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Table of Contents
Introduction .. 3
Overview of Apple during the reign of Steve Jobs .. 3
Apple’s Organizational Structure .. 7
Leadership theory .. 7
Charisma .. 8
Motivation .. 9
Innovation .. 10
Transformational leadership theory .. 10
Dimensions of transformational leadership .. 15
Transformational leadership in Steve Jobs .. 16
Dimensions of transformational leadership in Steve Jobs .. 19
Conclusion .. 21
References .. 22
This critical essay will observe the transformational leadership of Steve Jobs in Apple Inc. using both theory and practice.
Overview of Apple during the reign of Steve Jobs
Apple Computer was created in April 1976 by 25-year-old Steve Wozniak and 21-year old Steve Jobs, neither of whom had graduated from university. The two sold a van to earn start-up money and placed a mini shop in the Jobs’ house gargae in California, where they started creating computers (Young & Simon 2005). Sanger (1985) suggested that the thoughts and untimely innovation methods which came from this house garage formed the basis for a significant worldwide efficient technology companies in this globe. Furthermore, the house gargage cought the attentions of Steve Jobs' fans and they came from different places to take photos in front of it (Jobs & Beahm 2011).
Young and Simon (2005) explained that Apple stands out from comparable companies due to its unusual selling ideas, which continually rebuild the standards for product, advertising, and business improvement. Issacson (2011) agreed that Apple is recognized for its goal of challenging the paradigms of the computer industry. Its objective is to develop product accessibility and an unbiased strategy when providing customers with the latest technologists and innovative services (Isaacson 2011).
The co-founders of Apple, Wozniak and Jobs started structuring the Apple II during the summer. friends and classmates who were interested in technology helped them to form it (Sanger 1985). This experience helped Jobs to know that he had an interest in technology (Ken 2007). To develop his skill, Jobs had a talk with Intel Corporation marketing manager Michael Markkula about the potential outlook of Apple as a company (Helft & Vance 2010). Through this discussion, Markkula has assisted Steve Jobs and with his help, the business has acquired an equivalence amount of $250,000 (Sanger 1985).
Following the accomplishment of Apple I and Apple II, the co-founders started to make efforts to release Apple III, which was ultimately its first project failure. The Apple III uncovered the first rifts involving the director Michael Scott and Jobs. In reality, after the Apple III’s disappointment, Scott fired 40 employees without any discussion or endorsement from the Board of Directors (Jobs & Beahm 2011). As Sanger (1985) described, Scott got downgraded to assistant chairman, where Steve Jobs got promoted to be a chairman. Hence, Markkula, the person who initially hired Scott, became the CEO of Apple (Sanger 1985).
In December 1985, Jobs left Apple Computer because of the fights over authority and differences with Sculley, who was a president at that time and the panel of directors (Doug 2011). After resigning, Jobs created a new small corporation and named it "NeXT", Inc. Jobs perceived "NeXT" to be an chance to achieve the goals he noted down when he formed Apple (Helft & Vance 2010). The company which Jobs formed aimed to generate computers which were intelligible, artistically attractive and competent of administrating influential software in a well-organized structure (Doug 2011).
Meanwhile, Apple sustained to improve its operating systems and computers (Doug 2011). However, according to Helft and Vance (2010), Apple didn't succeed to recuperate following Steve Jobs’ departure (Helft & Vance 2010). Most of the projects launched by Spindler, including, particularly, the Apple Newton and the Copland operating systems, were failures. After three years of unproductivity, Spindler was asked to occupy his post as CEO. Therefore, Apple has provided Gil Amelio with an opportunity to run the company during the mid-nineties (Helft & Vance 2010). In what was ultimately the company’s greatest choice in years, Apple requested from Steve Jobs to return to the company with a high position which is a CEO (Doug 2011). With his pioneering ideas and well-developed leadership approach, Steve Jobs has returned to the company he had co-founded (Helft & Vance 2010). Only days after his return, on 20 December 1996, Apple publicized its plan for acquiring "NeXT" Software, Inc. Hence, the acquirement was done on February 4, 1997, so "NeXT" software formed the basis for the Macs’ prospect operating systems (Doug 2011). With respect to Apple’s new-fangled strategies for development, manufactured goods growth and industry approach, Jobs commented that eight stories of business surplus should be discarded. ‘I hate this building,’ said Jobs. ‘This building has come to symbolize everything that went wrong with Apple. This is not a building that can make “insanely great” computer products’ (Helft & Vance 2010). This is one example of how Steve Jobs was compulsive, spontaneous and desperately crucial: a man who truthfully knew what he wanted and who grew his creative ideas into reality (Isaacson 2011).
Jobs was concerned with not only the presentation of Apple products, but also their look and feel (Jobs & Beahm 2011). Kent (2007) believed that this approach was critical to Jobs’ character in terms of a CEO of a gigantic company and a normal human being keen and eager for innovation and technologies (Ken 2007). This enthusiasm and passion for changing the ways in which technology is delivered inspired Jobs to develop one small technology that revolutionized the habits and daily schedules of both college students and top business people (Jobs & Beahm 2011). The iPod was released in October 2001, and it has since been lauded as a prime example of Steve Jobs’ innovative approach (Isaacson 2011). Doug (2011) complimented the iPod’s urbane and comprehensible design and its ability to be used on both Mac- and Windows-based computers.
Job and his team also developed a technology called "iTunes". Apple released iTunes in April 2003 (Ken 2007) as a software that managed a variety of diverse digital media and facilitated the transfer of media from computer to iPod, allowing users to buy, systematize, and play back a variety of multimedia. (Helft & Vance 2010). Apple users could then transport these multimedia files straight to their iPods with Apple’s easy-to-use "drag-and-drop "relocating capability (Ken 2007).
Steve Jobs, co-founder of Apple Inc., died on October 2011 following a long struggle with pancreatic cancer. The company’s customers and employees received the news on their Apple devices, which Steve Jobs had introduced to the technological marketplace. When Steve Jobs passed, he was praised in the press, in blogs and in magazine articles (Isaacson 2011).
Apple's organizational structure
Apple Inc.’s headquarters are located in California, USA. However, Apple Inc. functions on a worldwide level, with numerous places worldwide (Ken 2007). Apple’s industry operations are arranged with these categories: business services for support, software and hardware as decreed by Jobs when he returned to the company. Within these categories are a range of subcategories, as well as: applications such as iTunes, internet services such as Safari, computers, peripherals such as Apple TV and many others (Helft & Vance 2010).
Table 1 illustrates Apple’s basic organizational structure.
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Source: Mittan 2010 ( http://de.slideshare.net/Bishwajit01760/apple-2008-complete
Leading is defined by Pinnow (2011) as the process of influencing and motivating people to achieve in order to attain shared objective. Addair (2014) added that a leader’s responsibilities, duties, roles and interpersonal influences are critical. According to Lim and Lim (2011), leadership involves efficient and competent leaders who perpetually increase efforts and who stay in touch with and motivate followers. Tracy (2014) identified certain leadership characteristics, as follows: intelligence, problem solving, integrity, personality, an ability to perform precise tasks and means to perform tasks correctly.
There are several theories that illustrate leadership: the Great Man Theory, Trait Theory, Behavioural Theories, Role Theory, Participative Leadership, Lewin's leadership styles, Situational Leadership, Hersey and Blanchard's Situational Leadership, Contingency Theories, Transactional Leadership and Transformational Leadership (Kelly 2006). This assignment will discuss, in particular, transformational leadership.
Leadership theories identify several traits of leaders. Of these, some of the most widespread are charisma, motivation, influence, innovation and inspiration (Tracy 2014)
Bryman (1992) defined a charisma leader as someone who is able to influence others not through his official position a leader, through the good worth of his charismatic character. Vision, compassion and empowerment are the three foundational mechanisms of charismatic leadership (Bryman 1992). Furthermore, according to Storey and Salaman (2004), innovation theory states that followers attribute epic or extra-ordinary behaviours to charismatic leaders, who often have romanticized objectives and well-developed obligations.
Maslow’s theory of motivation has long been widely applied and accepted (Kelly 2006). However, Liam and Liam (2011) mentioned that Maslow gave no experiential corroborations for his theory, and a number of recent studies have shown that the theory is not sustainable (Lim & Lim 2011).
According to Maslow, to be human is to frequently require something (Maslow et al. 1998). Malsow argued that our needs can be arranged into a hierarchy of human requirements in an ascending order:
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Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maslow's_hierarchy_of_needs
At the stage of physiological needs, people are mainly worried about their continued existence. In other words, they are worried about essential supplies, such as food and water (Maslow et al. 1998). People reach the second stage of safety and security needs once their essential physiological requirements have been satisfied (and, thus, become less significant). Safety and security requirements are considered important because these are required to guarantee survival (Maslow et al. 1998). Third, after the first two levels are fulfilled, people have social needs for love and belonging. At this stage, people feel a need for love and positive emotions (Maslow et al. 1998). At the fourth level, esteem needs, people feel the need to be appreciated and to have good self-esteem. Last but not least, the stage of self-actualization represents the highest-level need: the ambition to attain one’s fullest potential (Maslow et al. 1998). According to Kelly (2006), Maslow said that lower-level needs must be fulfilled before higher-level needs can be addressed. Maslow further proposed that when all other requirements have been satisfied and there are no more powerful items, then human beings will vigorously look for new errands and attempt to achieve ever more advanced and higher levels of self-development (Maslow et al. 1998).
Innovation diffusion refers to how a new item shifts from creation to utilization (Deschamps 2008). Innovation occurs when different communities adopt new ideas or products on different timelines (Storey & Salaman 2004). Deschamp and Deschamps (2008) suggested that innovation depends on five classes of adopters, who are categorised based on their rates of acceptance. Innovators are the first to adapt; they are adventurous and risk-taking (Deschamp & Deschamps 2008). These types of people are often judgmental leaders who consider transformation essential. Next follow initial adopters, who make use of a new item before normal individuals (Deschamp & Deschamps 2008).
Transformational leadership theory
Transformational leadership is a characteristic of leadership that helps to transform individuals and social eras. Transformational leaders generate optimistic transformations in followers, with the end objective of developing their potential as future leaders (Kotlyar & Karakowsky 2007). Furthermore, according to Kotlyar and Karakowsy (2006), transformational leadership improves motivation and confidence and supports the performance of followers through a diversity of instruments (Kotlyar & Karakowsky 2007). Rosner (1990) defined transformational leadership as a theory comprising followers’ individuality and personalities with respect to their assignment the communal uniqueness of their organization; being an inspirational role model for followers; challenging followers to better the work they have been assigned into; and accepting the power and limitations of followers in order to match followers with the duties that optimize their performance (Rosner 1990). Hackman and Johnson (2009) described transformational leaders as being distinct from others. In particular, they are unique and creative and have exceptional personal abilities and vision (Hackman & Johnson 2009).
Burns (1978) was an early theorist who discussed transformational leadership. Since his work, the term has been used broadly in organizations. According to Nissinen (2006), Burns (1978) explained transformational leadership as a process in which leaders and followers help one another and cultivate motivations through well-known characteristics and behaviours. Burns (1978) has recognized two concepts which are transformational leadership and transactional leadership (Albritton 1998).
Albritton (1998) noted that Burns (1978) suggested that the transforming approach generates significant transformations in people's lives and in organizations. It enhances awareness and values and modifies employees’ prospects and objectives (Albritton 1998). By contrast, the transactional approach does not involve giving and taking; instead, it depends on the leader's qualities, behaviour and capacity to motivate the idea of change throughout example, the expression of an stimulating an idea and demanding objectives. (Pielstick 1998). Additionally, "transforming" leaders are romanticized as ethical examples of people who work for their teams and organizations (Burns 1978). Burns (1978) conceived transformational leadership and transactional leadership were equally exclusive (Nissinen 2006).
Further, Burns(1978) argued that transactional leaders characteristically won't seek to alter their organizational culture; instead, they focus on the obtainable culture, while transformational leaders pursue larger cultural changes (Burns 1978). In development, as Albritton (1998) explained, Bass (1985) was a theorist who completed a broad review of Burns’ (1978) work by intensifying the psychosomatic instrument causing transforming and transactional leadership. For instance, Bass (1985) used the phrase "transformational" as a substitute of "transforming" (Albritton 1998). Bass (1985) also added to Burns’ (1978) unique ideas to facilitate in order to describe how transformational leadership should be reached and how to inspire and impact followers to achieve greater influence, since the true benefit of a transformational leader is that he is able to address more than the required task (Bass 1998).
For example, a transformational leader, according to Bass (1985) and as clarified by Albritton (1998), inspires followers to attain a vision to generate a unique personality. This involves inspirational incentives, idealized influence, intellectual stimulation and individual consideration dimensions (Albritton 1998). According to Alimo-Metcalfe and Alban-Metcalfe (2001), Bass (1985) emphasized that a leader should sustain his/her followers base in order to develop new and outstanding approaches to alter his or her surroundings. Unlike Burns (1978), Bass (1985) recommended that leadership would concurrently exhibit transformational and transactional leadership together (Alimo-Metcalfe & Alban-Metcalfe 2001). However, Pielstick (1998) noted that one must make sure that there is a transactional element and planned approaches involving not only set limits, but also a plan to avoid getting out of control (Pielstick 1998).
The Bass Transformational Leadership Theory states that a leader should have a refined set of morals; however, if the theory is applied to a situation in which the leader does not have such morals, the consequences could be catastrophic (Bass 1998). For example, the Branch Dravidians illustrate how the transformation of a group by a deceptive leader can produce awful results (Pielstick 1998). Burns (1978) suggested that the transformational theory asks the most essential question: What is the vital objective of leadership, and why should one be a leader? However, Nissinen (2006) suggested that Burns’ Transformational Leadership Theory is naive and may not be appropriate for populations that are unable to struggle beyond the required task and simply maintain their current standard and practice of living. In such cases, Burns’ Transformational Leadership Theory should be combined with a motivational theory, which can help to guide followers and enhance them psychologically and intellectually along Bass's dimensions (Albritton 1998). Other authors, such as Hartog and Belschek (2012), have suggested that a transformational leader always expects high performance from his/her followers, while implementing an attractive vision for the future and inspiring followers rationally by introducing them to significant work ( Hartog & Belschak 2012).
In the research for transformational and transactional leadership, the generally used survey is identified as the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire or MLQ Form 5X (Rowold 2004d). The MLQ-5X is the typical tool for assessing transformational and transactional leadership performance (Bass & Avolio 2000). Table 1 illustrates the diverse sample for the MLQ Form 5X.
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Table 1: Description of the sample (Rowold 2004d).
The MLQ-5X questionnaire helps to calculate each of the mechanisms of the total diversity of leadership. The questionnaire begins with Bass' (1985) factors and psychoanalysis (Alimo-Metcalfe & Alban-Metcalfe 2001). It was first developed for the purposes of factor investigation; however, previous studies on transformational leadership offered only limited information, and the information in this area was too prehistoric to find superior cases for the objects in the questionnaire (Kotlyar & Karakowsky 2006). Furthermore, the primary description of the "MLQ" was linked to the phrasing of the objects (Alimo-Metcalfe & Alban-Metcalfe 2001). Most items in the charismatic leadership scale were descriptive, as a substitute for exact measures of leaders, which can be practical and lead to particular outcomes (Kotlyar & Karakowsky 2006). Subsequently, Bass and Avolio (1994) developed revised versions with several new items to clarify leadership actions. They also separated out leadership characteristics connected to idealized influence and behaviours and actions with separated scales (Bass & Avolio 1994). According to Mohamed Fisal (2009), other theorists are still critical of the MLQ model; however, since 2003, none has been able to offer evidence of the theorized nine-factor model with such large sample sizes (Muhammad 2009).
Dimensions of transformational leadership
According to Bass (1998), there are four dimensions of transformational leadership. The first dimension is individualized consideration, which, according to Bass (1985), determines the amount to which a leader concentrates on each follower's requirements, acts as a guide or a coach to the follower and pays attention to their distresses and requirements (Bass 1998). Albritton (1998) stated that a leader, as demonstrated by Bass (1985), provides sympathy and support, maintains open communication and places challenges ahead of followers. A leader also commands respect and motivates individual inputs from each follower in the team. Furthermore, the followers are determined and ambitious for self-development and have the motivation to perform their required jobs (Bass 1998).
The second dimension is intellectual stimulation, which, as explained by Bass (1998), is the level to which a potential leader challenges postulations, precedes his actions as a risk taker and seeks input from followers (Bass 1998). Albritton (1998) agrees that those leaders who use this approach aim to inspire and support creativity which comes from their followers. According to Bass (1998), they also cultivate and expand people's desire to consider competition. For such a leader, knowledge is important, and unforeseen circumstances are seen as chances to gain knowledge. Followers raise questions, reflect intensely about stuff and develop improved approaches to perform their tasks (Bass 1998).
Bass’s (1985) third dimension is inspirational motivation, which is the level to which the leader can create a coherent vision that is attractive and inspirational to followers. Thus, leaders who motivate, as stated by Pielstick (1998), can challenge followers with elevated principles, create optimism about opportunities and goals and create a sense of the mission at hand. However, Albritton (1998) suggests that followers are must have a well-developed knowledge to turn their motivations into action. Bass (1998) also proposed that purpose and meaning provide the energy that drives a team forward. The visionary aspects of leadership are driven by communication skills that create a comprehensible, accurate, influential and appealing vision so that followers are eager to devote more effort to their tasks and are confident and optimistic about their expectations (Bass 1998).
Last but not least, idealized influence is Bass’s (1985) fourth dimension. Idealized influence exemplifies elevated ethical behaviour, self-esteem and faith. As a development instrument, Nissinen (2006) stated that transformational leadership is increasingly used in all segments of Western society, including governmental organizations. For example, the Finnish Defence Forces has widely adopted the Deep Lead© Model, which is based on the theory of transformational leadership, as an essential aspect of leadership preparation and development (Nissinen 2006).
Transformational leadership in Steve Jobs
As previously mentioned, Bass (1985) used the expression "transformational" as a substitute of "transforming". According to Albritton (1998), Steve Jobs returned to Apple Inc. during the announcement of the iPad to assist the employees in the launch. By August 2011, he had handed his CEO duties over to Tim Cook. C/Net, an organization that raises awareness for the latest technologies, described Jobs as an iconist who changed the way people do everything, from watching videos to listening to music. Kotlyar and Karakowsky (2007) defined transformational leadership as leadership that alter lives. For example, when Steve Jobs passed away, people did not receive the shocking news only from the media; they also received it from electronic devices, such as their iPhones, iPads and Mac laptops, all of which were created by Steve Jobs (Helft & Vance 2010).
Helft and Vance (2010) noted that the teenaged Jobs’ perfectionism began when his father asked him to start building a fence in their backyard. Jobs put as much effort into the back, where no one would see the wood, as he did in the front. In Apple Inc., according to Isaacson (2011), Jobs applied the same approach. For example, he asked his engineers to create chips for the Macintosh that looked nice. The engineers were surprised, since they did not believe that customers would look at what was inside the PC; however, they remembered that Jobs cared about the small touches and that things should be beautiful on the inside as well as outside (Isaacson 2011).
In his pursuit of perfection, Jobs was known to be irritated and harsh with his employees. For instance, Wozniak, the co-founder of Apple Inc., once commented on Jobs’ charisma by saying, "Steve's contributions could have been made without so many stories about him terrorizing folks". However, he added that if he were running the Macintosh project, everything would have failed. Hence, Wozniak believed that it was essential to be grateful for Jobs' impoliteness and rudeness, since these were key inspirations for his team at Apple Inc.
Storey and Salaman (2004) noted that followers attribute impressive or extra-ordinary behaviours to charismatic leaders who have romanticized objectives and well-developed obligations. Steve Jobs had a charisma that led his employees to believe in his simplest suggestion to alter a product’s design. For example, those who worked with Jobs first interpreted his Reality Distortion Field as a sign of harassment. However, his character influenced them to achieve unusual feats, such as changing the course of computer history—beyond what IBM could accomplish—with only limited resources (Young & Simon 2005). Debi Coleman, an employee who worked on the Mac team and who won an award for standing up to Jobs, recalled that Jobs did the impossible cause he did not realize that it was impossible (Jobs & Beahm 2011).
In terms of innovation, Isaacson (2011) noted that Apple Inc. is considered an innovation in itself. However, when it comes to Job's innovative approach to evaluating products he has created with his team, the most important development is the iPod, which was released in 2011 and which changed how college students and business people go about their daily schedules (Jobs & Beahm 2011). The iPod is considered a major illustration of Steve Jobs’ innovative approach (Isaacson 2011). Deschamp and Deschamps (2008) suggested that innovators make use of new items before normal individuals, and with Apple computers, his graphical user interface, and the mouse, Steve Jobs created a significant change (Isaacson 2011). First, he instructed his team to simplify the ways in which documents and folders were dragged. Then, he created a single-button mouse, which differed from the common two-button mouse. The cost was minor, but innovation efficiency was high (Isaacson 2011).
In terms of motivation, in accordance with Maslow’s (1988) motivational theory, at level four, followers attempt to secure appreciation and esteem. Steve Jobs started an approach called the "top 100", through which he took his best 100 employees on a vacation retreat. This step motivated Jobs’ followers (Young & Simon 2005). Furthermore, when Jobs sought employees’ thoughts, he took care to note down every idea. Once, he suggested to Tony Fadell, who led the iPod team, that Apple should not include an on/off button (Doug 2011). His employees were shocked, but after he explained his reasons, they became motivated. Now, when the iPod is not in use, its power slowly dims (Doug 2011). Larry Kenyon, who worked on developing the Macintosh system, once complained to Jobs that the system took too long to boot up. Jobs replied, "if it would save a person's life, could you find a way to save 10 seconds off the boot time?" (Ken 2007). Then, Jobs went to his common white board and drew a diagram for the engineer to explain the consequences of having a system that takes too long to boot up and the benefits of a system that takes less than 30 seconds to run (Jobs & Beahm 2011). The next day, Kenyon developed a system that booted 28 seconds faster (Jobs & Beahm 2011).
Dimensions of transformational leadership in Steve Jobs
Bass (1985) explained inspirational motivation in four dimensions, as stated earlier. In 1997, according to Young and Simon (2005), Steve Jobs returned to Apple to review the product sessions. Suddenly, he stopped, grabbed a white board and started drawing grids and columns to explain to his followers the next challenge, which was to focus on four products—one for each quadrant—and cancel the current ones. The employees were silenced and shocked by this challenge, but in the end, Apple managed it, and Job saved the company. As he famously said, "Deciding what not to do is as important as deciding what to do" (Young and Simon 2005).
When it comes to individualized consideration, as described by Bass (1985), Ken (2007) mentioned that Steve Jobs loved white boards, on which he wrote his challenges and his followers’ inputs. He always asked his followers to draw suggestions, and he would mention them on the board. Jobs would frequently ask, "What are the 10 things we should be doing next year?" His followers began to post suggestions and inputs, and Jobs wrote them down. After gathering their inputs, he conducted a filtration process with the help of his employees to develop more solid, tangible ideas (Ken 2007).
In terms of Intellectual Stimulation (Bass 1985), Steve Jobs once stated, "My passion has been to build a lasting company where people were motivated to make great products. Everything else was secondary". Isaacson (2011) explained this statement by saying that Jobs’ passion was to motivate, create and make money. Jobs and Beahm (2011) suggested that Jobs' aim was to end up with the people he had hired and the people who had promoted, who could discuss innovative ideas during meetings (Jobs & Beahm 2011).
In an example of idealized influence (Bass 1985), Job pushed people to do challenging things. Colleagues called this tendency his Reality Distortion Field (Doug 2011). Jobs was once on a night shift at Atari and started challenging Steve Wozniak to create a game called Breakout. Wozniak complained that the game would take a long time to make. However, Jobs gave him a look and told him that he could do it quickly. Ultimately, the game was created and released to the market within four days (Doug 2011).
This paper has illustrated the transformational leadership of Steve Jobs, in light of several definitions of leadership suggested by prior theorists and a review of associated leadership traits, such as charisma, innovation and motivation. This paper has also illustrated the history of Apple Inc., as co-founded by Steve Jobs in the late 1970s. Furthermore, Apple Inc. was reviewed in terms of Jobs’ achievements, such as his creations of the Mac, iTunes and such devices as the iPod, the iPhone and the iPad. Transformational leadership, as described by Burns (1978) and Bass (1985), was illustrated, with a focus on the dimensions of transformational leadership: idealized influence, individualized consideration, intellectual stimulation and inspirational motivation. Moreover, the paper has explored both theory and practical examples of innovation, motivation and charisma from the life of Steve Jobs, in accordance with transformational leadership. Last but not least, the dimensions of transformational leadership have been illustrated using the achievements of Jobs within the context of Apple Inc.
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- Sara Al Sayyed (Author), 2016, Transformational Leadership of Steve Jobs at Apple, Inc., Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/352811