct of students, work pressure, Job placement in distant areas, negative attitude of colleagues, lack of encouragement from management, household responsibilities, health (physical, mental, emotional) stress, transport problems, home distance from school location, lack of A.V aids, lack of facilities in school, terrorism and etc. These few factors negatively affect the performance of teachers and hinder in their way to success. The teacher’s poor performance ultimately affects the students’ achievement and low quality education system.

2.5 Teachers Standards

Performance Standards of teachers are the written statements of how well teachers must perform. Teacher standards are clearly written or defined statements of quality. Standards are the indicators to check the quality of teaching and its effects on students’ performance. According to UK Education Department (2012, pp.6-12) teacher standards are a key to improve teacher performance and quality of teaching.UK Department of Education enlists the standards for its teachers mentioned below:

i. Set high expectations that inspire, motivate and challenge pupils
ii. Promote good progress and outcomes by pupils
iii. Demonstrate good subject and curriculum knowledge
iv. Plan and teach well-structured lessons
v. Adapt teaching to respond to the strengths and needs of all pupils
vi. Make accurate and productive use of assessment
vii. Manage behavior effectively to ensure a good and safe learning environment
viii. Fulfill wider professional responsibilities

The Departments of Education from various countries have developed standards for their teachers according to their national and local needs. The teacher educators teach and train their teachers according to those set standards, and check their performance against those standards.

According to Hawaii Teacher Standards Board (2014) the teachers’ performance standards elaborate the type of knowledge and skills that teachers should have in this challenging and technological era to make sure students achievement of learning objectives; motivate teachers to develop creative and innovative skills beyond the curriculum; and encourage students to confront manifold aspects in inquiring ideas, resolving issues and problems. The teachers’ performance standards also explain the multi-disciplinary topics (e.g., vocational skills, financial and computer literacy, global awareness, training to tackle natural or war disaster etc.) and teacher’s capability to draw various aspects/themes from content.

2.6 Standards to Measure Teachers Competence

Teachers performance can be measured through various ways like students achievement in evaluation, observation by internal (principal, head teacher) and external persons (supervisors, education officer etc.) e.g. via direct observation, camera or CCTV etc. The educators developed teachers’ standards to measure teachers’ performance to check whether teachers are working according to set criteria or not. These standards help the teachers to identify the area of their weakness that need improvement.

The standards can be used for teachers’ self- evaluation, supervisors who evaluate the in-service and pre service teachers, school administration to assess its teachers’ competence, for educators and trainers because they formulate programs for teachers preparation.

The competencies of Teachers’ can be checked in regard to professional standards defined by various educators. The purpose of national teacher standards was to improve the performance of teachers which ultimately leads towards the high performance of students. The present study uses professional standards described by Ministry of Education Islamabad to measure the professional competence of teachers that were:

i. Instructional Planning and Strategies
ii. Subject matter Knowledge
iii. Human Growth and Development
iv. Learning Environment
v. Assessment of Students (Professional Standards for teachers in Pakistan, 2009,p.9)

2.6.1 Instructional Planningand Strategies

Planning is the very first step of teaching and takes place before going to class room. The quality of teaching mostly depends upon the quality of planning. For effective planning teacher has sound knowledge of national aims, schools goals and curriculum objectives. Niksolehin (2009)explains that Instructional planning involves preparing for teaching learning activities, developing of general and specific objectives, making clear the instructional strategies and assessment techniques to check whether the objectives have been achieved or not.

If pupils are definite about their learning objective they can easily focus their attention on learning activities. Their efforts get clear direction. If teachers know about their objectives in that case they can use time, course, facilities, resources etc effectively. The both teachers and students get benefits from instructional planning.

Professional standards for teachers in Pakistan (2009, p.12) define instructional planning as the teacher comprehends the concept of instructional planning, formulate long-term and short –term plans consist of concepts of content material, curriculum goals, need of society and pupils. The teacher applies an array of suitable strategies in pursuance of endorsing analytical rational, issue resolving and practical skills of all students.

The process of planning is critical and cyclical in its nature. The whole teaching learning activities based upon its quality. Teachers plan the classroom activities, choose among strategies, implement them in actual classroom setting, assess students performance and then re-plan to cover the shortcomings or for further improvement.

According to Gardner (2010, pp.41-42) the process of instructional planning involves usually three steps: first, it includes planning of general and specific objectives, selecting of appropriate teaching material to achieve these objectives, and organize the learning activities. The second step includes the teaching of planned instructions in an actual classroom setting. The third step includes assessment of students to know that to what extent the planned objectives have been achieved. All the three steps linked with each other in sequence. Instructional Planning helps teacher in the following ways:

i. It helps teachers to feel confident about their teaching and about their planning.
ii. It makes a teacher focused on subject matter and provides purpose.
iii. It provides an opportunity to review the topic before actual teaching takes place.
iv. It provides a clear framework for classroom activities and saves time, makes clear about home task to be assigned.
v. It helps in integration of daily lesson objectives with goal of units, whole curriculum and overall aims of education.

Good planning is essential for quality teaching. Teachers include other members, students, and colleagues, etc. to get new ideas. They plan the lesson by keeping in view needs of students, curriculum, school, society, etc. They frequently discuss about their plans with students, colleagues, parents, and administration so that they get feedback and modify accordingly.

Kizlik (2014, pp.12-13) describes the considerations of good planning: The lesson plan should adjust with students of various abilities. It encourages the pupils to become actively and consciously involved in classroom activities. Adequate content material should be included in lesson so that all students can learn it effectively. It includes the activities through which a teacher can assess students learning on a daily basis, e.g. simple question answer, an explanation of any concept from students, white board test, etc. The lesson plan provides necessary help for those pupils who do not learn in the very first trial. Teachers include some activities for quick learners which keep them busy at that time when teacher work with slow learners to making them clear the concept of content. The lesson should include appropriate integration of skills related to content. The time must be allocated for practical activities. So that cognitive, affective and psychomotor all skills of students develop side by side. Teachers plan to modify the curriculum according to the needs and understanding of pupils. The teacher reflects and links subject matter with the current issues, religious and cultural values, available resources, class environment, time and numbers of students etc.

According to Pakistan professional standards for teachers (2009, p.20) teacher must know the aims, goals and objectives of any specific subject as well of education and their significance in instructional planning. They know the principles of developing reading, writing, arithmetic skills in students of various grades. They know the importance of suitable resources for planning, information technology for motivating students’ attention and techniques to create environment that help all students to learn. Teachers are committed to attain objectives of course, development of critical thinking, problem solving ability among students. Teachers plan instruction by keeping in view classroom environment, school and cultural values.

Instructional strategies are the simple way or methods that teachers use in their teaching to deliver concepts, behaviors, and teach skills to students.Browne (2011,p.23)explains that an instructional strategy is a technique/method which teachers use in their teaching to motivate and involve pupils in developing curiosity, analytical thinking, positive relationship with classroom, and in enhancement of students’ achievement. It is used to cover the wide range of activities, concepts of content, and the decision about how to deliver the content to students of various abilities.

Teaching strategies help a lot in teaching learning process both the teachers and the learners in various ways. It involves a variety of activities and techniques that students adopt related to their abilities. Armstrong (2013, p.25) defines the teaching strategy as:

Teaching strategies refer to methods used to help students learn the desired course contents and be able to develop achievable goals in the future. Teaching strategies identify the different available learning methods to enable them to develop the right strategy to deal with the target group identified. Assessment of the learning capabilities of students provides a key pillar in development of a successful teaching strategy. E.g. Similarities and difference identification, Note taking and summarizing, Objective setting and feedback provision, Homework and practice, Nonlinguistic representation, Generation and test hypotheses, Use of cues, organizer and questions, mental rehearsal, Concept attainment etc.

Teachers usually link external factors e.g. home environment, students’ health, parents’ education, economic status etc. with students’ achievement. But they give little attention to their effective teaching that impacts the greater on students’ achievement. Luke (2010) describes that the three elements are necessary to consider while deciding about classroom strategies, i.e. characteristics of the learners, the objectives of the content, and qualities of the teacher. These all aspects are interlinked. The teacher selects methods and strategies according to the needs of students, available resources, time, nature of content material and his/her ability to implement those strategies in actual settings, etc.

According to Janssen (2014, p.421) the purpose of an instructional strategy is to involve students, encourage, motivate and make them focus on learning. Teachers select and use from different teaching strategies according to the need of concepts, learners, resources, etc. It is necessary for teachers to use a large range of strategies to develop and maintain pupils’ interest and appeal them. A wise selection and implementation of strategies make teachers’ lesson more interesting, effective and comprehensible.

According to Pakistan teachers standards (2009, p.13) teachers use suitable strategies and resources to follow instructions according to the needs of individuals and groups of students. Teachers regularly guide pupils learning, involve learners in analyzing their progress, and sets instruction /resources according to students learning needs. Teachers adapt several roles in teaching learning process e.g. instructor, facilitator, counselor, listener, observer etc. according to the nature of content and objectives of instruction. Teachers provide manifold models and explanations of concepts, behaviors and skills to develop inquiry and questioning skills that promote higher order thinking skills. Teachers promote creative and critical thinking, problem solving ability, curiosity, memorization etc. Teachers consider the technique of differentiate instruction and involve all pupils in meaningful activities. Teachers know how to use various technological and communication modes, resources, media etc to enhance students learning experiences. Teachers believe in change and flexibility in teaching learning process.

The teaching strategies have great positive impact on the learning outcomes for students in the classroom with several learning habits and abilities. When the best sort of strategies and classroom environment is coordinated and implemented the best achievement of students cannot be denied.

2.6.2 Subject matter Knowledge

The main objective of the school is to transmit knowledge and information to students. For this purpose, the teachers with latest knowledge are main component who can complete this objective of the school. Bascia, (2014, p.21) defines subject matter as:

To teach all students according to today’s standards, teachers need to understand subject matter deeply and flexibly so they can help students create useful cognitive maps, relate one idea to another, and address misconceptions. Teachers need to see how ideas connect across fields and to everyday life. This kind of understanding provides a foundation for pedagogical content knowledge that enables teachers to make ideas accessible to others.

Parents send their children into learning institutions to learn knowledge, appropriate behavior and practical skills. This is only possible when quality content is available for students; and teachers teach it effectively so that students can learn and apply it in their lives wherever they need. As short, content develops problem-solving capability in learners. According to the Glossary of Education (2013) content knowledge is:

The body of information that teachers teach and that students are expected to learn in a given subject or content area, such as English language arts, mathematics, science, or social studies. Content knowledge generally refers to the facts, concepts, theories, and principles that are taught and learned, rather than to related skills—such as reading, writing, or researching—those students also learn in academic courses. Teacher comprehends all the dimensions of content; its objectives, theories, principles, laws, hidden meaning, themes, etc., then teach students by using multiple methods and techniques and make them able to discover that what they have learned from specific concept. Knowledgeable teacher promotes the analytical and the research base attitude in his/her students. According to the Glossary of Education (2013) content knowledge is:

The body of information that teachers teach and that students are expected to learn in a given subject or content area, such as English language arts, mathematics, science, or social studies. Content knowledge generally refers to the facts, concepts, theories, and principles that are taught and learned, rather than to related skills—such as reading, writing, or researching—those students also learn in academic courses.

According to Theall (2012, p.13), there are several reasons for integration of actual-life situations in education. Teachers make the value of their teaching through application of content material in practical situations by giving examples from the real world. Teachers make content more understandable by connecting it with students’ real life situations and giving easy and concrete examples. Students feel more motivated when they find content practical and relevant to their lives. Student’ previous knowledge, applicability of concepts enhances their interest in learning process. Teachers can relate content with practical life by giving theoretical examples, using technology, organizing field trips, demonstration, etc.

Teachers, who are expert in their subject matter, can better implement their planned lesson and keep busy students in classroom proficiently. Students respect and ready to learn more from the teachers who has well command on the concepts. According to Aggarwal (2009, p.57),”the soul of effective teaching learning is a good command of subject matter.” The various educators and researchers have said that teachers command over subject matter is a major contributor towards students’ motivation, because the students’ purpose of going to school is to learn various knowledge, skills and behaviors.

Jadama (2014,pp.23-27) argues that the in- depth knowledge of subject matter which teachers are going to teach make them able to use various methodologies suited to deliver it. The full understanding of content makes them confident about selection of teaching strategies and skills, which are best for students’ understanding. Some students demand detail clarification on any topic which is only possible when the teacher has command over it. Teacher’s expertise and latest knowledge of content has a great positive effect on the process of teaching learning process. It makes students able to learn, practice and apply the knowledge and skills in their daily lives.

According to Theall (2012, p.3), There are several reasons for integration of actual-life situations in education. Teachers make the value of their teaching through application of content material in practical situations by giving examples from the real world. Teachers make content more understandable by connecting it with students’ real life situations and giving easy and concrete examples. Students feel more motivated when they find content being practical and relevant to their lives. Student’ previous knowledge, applicability of concepts enhances their interest in learning process. Teachers can relate content with practical life by giving theoretical examples, using technology, organizing field trips, demonstration, etc.

Pupils get more motivation towards learning when they encounter with real life situations and they prefer learning by doing. Due to the emergence of technology, it is feasible for teachers to show real –life situations (e.g. earthquake, bomb blasts, experiments, operations by expert doctors, the depth of the sea, and people of various countries etc.) in classroom through electronic gadgets and media.

Harris et al, (2007, p.87) elaborate, “knowledge of subject matter is a prerequisite for effective classroom instruction. A teacher’s understanding of subject facts, concepts, principles, methodology, and important generalizations determine his/her pedagogical thinking and decision making.” Teacher can make his/her content more elaborate by asking the students’ inquiry based questions, explanations and activities of their own.

Parents send their children to learning institutions to learn knowledge, appropriate behavior and practical skills. This is only possible when quality content is available for students; and teachers teach it effectively so that students can learn and apply it in their lives wherever they need. In short, content develops problem-solving capability in learners.

According to Arlington Public Schools (2012, p.17), researchers found out from various researches that teachers’ subject matter knowledge has great effect on achievement of students. It makes teachers confident and more loved by students. The less expert teacher cannot satisfy the needs of students learning which make them in effective in their profession.

Pakistan‘s professional standards (2009,p.10)describe subject matter knowledge as: teachers perceive the main concepts, means of exploration, designs of discipline, particularly as they linked to the national content/curriculum criterion, and formulate enriching suitable learning experiences making the subject matter approachable and relevant to all learners. Teacher knows the curriculum framework, basic concepts, theories, history, structure, need of keeping up to date with subject matter knowledge, new concepts, latest researches and national and international trends. Teacher knows the relationship of subject with other subjects and its practical use in life through various examples. Teachers are committed to develop self confidence of students by giving them real world examples and making them competent in subject matter. Teachers stimulate students thinking by giving daily life examples and inquiry method.

It is a school duty to provide resources to help teachers to get command in their subject matter. Seminars and workshops may be arranged in different subjects to summarize various difficult and latest concepts so that all teachers can get benefit from them. There should be teachers’ rotation between schools so that students get benefit from various expert teachers. Teachers’ competition should be held at the district and provincial level, which helps in developing creativity and update the teachers’ knowledge and skills.

2.6.3 Human Growth and Development

The term individual differences is very common among psychologists and educationists. Allah has created human beings by giving them their individual identity. Due to this unique characteristic, the world is beautiful and attractive. According to the Education Dictionary (2009) the individual differences are:

A learner's personal characteristics that can affect how he/she learns. Individual differences are often explanations for differences in learning and performance among learners. The study of individual differences among learners permits content developers to design syllabuses in way that can best meet learners 'needs.

Children are different from each other in intelligence, physical appearance, height, health, emotions, social behavior, thinking, and learning skills, etc. These differences are God gifted and man has no control over them. According to Diamond (2013.p.37), teacher has a great responsibility while handling individual differences. The curriculum is same for all students, but the teachers’ methodology and techniques that make able various students learn the same curriculum. The students who perform well in one subject may not do well in another subject. Teachers must be aware of the needs of students, make connection with various parts of content, provide a variety of learning activities, explanations, and use multi-techniques to make all types of students understandable. Teachers can ask the students to explain the concept, who knows it already and add more examples to clarify for those who do not know. The teacher can take a pre test to analyze students’ aptitude. The teacher can involve students more and more in teaching learning process so that they can feel feasible in a classroom environment and can ask the teacher if they feel difficulty. Teachers can use different techniques like questioning, assigning assignments, activities, grouping techniques, assessing etc. to motivate and involve students more in learning.

Teachers handle individual differences of students by using various techniques. The most important of them is the use of differentiated instruction technique in teaching learning process.

2.6.3.1 Differentiated instruction

The term differentiated instruction technique was defined by Abbott (2014, p.45) in following lines:

Differentiation refers to a wide variety of teaching techniques and lesson adaptations that educators use to instruct a diverse group of students, with diverse learning needs, in the same course, classroom, or learning environment. Differentiation is commonly used in “heterogeneous grouping” an educational strategy in which students of different abilities, learning needs, and levels of academic achievement are grouped together. In heterogeneously grouped classrooms, for example, teachers vary instructional strategies and use more flexibly designed lessons to engage student interests and address distinct learning needs—all of which may vary from student to student. The basic idea is that the primary educational objectives—making sure all students master essential knowledge, concepts, and skills—remain the same for every student, but teachers may use different instructional methods to help students meet those expectations.

Teachers use differentiated instruction technique in classroom for assisting the students of various abilities, so that they can better achieve educational objectives by taking all types of students with side by side. Teachers usually assign extra relevant tasks for quick learners and meanwhile apply another technique to clarify the concept for slow learners.

According to Professional Standards of Pakistan (2009, p.12)the teachers develop, shape, and convey instructions according to each pupils’ different learning needs,then create opportunities for pupils to exhibit their learning in various directions. Teachers form instructions based on students’ previous knowledge and experiences, conceding learners to stimulate as they exhibit their understandings. Teachers use many angles in the discussion of topics, involving consideration to students’ personal, family, social experiences, cultural and Islamic values. Teachers know the importance of second language and use strategies to develop proficiency in English language. Teachers have knowledge of different learning approaches and their application for special students (gifted and disabled). Teachers know that all pupils can strive for high academic achievement and pursue in guiding every pupil to reach his full potential. Teachers respect pupils as individuals with various personality and family traits, attitude, capabilities, aptitude, interests etc. The in depth knowledge about human growth and development leads teachers towards best teaching learning process.

2.6.4 Learning Environment

The Classroom environment is a mixture of physical and social attributes that create the learning experiences. It comprises the management strategies, the organization of space, furnishing and maintaining of classroom, teacher student interaction, peer relationship, etc. Amborse etal . (2010, p.70) defines classroom environment as:

The intellectual, social, emotional, and physical environments in which our students learn. Climate is determined by a constellation of interacting factors that include faculty-student interaction, the tone instructors set, instances of stereotyping or tokenism, the course demographics (for example, relative size of racial and other social groups enrolled in the course), student-student interaction, and the range of perspectives represented in the course content and materials.

Teachers’ attention towards the physical, intellectual, emotional, and social climates create a classroom environment feasible for students’ integration with the subject matter and skills of the course. Larsson (2010, p.42) describes that in the intellectual environment; teachers provide subject matter in an arranged and organized manner and provide pupils challenging tasks that motivate them for creative practices in the course. From the aspect of the physical environment, teachers remove distracters and solve problems in the way of learning and comprehension so that all pupils can get access the subject matter. Teachers can change seating arrangements for mobility and the development of broader level relationships with peers. In terms of emotional aspects of classroom environment, teachers create a motivating atmosphere where pupils feel easy in taking risks, get encouragement while expressing their ideas on a certain issue, and they believe in success if they make efforts. Teachers create cooperative and approachable social interaction among teacher and pupil, peers, other staff, which leads pupils towards cooperative learning and positive relationship.

Teachers can create best learning environment if they use a wide range of audio visual aids in their teaching as well as decorate their classrooms according to the interest and needs of students. Proper sitting positions, hearing of the teacher’s voice, proper light, moderate temperature, etc. all are necessary elements of effective classroom environment.

According to Aila (2010, p.69) the well settled, arranged classrooms, attractiveness through charts, pictures, and bulletin boards attract students very much. The proper light, temperature, noise level, etc. motivate students for an active learning process which leads towards high academic achievement. Some students learn better in low light and others in bright light teacher can settle them according to their choice near the window, etc. Students’ work more actively if they are provided with opportunities to move in class, e.g. asks them to answer/ask the question by standing instead of raising hand. Teachers provide a large range of learning experiences which elaborate the concept more clearly by using various resources print and non-print related to the topic for students, e.g. pictures, real things, charts, models, diagrams, sketches, art objects, and integrate technology i.e. use of projector, multimedia, internet etc.

The educational researchers from various developed and undeveloped countries proved that students learn well and more easily if they have an environment in which they feel respected, caring, and can maintain individual identity. According to Jennifer (2008, p.19), educational researches support the fact that environment of mutual respect, care in which students feel easy to ask questions and express their ideas freely leads toward to effective learning. Teacher with quality of tolerance, patience, can create an atmosphere of individual identity and community in which students learn the concepts and skills with a sense of self importance, cooperation and motivation.

The warm, caring, safe, well-settled classroom, according to the needs of students has a positive influence on the activities of students, which regulate their learning and set criteria for their high achievements.

According to Pakistan teachers professional standards (2009, p.15), teachers cooperate with pupils, parents, and other staff develop a safe, supportive and self directed learning environment of openness, mutual respect, guidance, and the inquiry which makes them able to interact locally and globally. Teachers manage the classroom climate by using resources of time, place and pupils’ abilities effectively. Teachers communicate verbally and nonverbally in such a way that shows respect and responsibility to students and their backgrounds. Teachers know the ways that guide pupils to work productively and collaboratively to get learning objectives. Teachers know the significance of effective communication, students’ role in decision-making and integration of technology in various environments.

2.6.5 Assessment

The teacher understands and uses multiple methods of assessment to engage learners in their own growth, to monitor the learner’s progress, and to guide the teacher and learner decision making. The Glossary of Education (2014) defines assessment as: “the wide variety of methods that educators use to evaluate, measure, and document the academic readiness, learning progress, and skill acquisition of students from preschool through college and adulthood.”

According to Erwin (2013, p.59) assessment is the systematic basis for making inferences about the learning and development of students. It is the process of defining, selecting, designing, collecting, analyzing, interpreting, and using information to increase students’ learning and development.

In the 21st century, the educators, policy makers, scholars and reformers have explained that the best way of improving students’ results and educational outcomes is to provide effective teachers. There are various types of assessment that teachers mostly used in their classroom teaching. Pre-assessments are conducted before pupils start a lesson, unit, course, or an academic program. This sort of assessment just provides brief information about students .

According to Garrison et al (2010, p.12) f ormative assessment is used many times during the process of pupil learning, e.g. quiz, oral or written test, weekly or monthly paper, etc. Its main purpose is to modify objectives, techniques, strategies, materials, etc. according to feedback on formative evaluation.

The major type of assessment in education is summative evaluation because it covers all aspects of the education program. Important decisions are made on the result of summative assessment. According to Farooq(2011, p.38), s ummative assessment is used to measure pupil learning at the end of a unit, , course, semester program, or school year. Its main purpose is to determine that to what extent pupils have achieved or learned the specific objectives from a particular course. Grades or degrees are assigned to the result of summative evaluation.

According to Arshad (2007, p.28) performance assessment is used to check the students’ performance in certain tasks. In performance assessment teacher asks pupils to complete a manifold task, e.g. writing a critical review of a book, assignments, experiments, debates, presentations, short term or long-term projects etc. Its purpose is to develop and measure critical skills and behaviors in students. In Pakistan formative assessment is used at every level from school to university in the form of weekly, monthly tests, quizzes, white board test, and teacher observation in classroom participation etc. Summative evaluation is also considered crucial in every education system, same in Pakistan. Internal (within institution) and external (board) exams are common examples of summative evaluation. On the basis of its result degrees, certificates are assigned to students and they get further admissions or jobs on the basis of their results. Performance assessment is also common now days in Pakistani institutions because now the focus is on activity based method. Various types of projects, assignments, tasks etc are assigned to students to develop their practical, critical and problem solving skills. Teachers use all types of assessments formative, performance and summative etc. in a balanced way to ensure maximum information about students that minimizes the chances of bias. Assessment results help students to focus on their task, time, motivate them for more work, and show them their weaknesses and strengths.

According to Pakistan’s Professional Standards (2009, p.14) teachers collaborate with other teachers, examiners and educators set various types of assessment methods so that authentic data can be achieved about students’ progress and hurdles. Teachers also involve students in the assessment so that they can obtain effective feedback about their learning. Teachers use multiple techniques of assessment with the help of technology and prepare students for solution of those assessment formats confidently without feeling of stress. Teachers have an understanding of when and why which type of assessment technique should be used for which type of students. Teachers learn more advanced methods of assessment and standardized tests available on the internet so that students get access to most recent assessment techniques. Teachers recognize how to interpret assessment data to comprehend weaknesses and strengths in learning, to monitor planning and teaching, and to add purposeful feedback to all students. Teachers inform parents and administration about students’ performance so that measures can be taken if necessary.

Assessment conclusions are often used as a tool for modifying the instructional process, quality and students’ achievement. Teachers use a variety of assessment techniques to identify pupils’ needs, their difficulties in learning process, to specify their aptitude, etc. so that they provide special educational services to students and guide them accordingly.

2.6.6 Students Achievement

The supreme objective of any education system is to increase the knowledge of students, prepare them for future lives and make them active member of the global world. Student achievement means the success rate of students at different subjects. How well they have performed in various subjects. Washington Elementary School (2012, p.332) defines school achievement as: "Student achievement is when a child has the qualities of being a lifelong learner who applies knowledge and skills to real world situations. He or she displays social and academic growth by developing confidence and responsibility.”

Student achievement is related to students’ performance in the academic area, acquiring skills and giving some benefits to their society with a sense of responsibility. For example a high school student with an 80 percent achievement level who works as a voluntary to help slow learners in explaining concepts which they feel difficult. Generally, student achievement is considered as students’ scores in their exams and practical.

2.7 Academic Performance

Academic performance involves the students’ classroom behavior, activities, classroom participation, attitude towards learning and teaching, learning capabilities, motivation, and discipline and so on. The well learned lessons, good behave with peers, teachers and other staff and good achievement in curricular and co-curricular activities show better academic performance on the part of students. Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary, (1994, p.66), stated:

While academic performance refers to the quality and quantity of knowledge, skills techniques and positive attitudes, behavior and philosophy that learners achieve or acquire. This ability is evaluated by the marks and grades that the pupils attain in a test or examination which is done at the end of a topic, school term, and year or education cycle. The scores and grades that each pupil obtains measure the degree of achievement. The quality of the grade and the number of candidates who pass in various grades determine the level of academic performance in a given class or institution in a given period in a particular examination, be it internal or public.

Bell (2012,p.21) states that academic performance most commonly is measured through students written and oral tests, presentations, field work, classroom activities, discussions, homework, teacher observations, etc. Academic performance does not only involve the students grades in exams, but other factors like their behavior, skills, communication, situation handling, creativity, art etc. also determine in academic performance. Some students cannot perform well on paper due to certain reason, e.g. illness, death of some relative, depression, etc., but it does not mean that they did not achieve the objectives.

2.8 Academic Failure

The academic failure or success can be figured out by the extent to which the pupils have accomplished (partially/completely) set educational objectives/goals. Giavrimis et al (2008, p.328) describes that academic failure occurs when the main objectives of education cannot be achieved fully due to poor learning abilities, problems (social, emotional and behavioral etc.) of a student. When students show poor performance in one or more than one subjects or less than according to set criteria (i.e. 40%or 50% etc.) students are considered academically fail or unsuccessful. It occurs due to various reasons, e.g., broken families, death, poverty, parent disease, poverty, pressure on the choice of subject, illness, lack of motivation, teacher strict attitude, competition, negative behavior of peers, etc.

2.9 Factors affecting Students Achievement

The pupils’ performance continues at first rank for educators. Its purpose is to improve and enhance learners’ performance, and find out the variables which effect the positively or negatively on the quality performance of pupils. Betts et al(2006,p.172)describes that the family factors like economic condition of family, health of parents, relationship of parents, religious beliefs, joint or nuclear family system, relationship with siblings etc. have been of great importance in the performance of students and their academic achievement. Pupils’ joining in co-curricular activities and sports, etc. and their use of time outside school has great positive or negative effect on academic achievement.

According to National Education Association (2014) Pupils’ understanding about themselves affects the quantity of efforts they are agreeing to apply in learning, their educational ambitiousness, and their academic achievement. Researchers find out that high attitude about self cause a great motivation for learning. Students' feelings of responsibility for their learning, interest, rate of attendance in schools, physical and mental health, positive attributions towards learning, e.g. success is due to hard work, and negative attributions e.g. failure is due to luck or external factors put a great effect on quality performance and high or low achievement.

Gravely (2014, p.4) describes that students spend most of their time in school, so it is obvious that the environment and people of school has a crucial effect on their performance and achievement. The number of students, classroom environment, inequalities in class, class size, facilities during class, proper room temperature, ground facilities, resources of schools, unsafe schools, care of self -respect and etc. has a major effect on students’ performance. According to Scand (2012, p.610) one way to improve students’ achievement is to make possible the provision of effective teachers. With the political pressure on education, teachers are in critical check by administration, families, students and media. In this regard students’ academic results are considered a primary source for teachers’ evaluation.

According to Farooq (2011, p.11) students spend time in school with the company of their peers and learn most of the social skills from them. They learn from their peers’ skill of sharing the things, helping one another, sharing ideas, etc. the feelings of friendship, competition, conflicts, etc. develop among students during their school time that may have a positive or negative effect on achievement.

Hallinan (2011,p.494) describes in her article that researches proved that content knowledge, teaching experience, training and certification make a teacher more effective and active in the classroom. According to Harris et al (2008, p.8) teacher quality is the dominant factor among other factors in relation with students’ high achievement. The “National Commission on Teaching and America’s Future” enlist three basics for educational personals. This is as follows:

i. What teachers know and can do is the most important influence on what students learn.
ii. Recruiting, preparing, and retaining good teachers is the central strategy for improving our schools.
iii. School reform cannot succeed unless it focuses on creating the conditions under which teachers can teach and teach well.

Kyoshaba (2009,p.34) states that the results of latest researches have shown that the competence of teachers has a major influence on the performance and high academic achievement of students than any other factors. The achievement gap can cover easily by providing effective teachers to low achievers.

2.10 Review of related studies

According to Meyer (2010, p.78), effective instructional planning has deep positive influence on the performance of teachers and students. The instructional activities of school based on the quality of instructional planning. According to Barge (2012, p.88) teachers are the core of any education system, so trained, skilled teachers are necessary for every student .The teachers with good instructional planning plan the lessons by merging his own ideas, thoughts, beliefs, students thinking and understanding of concepts. The teachers who plan lessons by considering students’ needs, cultural values, and global demands to make their lesson actionable and understandable get success in delivering content material. “Further, expert teachers anticipate the difficulties students might encounter while learning the content of the lesson. They consider students’ thinking in order to assess the success of the lesson plan and then modify their instruction promptly.” In his research conducted in American secondary classes found that teachers who frequently assessed by themselves, their supervisors and other educational personals in relation to professional standards work best and their students also show best performance as compared to those teachers who have less chances of professional evaluation.

The sound knowledge of subject matter increases the confidence of teachers. Without the deep command over content teachers cannot implement lesson planning and instructional strategies in an effective way. According to Ghazi (2013, p.455),

Knowledge of subject matter theory enquires about the value of knowing everything about a subject if a teacher does not have firsthand knowledge about the subject matter how students will learn and how his teaching method would be the best instructional strategies, if his teaching strategies cannot deliver high quality subject matter knowledge. Ultimately, existing professional development principles guide the process of teaching learning in such direction that supports knowledge of subject matter.

Ijeh (2013, p.363) found in his research conducted in South African schools that teachers who have used instructional skills and strategies which enhance students critical thinking, stimulate new ideas and problem solving ability are more successful teachers in terms of their students’ performance. They use inquiry, project based investigations, demonstration, provide challenges, and activate prior knowledge and a lot of other techniques and strategies to develop students cognitive, affective and psychomotor skills.

According to Smit (2014, p.24) among the most challenging and important competencies are the ability to provide differentiated instruction in the classroom, for students of individual abilities. In research conducted in Swiss Secondary Schools, he found out that the most difficult situation faced by the teachers was to use differentiated instruction technique effectively to balance their expectations with their personal established standards and with students’ individual differences. Every student has his own learning style, and he learns better in various circumstances with various styles and from various people. Thus, the teachers need to identify the students’ ‟ learning styles and apply different teaching techniques according to their needs. The more teachers can involve all modalities and learning styles, the more chances they have of engaging learners in using their whole brains.”

Classroom environment leads towards a peaceful and critical learning that enhance students’ capabilities and motivate them to learn and explore the facts. According to Steinhardt School of Culture, Education, and Human Development (2008, p.2)

Research over the past 30 years indicates that in a poorly managed classrooms teachers struggled to teach and students usually learn less than they should, and there is abundance of discipline issues while a well-managed classroom provides an environment in which teaching and learning can flourish.

A good study environment, peace, care, and enjoyment are considered essential conditions for a better learning environment. According to Rosen (2010, p.2) a research during the last four decades shows that a school environment of “high expectations of pupils' work and a strong emphasis on the school's learning goals correlates with high student achievement”. Other factors may affect students’ performance, but school and class environment have a greater impact on their learning and learning outcomes. The students and teachers learn and teach best when they have a safe environment of mutual respect and care.

The teacher knows the connection of concepts with real life through examples. According to Kentucky Education Department (2015, p.4) an extensive research shows that teachers get success in his teaching only when they are successful in elaborating content concepts meaning and relating it to real life situations. Teacher facilitates learning experiences with meaningful and concrete examples, explanations and elaborations. Teachers link concepts with students’ previous knowledge, understanding, culture, religion, and with real life situations with the help of a variety of activities and technology.

According to Admiraal et al (2014, p.23) assessment is an integral part of teaching. Teachers use assessment techniques that assess all the skills (i.e. cognitive, affective, and psychomotor) of student. In his research conducted in Turkish Secondary Schools the teachers are more successful who use a variety of evaluation techniques to evaluate students’ performance and give more weight age to observation, class performance, discussion, etc. than weekly or monthly test scores. The key objective of the assessment is to explore the students learning, it is only possible when the teacher assesses all the aspects of students’ personality (i.e. communication, expression, writing, reading, explaining, thinking skills etc.).

2.11 Summary

Teachers and students are the two main parts of education system. Teachers teach and students learn whatever they teach them, so quality of learning depends upon teachers’ efficiency in subject matter, planning skills, creating conducive classroom climate, knowledge of individual differences and how to handle them in teaching, use of various instructions techniques for various types of students and content material, implication of knowledge in real life through A.V aids and modern gadgets, assessment techniques and lot of other skills and techniques. Teacher is not a product but he is a process who always learns from situations, students, his own mistakes, form colleagues, society internet and lot of other resources. The learning of teacher is more mature and broad in a sense because he has to teach the innocent minds of students who are under his guidance to learn the values and skills to adjust in society and play their role as a productive member. According to above discussion competent and trained teachers are the key demand of education system to give output of intelligent, knowledge able and confident students who have capability to lead the country beyond the sky.

CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY AND PROCEDURE

The purpose of this study was to check the effects of professional competence of teachers on students academic achievement. The professional competence of teachers was checked against the standards given by Ministry of Education (2009, p.9) with referenced to students achievement in board exam. The professional standards to check the competence of teachers were as follow:

i. Instructional Planning and Strategies
ii. Subject matter Knowledge
iii. Human Growth and Development
iv. Learning Environment
v. Assessment of Students

3.1 Population

All public Girls secondary schools (50) and all public Boys secondary schools (57) of Muzaffarabad district were population of the study. The respondents were male and female teachers of the schools. The population of the study was:

TABLE 3.1

Population of the Study

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Source: The Department of Education, Muzffarabad

3.2 Sample of the Study

Out of the above-mentioned population, the schools were selected randomly by using simple random sampling technique. Fifty percent schools were selected as a sample. 25 Government Girls high Schools out of 50 schools and 28 Government Boys high Schools out of 57 schools were selected as a sample. 50 percent male and female teachers each were selected as a sample. Thus, 200 female teachers and 224 male teachers were the sample of study.

The teachers of various groups selected were as follow: English (25female,28 male)Urdu(25 female,28 male),Mathematics (25 female,28 male),Islamiyat (25 female,28 male),Pakistan Studies (25 female ,28 male),General science(25 female,28 male),Home Economics(25 female) Computer (28 male) Islamiyat Elective (25 female ,28 male).

TABLE 3.2

Sample of the Study

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3.3 Preparation of the Instrument

A questionnaire comprising 60 closed ended items and two open ended items was developed on five point Likert scale for the teachers.

3.4 Pilot Testing

The questionnaire was pilot tested by selecting a sample of 12 female teachers and 12 male teachers. The sample for pilot study was not part of the main study. After collecting the questionnaire from respondent teachers, the reliability was checked by, using Cronbach’s Alpha formula. The reliability of the questionnaire was calculated and was 0.891. In the light of pilot testing one item was rephrased and three items were eliminated. Two items were eliminated in the light of experts’ opinion. Thus, total 55 items were left out of 60 in the light of validity and reliability. The items eliminated were:

i. Makes dedicated attempts for effective learning (item no 3 )
ii. Committed to attain Curriculum objectives(item no 45 )
iii. Awareness of available resources to promote assessment techniques (item no50)

The items rephrased in the light of expert opinion were:

i. “Uses differentiated instruction technique in classroom” was rephrased as: Uses different techniques in classroom for students learning (item no 23)
ii. “Arranges furniture and equipment to facilitate movement in the classroom” was rephrased as

Takes care of seating arrangements (item no 29)

3.5 Administration of the Tool for Data Collection

The improved questionnaire was then administered to the respondents for collection of data, personally.

3.6 Data Analysis Procedure

The collected data by the questionnaire were tabulated, analyzed and interpreted. Percentage, mean score, t-test and Pearson coefficient Correlation was used to analyze the data. Independent sample t- test was used to determine whether there was a significant difference between the mean competence scores of female and male teachers. The t -test was also used to compare the differences between male students’ achievements scores and female achievements scores. The Pearson r was used to check the relationship of professional competence with students’ academic achievement. For this purpose students’ achievement data(2014) were taken from, Board of Intermediate & Secondary Education Mirpur, Azad Jammu and Kashmir(AJK).The data were encoded as strongly agree(SA)5,Agree(A)4,Uncertain(UNC) 3,Disagree (DA) 2 and strongly disagree (SDA) 1.The data were analyzed by using SPSS 17.

CHAPTER 4 ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

This chapter deals with tabulation, analysis and interpretation of collected data. This study was aimed at evaluating effects of teachers professional competence on students academic achievements. This study is based on self reported responses got with the help of questionnaire by the teachers and results of students of 10th class (2014) to compare the achievements with professional competence of teachers. Mean was used to interpret mean score, “f” was used to interpret frequency, and % age was used for percentage. The level of majority was categorized as:

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4.1 Analysis of Factors Related to Instructional Planning and strategies

Table 4.1.1 reveals that the mean score of male (4.02) and female was (4.05) which imply that the both male and female teachers were competent in knowing the objectives of curriculum.

TABLE 4.1.1

Teachers’ Knowledge about the Objectives of Curriculum

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Table 4.1.2 reveals that the mean score of male (4.08) and female was (4.08) which imply that both male and female teachers were competent in using students’ previous result data in instructional planning.

TABLE 4.1.2

Use of Students’ Previous Result in Instructional Planning

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Table 4.1.3 shows that the mean score of male (3.38) and female was (3.77) which imply that both male and female teachers were competent in their instructional planning based on students’ strengths.

TABLE 4.1.3

Use of Information Related to Students Strength in Instructional Planning

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Table 4.1.4 reveals that the mean score of male (3.78) and female was (3.79) which imply that both male and female teachers were competent in instructional planning based on weaknesses of students.

TABLE 4.1.4

Use of Information Related to Students’ Weaknesses in Instructional Planning

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Table 4.1.5 reveals that the mean score of male (3.92) and female was (4.00) which imply that the both male and female teachers were competent in planning extra classes for slow learners.

TABLE 4.1.5

Planning Extra Classes for Slow Learners

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Table 4.1.6 shows that the mean score of male (3.93) and female was (3.94) which imply that the both male and female teachers were competent in designing learning tasks according to students needs.

TABLE 4.1.6

Consideration of Students’ Interest in Planning

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Table 4.1.7 revealed that the mean score of male (3.96) and female was (4.00) which imply that both male and female teachers were competent in cooperating with colleagues for new ideas.

TABLE 4.1.7

Cooperation with Colleagues for New Ideas while Planning

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Table 4.1.8 reveals that the mean score of male (4.00) and female was (4.06) which imply that both male and female teachers were competent in planning students centered activities for better learning.

TABLE 4.1.8

Consideration of Students Centered Activities while Planning

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Table 4.1.9 reveals that the mean score of male (3.99) and female was (4.01) which imply that both male and female teachers were competent in ensuring resources availability at the time of planning.

TABLE 4.1.9

Consideration of Resources Availability at the Time of Planning

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Table 4.1.10 reveals that the mean score of male (4.02) and female was (4.05) which imply that both male and female teachers were competent in using various methods and techniques.

TABLE 4.1.10

Use of Various Methods/Techniques

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Table 4.1.11 reveals that the mean score of male (3.98) and female was (3.96) which imply that both male and female teachers were competent in selecting method/technique according to content nature.

TABLE 4.1.11

Selection of Appropriate Method According to Content Nature

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Table 4.1.12 reveals that the mean score of male (4) and female was (4.03) which imply that both male and female teachers were competent in using proper questioning technique for active learning in class room.

TABLE 4.1.12

Using Effective Questioning Technique for Active Learning

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Table 4.1.13 reveals that the mean score of male (4.08) and female was (4.03) which imply that both male and female teachers were competent in using discussion method to involve students in learning.

TABLE 4.1.13

Use of Discussion Method to Ensure Students Involvement

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Table 4.1.14 reveals that the mean score of male (4.05) and female was (4.01) which imply that both male and female teachers were competent in using information technology for effective learning.

TABLE 4.1.14

Use of Information Technology for Effective Learning

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Table 4.1.15 reveals that the mean score of male (4.14) and female teachers was (4.17)which shows that both male and female teachers were competent in using oral test to develop communication skills of students.

TABLE 4.1.15

Use of Oral Test for Developing Students’ Communication Skills

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Table 4.1.16 reveals that the mean score of male (3.98) and female was (3.92) which imply that both male and female teachers were competent in using motivational techniques.

TABLE 4.1.16

Use of Motivational Techniques

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Table 4.1.17 reveals that the mean score of male (4.06) and female was (4.10) which imply that both male and female teachers were competent in asking students about their learning difficulty.

TABLE 4.1.17

Students Learning Difficulty

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Table 4.1.18 reveals that the mean score of male (3.96) and female was (3.97).This shows that both male and female teachers were competent in using grouping technique.

TABLE 4.1.18

Use of Grouping Technique

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

4.2 Analysis of Various Factors Related to Subject Matter Knowledge

Table 4.2.1 reveals that the mean score of male (3.83) and female was (3.85) which imply that both male and female teachers were competent in having sound command over subject matter.

TABLE 4.2.1

Command over the Subject Matter

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Table 4.2.2 reveals that the mean score of male (4.11) and female was (4.14) which imply that both male and female teachers were competent in relating the knowledge with students’ previous knowledge.

TABLE 4.2.2

Relation of Current Knowledge with Students’ Previous Knowledge

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Table 4.2.3 reveals that the mean score of male (3.60) and female was (4.05) which imply that both male and female teachers were competent in relating subject knowledge with practical life of students.

TABLE 4.2.3

Relation of Subject Knowledge with Practical Life of Students

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Table 4.2.4 indicates that the mean score of male (4.15) and female teachers was (4.16) which imply that both male and female teachers were competent in explaining lesson in different ways.

TABLE 4.2.4

Explanation of Lesson in Different Ways

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Table 4.2.5 reveals that the mean score of male (4.16) and female teachers was (4.11) which imply that both male and female teachers were competent in relating subject knowledge with other subjects.

TABLE 4.2.5

Relating Subject Knowledge with Other Subjects

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Table 4.2.6 reveals that the mean score of male (4.07) and female was (4.09) which imply that both male and female teachers were competent in relating the subject knowledge with other subjects.

TABLE 4.2.6

Relating Concepts with Current Scenarios

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Table 4.2.7 reveals that the mean score of male (3.18) and female was (4.08) which imply that both male and female teachers were competent in giving concrete and relevant examples in content explanations.

TABLE 4.2.7

Explanation of Content by Giving Concrete Examples

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Table 4.2.8 reveals that the mean score of male (4.17) and female was (4.20) which imply that both male and female teachers were competent in responding clearly to questions asked in class.

TABLE 4.2.8

Provision of Clear Questions Response

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Table 4.2.9 reveals that the mean score of male (4.00) and female was (4.00) which imply that both male and female teachers were competent in trying to increase knowledge of subject.

TABLE 4.2.9

Teachers’ Efforts for Knowledge Enhancement

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

4.3 Analysis of Various Factors Related to Students’ Human Growth and Development

Table 4.3.1 reveals that the mean score of male (4.12) and female was (4.10) which imply that both male and female teachers were competent in keeping in mind individual needs of students while teaching.

TABLE 4.3.1

Needs of Students

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Table 4.3.2 reveals that the mean score of male (4.83) and female was (4.14) which imply that both male and female teachers were competent in providing variety of learning activities.

TABLE 4.3.2

Provision of Variety of Learning Activities

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Table 4.3.3 reveals that the mean score of male (4.15) and female was (4.17) which imply that both male and female teachers were competent in allocating extra time for weak students

TABLE 4.3.3

Allocation of Extra Time for Weak Students

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Table 4.3.4 reveals that the mean score of male (3.99) and female was (4.05) which imply that both male and female teachers were competent in arranging challenging tasks for brilliant students.

TABLE 4.3.4

Arranging Challenging Tasks for Brilliant Students

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Table 4.3.5 reveals that the mean score of male (3.87) and female was (3.85) which imply that both male and female teachers were competent in using different techniques in classroom for students.

TABLE 4.3.5

Using Different Techniques in Classroom

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Table 4.3.6 reveals that the mean score of male (3.62) and female was (4.06) which imply that both male and female teachers were competent in allowing students to express their ideas freely.

TABLE 4.3.6

Allowing Students’ Free Expression of Ideas

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Table 4.3.7 reveals that the mean score of male (4.02) and female was (4.04) which imply that both male and female teachers were competent in encouraging student participation.

TABLE 4.3.7

Student’s Participation

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Table 4.3.8 reveals that the mean score of male (3.98) and female was (3.98) which imply that both male and female teachers were competent in promoting individual work.

TABLE 4.3.8

Promoting Individual Work

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Table 4.3.9 reveals that the mean score of male (4.00) and female was (4.02) which imply that both male and female teachers were competent in encouraging team work.

Table 4.3.9

Encourage Team Work

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Table 4.3.10 reveals that the mean score of male (4.08) and female was (4.16) which imply that both male and female teachers were competent in encouraging weak students for learning.

TABLE 4.3.10

Motivates Weak Students for Learning

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

4.4 Analysis of Various Factors Regarding Teachers’ Learning Environment

Table 4.4.1 reveals that the mean score of male (3.17) and female was (4.15) which imply that both male and female teachers were competent in taking care of seating arrangements in classroom.

TABLE 4.4.1

Appropriate Seating Arrangements in Classroom

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Table 4.4.2 reveals that the mean score of male (4.08) and female was (3.62) which imply that both male and female teachers were competent in creating environment of mutual respect and care.

TABLE 4.4.2

Creating Environment of Mutual Respect

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Table 4.4.3 reveals that the mean score of male (4.10) and female was (4.16) which imply that both male and female teachers were competent in cooperating with students.

TABLE 4.4.3

Cooperation with Students

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Table 4.4.4 reveals that the mean score of male (3.99) and female was (3.99) which imply that male teachers were more competent than female teachers in their relationship with students’ parents.

TABLE 4.4.4

Teachers Contact with Students’ Parents

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Table 4.4.5 reveals that the mean score of male (4.08) and female was (4.13) which imply that both male and female teachers were competent in their easy access to students

TABLE 4.4.5

Teacher Easily Accessible to Students

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Table 4.4.6 indicates that the mean score of male (3.96) and female was (3.95) which imply that both male and female teachers were competent in using A.V aids for effective learning.

TABLE 4.4.6

Use of A.V aids for Effective Learning

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Table 4.4.7 reveals that the mean score of male (4.04) and female was (4.07) which imply that both male and female teachers were competent in using verbal communication to create positive learning environment.

TABLE 4.4.7

Use of Verbal Communication

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Table 4.4.8 reveals that the mean score of male (3.95) and female was (3.97) which imply that both male and female teachers were competent in using nonverbal communication to create positive learning environment.

TABLE 4.4.8

Use of Nonverbal Communication for Provision of Positive Learning Environment

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Table 4.4.9 indicates that the mean score of male (4.01) and female was (3.76) which imply that both male and female teachers were competent in implementing discipline for positive students’ behavior.

TABLE 4.4.9

Ensure Discipline and Positive Students’ Behavior

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

4.5 Analysis of Various Factors Related To Students’ Assessment

Table 4.5.1 reveals that the mean score of male (4.16) and female was (4.18).This shows that both male and female teachers were competent in evaluating students ‘learning through continuous internal assessment.

TABLE 4.5.1

Students’ Continuous Internal Assessment

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Table 4.5.2 reveals that the mean score of male (4.03) and female was (4.07) which imply that both male and female teachers were competent in assessing the students through formal methods (exams, assignments, weekly, monthly tests etc.).

TABLE 4.5.2

Assessment of the Students through Formal Methods

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Table 4.5.3 reveals that the mean score of male (3.89) and female was (3.93) which shows that both male and female teachers were competent in assessing the students through informal methods (exams, assignments, weekly, monthly tests etc.).

TABLE 4.5.3

Assessment of Students through Informal Methods

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Table 4.5.4 reveals that the mean score of male (4) and female was (4.07) which shows that both male and female teachers were competent in helping students to do self assessment.

TABLE 4.5.4

Students Self Assessment

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Table 4.5.5 reveals that the mean score of male (3.96) and female was (4.00) which imply that both male and female teachers were competent in reporting the students' learning achievement to their parents.

TABLE 4.5.5

Contact with Parents

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Table 4.5.6 reveals that the mean score of male (4.08) and female was (4.06). This implies that both male and female teachers were competent in providing positive feedback to learners on their performance.

TABLE 4.5.6

Positive Feedback to Learners

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Table 4.5.7 reveals that the mean score of male (3.83) and female was (3.89) which imply that both male and female teachers were competent in assisting students in discovering and correcting errors.

TABLE 4.5.7

Discovering and Correcting Errors

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Table 4.5.8 reveals that the mean score of male (3.83) and female was (3.87) which imply that both male and female teachers were competent in monitoring learner understanding and re- teaches as necessary.

TABLE 4.5.8

Teachers Monitor Learner Understanding and Arrange Re- teaching

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Table 4.5.9 reveals that the mean score of male (3.75) and female was (3.73).This shows that both male and female teachers were competent in modifying instructions according to assessment feedback.

TABLE 4.5.9

Instruction Modification Based on Feedback

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

4.6 Analysis of Relationship of Teachers Professional Competence Scores and Students Academic Achievement Scores

Table 4.6 indicated that correlation coefficient between professional competence of teachers and academic achievement scores of students. The calculated value of r (.487) was significant and higher than the table value (0.194) at .05 level. Hence H1 “there is significant relationship between teachers professional competence scores and students achievement scores at public secondary schools was accepted”. It implied that the achievement of students was associated with professional competence of teachers. There are so many other factors which may affect the achievement of students e.g. family background, student health (physical &mental), parents education, family structure, financial status, peers role, school environment, etc. but the study only focus on just one factor that is teacher competence. It implies that achievement of students probably was associated with teacher competence.

TABLE 4.6

Relationship between Teachers Professional Competence Scores and Students Achievement Scores

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

p<.05

4.6.1 Comparison of Male Teachers and Female Teachers Professional Competence Scores

An independent samples t - test was conducted to compare male and female teachers professional competency scores. The table 4.6.1 indicates that the obtained difference between the average male competency scores and female competence scores was 1.125.This difference was found to be significant at 0.05 level of confidence. The H2 “There is a significant difference between professional competence scores of male teachers and female teachers at public secondary schools” was therefore accepted. It indicated that there was a significant difference between professional competence of male and female teachers.

Table 4.6.1

Comparison of Male Teachers and Female Teachers Professional Competence Scores

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

df =422

4.6.2 Comparisons of Male Students and Female Students Achievements Scores

The entries of the table 4.6.2 indicates that the obtained difference of male and female students achievements scores was 1.735.This difference was found to be not significant at 0.05 level of confidence. The H3 “There is a significant difference between the achievement scores of male students and female students’ at public secondary schools” was therefore accepted. There is a significant difference between male and female students achievement .

TABLE 4. 6.2

Comparisons of Male Students and Female Students Achievements Scores

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

df =422

4.7 Analysis of Open Ended Items

a. Responses of Teachers Regarding Reasons for Low Teaching Outcomes

Two open ended items on same sheet were distributed among the secondary school teachers. The respondents were asked to give their free opinion about the open ended items. Sample comprised 424 teachers out of which 140 teachers responded two open ended questionnaire items. Remaining 284 teachers did not answer the questions properly; therefore, they we r e not included in analysis.

Table 4.7.1 indicates the percentages of deficiencies which teachers pointed out due to which our teaching outcomes are not according to our expectations. A large majority of teachers’ complaint about lack of parents’ involvement and facilities, 54 percent said that there was lack of professional training programs for teachers, and 28 percent teachers said that they choose teaching profession when they did not find any other job.

TABLE 4.7.1

Reasons of Low Teaching Outcomes

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

b. Responses about Teachers Suggestions to Improve Students Achievements

Table 4.7.2 shows the responses of teachers about suggestions to improve students’ achievements. A large majority of teachers (78 percent) suggested that parent’s teacher cooperation, 54 percent recommended about provision of facilities of place, furniture etc.28 percent suggested maximum use of information technology and 25 percent said about provision of professional training programs and 14 percent recommended focus on activity based method.

TABLE 4. 7.2

Suggestions to Improve Students Achievements

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

CHAPTER 5 SUMMARY, FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

This chapter portrays the summary of the study titled “Effects of Teachers Professional Competence on Students Academic Achievements at Secondary Schools in Muzaffarabad District.” and to give findings of the study based on the analysis of the responses of the respondents and suggest recommendations based on findings /conclusions.

5.1 Summary

Teacher has a pivotal role to play in a nation development. It is the teacher who constructs the pillars of nation building in the form of students’ development. It is the responsibility of teacher’s to train individuals different aspects of personality. For this purpose, teachers need training according to professional standards against which their performance can be measured. For effective teaching learning process the competent teacher is considered as a key. The present study was held to find out the “Effects of Teachers Professional Competence on Students Academic Achievement at Secondary Schools in Muzaffarabad District”. In this research professional competencies of teachers were measured against Pakistan Teachers’ Professional Standards (2009, p.9). Five categories of competencies were selected to measure competence of teachers which were as follow:

i. Instructional planning and strategies
ii. Subject matter knowledge
iii. Human growth and development
iv. Learning environment
v. Assessment

Objectives of the study were to identify professional competencies of teachers at public secondary schools of Muzaffarabad district, find out the relationship between teachers professional competence and students achievement at secondary schools, compare difference between achievements of female and male students at secondary schools, examine the discrepancies in professional competence of teachers affecting the achievement of students, and to suggest the measures for the improvement of professional competence in teachers. The collected data were analyzed, tabulated and interpreted by various formulae. Percentage and mean score were used for data analysis. Pearson r was used to see the relationship between competence scores of teachers and achievement scores of students and t- test was used to compare the differences between competencies scores of male and female teachers and compare the differences between achievement scores of male and female students. Survey questionnaire was used for data collection from teachers.400 female and 456 male teachers were the population of the study.424 (200 female, 224 male) teachers from public sector constituted the sample of study.

5.2 Findings

Following were the main findings of the study:

1. It was observed that a large majority of male and female teachers 76 percent know the objectives of curriculum. (Table: 4.1.1)
2. It was observed that a vast majority of male and female teachers 86 percent considered students previous result during instructional planning.(Table:4.1.2)
3. It was observed that a large majority of male 70 percent and simple majority of female teachers 68 percent planned according to strengths of students. (Table: 4.1.3)
4. It was observed that a large majority of male 77 percent and simple majority of female teachers 68 percent planned lesson by keeping in view weaknesses of students. (Table: 4.1.4)
5. It was observed that a large majority of male73 percent and 76 percent female teachers agreed with that they plan extra classes for slow learners.(Table: 4.1.5)
6.It was found that a large majority of male 72 percent and female teachers 74 percent agreed that they plan lesson according to students interest.(Table: 4.1.6)
7.It was observed that a large majority of male 76 percent and female teachers78 percent agreed with that they cooperate with their colleagues while planning for new ideas.(Table:4.1.7)
8. It was observed that a large majority of male 77 percent and vast majority of female teachers 80 percent were agreed with the statement about planning of students centered activities for better learning. (Table: 4.1.8)
9. It was observed that a large majority of male 75 percent and female teachers 76 percent approved the statement about ensuring of resources availability at the time of planning. (Table: 4.1.9)
10. It was observed that a large majority of male 78 percent and female teachers 79 percent agreed with the statement about using variety of methods /techniques in learning process. (Table: 4.1.10)
11. It was observed that a large majority of 77 percent male and female teachers agreed with the statement about selecting method /technique according to content nature. (Table: 4.1.11)
12. It was observed that a large majority of 77 percent male and female teachers approved the statement about using proper questioning technique for active learning in class room. (Table: 4.1.12)
13. It was observed that a large majority of male 79.4 percent and female teachers77 percent agreed with the statement about use of discussion method to involve students in learning. (Table: 4.1.13)
14. It was observed that a large majority of male 78.6 percent and female teachers 76 percent approved the statement about use of information technology for effective learning. (Table: 4.1.14)
15. It was observed that a vast majority of male 80.3 percent and female teachers 82 percent agreed with the statement about use of oral test to develop communication skills of students. (Table: 4.1.15)
16. It was observed that a large majority of male 73.3 percent and female teachers 71 percent approved the statement about use of motivational techniques. (Table: 4.1.16)
17. It was observed that a vast majority of 82 percent male and female teachers agreed with the statement about asking questions about learning difficulty. (Table: 4.1.17)
18. It was observed that a large majority of 76 percent male and female teachers agreed with the statement about use of grouping technique (making a group leader). (Table: 4.1.18)
19. It was observed that a simple majority of male 68 percent and a large majority of female teachers 71 percent agreed with the statement about the command over subject matter. (Table: 4.2.1)
20. It was observed that a large majority of male and female teachers 78 percent agreed with the statement that they relate subject knowledge with students’ previous knowledge. (Table no: 4.2.2)
21. It was observed that a large majority of male and female teachers 76 percent approved the statement about relating subject knowledge with practical life of students. (Table: 4.2.3)
22. It was observed that a vast majority of male and female teachers 82 percent approved the statement about explanation of lesson in different ways. (Table: 4.2.4)
23. It was observed that a vast majority of male and female teachers 82 percent approved that they relate subject knowledge with other subjects. (Table: 4.2.5)
24. It was observed that a vast majority of male 79.4 percent and female teachers 81 percent agreed with that they related concepts with current scenarios by giving examples related to current issues. (Table: 4.2.6)
25. It was observed that a large majority of male 77 percent and female teachers 78 percent agreed that they used concrete and relevant examples for content explanation. (Table: 4.2.7)
26. It was observed that a vast majority of male 83 percent and female 84 percent agreed with the statement that they respond clearly to questions asked in class. (Table: 4.2.8)
27. It was observed that a large majority of male and female teachers75 percent approved the statement about enhancement of knowledge. (Table: 4.2.9)
28. It was observed that a large majority of male 76percent and female teachers 75percent agreed with the statement that they kept in mind individual needs of students during teaching. (Table: 4.3.1)
29. It was observed that a vast majority of male and female teachers 80 percent agreed with that they provided variety of learning activities.(Table :4.3.2)
30. It was observed that a vast majority of male 83.9 percent and female teachers82 percent approved that they allocated extra time for weak students. (Table: 4.3.3)
31. It was observed that a large majority of male and female teachers 75 percent agreed with the statement about arranging of challenging tasks for brilliant students. (Table: 4.3.4)
32. It was observed that a simple majority of male and female teachers 69 percent approved the statement about use of different techniques in classroom for students learning (Table: 4.3.5)
33. It was observed that a large majority of male 75.9 percent and female teachers 77 percent agreed with the statement that student express their ideas freely in class. (Table: 4.3.6)
34. It was observed that a large majority of male 76 percent and female teachers77 percent approved that they encouraged students’ class participation in class. (Table: 4.3.7)
35. It was observed that a large majority of male and female teachers 76 percent agreed with the statement about that they promote individual work. (Table: 4.3.8)
36. It was observed that a large majority of male and female teachers 77 percent approved the statement about encouraging students team work. (Table: 4.3.9)
37. It was observed that a large majority of male 79 percent and female teachers 81 percent agreed with the statement about encouraging weak students for learning. (Table: 4.3.10)
38. It was observed that a large majority of male 76 percent and female teachers 78 percent approved the statement about take care of seating arrangements. (Table no: 4.4.1)
39. It was observed that a large majority of male and female teachers 77 percent agreed with the statement about creating environment of mutual respect and care. (Table: 4.4.2)
40. It was observed that a vast majority of male 80.4percent and female teachers 83percent approved the statement about cooperate with students. (Table: 4.4.3)
41.It was observed that a large majority of male 70.2 percent and simple majority of female teachers 69 percent agreed with the statement about relationship with students parents.(Table:4.4.4)
42. It was observed that a vast majority of male 81.2percent and female 83 percent approved the statement about easily accessible to students. (Table no: 4.4.5)
43. It was observed that a large majority of 74 percent male and female teachers agreed with the statement about use of A.V aids for effective learning. (Table: 4.4.6)
44. It was observed that a vast majority of male 80.4 percent and female teachers 82 percent approved the statement about use of verbal communication to create positive learning environment. Table: 4.4.7)
45. It was observed that a large majority of male 73.2 percent and female teachers70 percent agreed with the statement about use of non verbal communication to create positive learning environment. (Table: 4.4.8)
46. It was observed that a vast majority of male 80.4 percent and female 83 percent agreed with the statement about implementing discipline for positive students’ behavior. (Table: 4.4.9)
47. It was observed that a vast majority of male 84.8 percent and female teachers86 percent approved the statement about evaluating students learning through continuous internal assessment. (Table: 4.6.1)
48.It was observed that a vast majority of male 79.5 percent and female teachers 81 percent agreed with the statement about assessing the students through formal methods (exams, assignments, weekly, monthly tests etc.). (Table: 4.6.2)
49. It was observed that a large majority of 73 percent male and female teachers approved the statement about assessing the students through informal methods (oral test, quiz, class participation). (Table: 4.6.3)
50. It was observed that a large majority of male 75 percent and female teachers 77 percent agreed with the statement about helping students to do self assessment.(Table: 4.6.4)
51. It was observed that a large majority of male 76.8 percent and female teachers78 percent agreed with the statement about reporting the students' learning achievement to their parents. (Table: 4.6.5)
52. It was observed that a vast majority of male 83 percent and female teachers 82 percent approved the statement about providing positive feedback to learners on their performance. (Table: 4.6.6)
53. It was observed that a simple majority of male 62 percent and female teachers71 percent agreed with the statement about assisting students in discovering and correcting errors. (Table: 4.6.7)
54. It was observed that a simple majority of male 69 percent and a large majority of female teachers 72 percent agreed with the statement about monitoring learner‘s understanding and re- teaches as necessary. (Table: 4.6. 8)
55. It was observed that a simple majority of 64 percent teachers approved the statement about modifying instruction according to assessment feedback. (Table: 4.6.9)
56. It was observed that correlation coefficient between professional competence scores of teachers and academic achievements scores of students (.487) was significant at 0.05 level of significance. So H1 “there is significant relationship between teachers professional competence scores and students achievement scores at public secondary schools was accepted”. It indicated that achievement of students was associated with professional competence of teachers. (Table: 4.7)
57. It was observed that the obtained difference between the average male competence scores and female competence scores was 1.125. This was not significant according to table value (1.96).So the H2 “there is a significant difference between professional competence scores of male teachers and female teachers at public secondary schools” was therefore accepted. It indicated that there was significant difference between male and female teachers professional competence. (Table: 4.7.1)
58. It was observed that the obtained difference of male and female students achievements scores were 1.735. This difference was found to be not significant at 0.5 level of significance. Hence the H3 “there is a significant difference between the achievement scores of male students and female students at public secondary schools” was therefore accepted. There is significant difference between achievements of male and female students. (Table: 4.7.2)
59. It was observed that 78 percent teachers complained about lack of parents’ involvement, 71 percent considered lack of facilities, 54 percent deduced lack of professional training and 28 percent said that teachers chose teaching profession as a second choice. (Table: 4.8)
60. It was observed that 78 percent teachers suggested parents-teacher cooperation,54 percent said about provision of facilities,28 percent recommended about maximum use of information technology,25percent viewed about professional training programs and 14 percent teachers said that use of activity based method can enhance teaching out comes.(Table: 4 .8.1)

5.3 Conclusions

In the light of findings the following conclusions were made:

1. It was concluded that teachers were competent in almost every skill of instructional planning. Most of the teachers in secondary schools have known the objectives of their subject. Teachers planned lessons by using students’ previous results information, their strengths and weaknesses. They planned extra classes for slow learners and students centered activities. They shared ideas with colleagues, keep in mind students’ interest and resources availability during lesson planning.
2. It was revealed that teachers were competent in profession competency of knowledge about subject matter. They had command over content; relate knowledge with students’ pervious knowledge by giving solid examples related to current issues and practical life. Teachers were competent in answering questions of students, explaining content in different ways and enhancing their subject knowledge.
3. It was concluded that teachers were competent in professional competence of human growth and development. Teachers considered students’ individual needs during teaching provide varieties of learning activities, allocate extra time for weak students and challenging tasks for brilliant students. They motivate students to participate in class, express their ideas, promote individual and team work. Teachers were competent in using different techniques in classroom for student better comprehension.
4. It was revealed that teachers were competent in professional competence of learning environment. Teachers considered proper seating arrangement, environment of mutual respect and care for effective teaching learning process. Teachers were in easy access of students, cooperate with students and parents, and implement discipline for better learning environment. They used A.V aids, verbal and non verbal communication for creating conducive environment for effective learning.
5. It was concluded that teachers were competent in professional competence of instructional strategies. Teachers were competent in using various methods /techniques according to content nature, proper questioning technique, discussion method, grouping technique and information technology for better comprehension of concepts. Teachers considered competent in using oral test to develop communication skills of students, motivational techniques to motivate students for learning and share students learning problems.
6. It was revealed that teachers were competent in professional competence of assessment. Teachers were expert in evaluating students’ learning through continuous internal assessment by using formal and informal methods of assessment. Teachers discussed students learning achievements to their parents, guide to do their self assessment provide positive feedback to students on their performance, helping students in discovering, correcting their errors and developing their self confidence. Teachers monitored learners understanding and re-teach the concept if students feel difficulty in comprehension and modify their instruction according to assessment feedback.

In the light of analysis of teachers competence scores that were 60 percent to 80 percent in various skills, which indicated that teachers were competent in various professional competence skills. It was revealed that there was significant difference between professional competence scores of male and female teachers and between achievements scores of male and female students. It was concluded that most of the male and female teachers were competent in almost every skill described under professional competence of teachers. The data of competence scores of teachers were analyzed with reference to achievements scores of students by using Pearson r to see its relationship with each other. Table 4.7 revealed that the correlation coefficient between professional competence scores of teachers and achievement scores of students according to calculated value (.487) was significant. It was higher than table of r value (0.194) at .05 level of significance. Hence H1 “there is significant relationship between students achievements and professional competence of teachers” was accepted. It meant that teachers competence effect on performance of students at secondary school students in Muzaffarabad district.

5.4 Recommendations

In this study, professional competence of secondary school teachers at public sector was evaluated by using self respondent questionnaire. In the light of findings and conclusions following recommendations were made.

1. Administrations of schools may take necessary steps to make it possible that all teachers have an access to books and other helping materials to enhance their general knowledge about the subject and professional education. It will help teachers to enhance knowledge about their subject and teaching methods.
2. Government may provide facilities related to information technology to every school so that teachers can avail it in their teaching.
3. School administration may make it possible to develop cooperation between parents and teachers for the sake of effective learning of students. Parents may be provided opportunities to discuss their views, complaints and suggestions in written or oral form.
4. National standards for teachers of Pakistan (2009) may be defined and provided to every school and teachers may be train through refresher courses accordingly.
5. Educational authorities may take steps to allow female teachers with family responsibilities to get job in their locality or neighborhood area, it will increase their focus on job .
6 . There may be frequent inspection of teachers by the expert supervisors from the school and educational experts out of the school, who observe and guide teachers to enhance their professional competence.
7. The secondary school teachers may be trained in order to prepare valid tests, their proper implication and interpretation for the purpose of unbiased results of students’ achievement
8. Activity based method may used more frequently to enhance students practical skills.
9. Teachers may be provided facilities of proper place, furniture, AV. aids etc. that increase their concentration on teaching.
10. This study may be replicated on different levels to find out more results.

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Appendix-A

Forwarding Letter

I miss Kishwar Naz conducted research in the field of Education under the topic “Effects of teachers professional competence on the academic achievement of students at secondary level in Muzffarabad district”. It is a research based questionnaire for my M.Phil work. Kindly read it carefully and tick the option that suits you the best. I assured that all the information collected by you will be only used for the purpose of my research work and will not be disclosed to any other person or institution.

Kishwar Naz

Preston University, Islamabad

Appendix-B

QUESTIONNAIRE FOR THE SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS

Effects of Teachers’ Professional Competence on Students’ Academic Achievements

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

DIRECTIONS:

After reading each of the statements below, indicate how important each is to effective teaching by circling the appropriate response:

A=Strongly agree, B=Agree, C= Uncertain, = D=Disagree, E= Strongly Disagree

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

56. Point out deficiencies due to which our teaching outcomes are not according to our expectations.

57 .Give some suggestions to improve students achievements.

Appendix-C

Reliability of Questionnaire

Reliability Statistics

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Item-Total Statistics

Inter item correlation matrix

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Appendix-D

LIST OF SCHOOLS

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Appendix-E

TEACHERS PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCE SCORES

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Appendix-F

STUDENTS ACHIEVEMENT SCORES

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

137 of 137 pages

Details

Title
Effects of teachers' professional competence on students' academic achievements at secondary school level in Muzaffarabad District
College
Preston University
Grade
A
Author
Year
2016
Pages
137
Catalog Number
V352095
ISBN (Book)
9783668416987
File size
919 KB
Language
English
Tags
education, professional competence, academic achievements, secondary school, muzaffarabad district
Quote paper
Kishwar Naz (Author), 2016, Effects of teachers' professional competence on students' academic achievements at secondary school level in Muzaffarabad District, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/352095

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