Impact of employee performance recognition techniques on customer satisfaction in the telecommunication sector of Bangladesh

Research Paper (undergraduate), 2015

37 Pages


The impact of employee performance recognition techniques on telecommunication sector in
AKM Mohsin (Author)
Lecturer, College Of Business Administration (CBA)
IUBAT University, Bangladesh
Afroja Hossain Sume
IUBAT-International University of Business Agriculture and Technology, Bangladesh.

Rahman (2014)refers that the term Employee performance recognition is referred to the
acclaim of an individual's or group's performance that has tremendously helped the
organization to achieve the predetermine goals or objectives. This is a kind of recognition
that should be well-timed, informal or formal.
One of the most rudimental needs of an individual is appreciation. Personnel of an
organization are more likely to be encouraged with the act of appreciation that has been
conveyed by the means of recognition of the worthy performance at workplace. It is because
this type of recognition ensures that their work has been appreciated. When employees
received this type of valuation by their organization, they tend to be motivated to improve
their action, behavior to ensure that the customers get the highest level of satisfaction that
will yield goodwill and also profits for their organization(Fisher, 2008).
Telecommunication industry in Bangladesh is a very competitive market in Bangladesh. As
customer loyalty is always shifting to the service provider whose service is comparatively
better, customer satisfaction is a crucial issue to survive in this market. Companies like
Grameenphone, Robi, and Airtel etc. have been trying to achieve their goal of increasing
customer satisfaction by using performance recognition techniques to their employees. It is
because it is possible only by the employees to improve customer satisfaction level as there
are in direct or indirect contact with customers. This report will focus on the impact of
employee recognition techniques on customer satisfaction in telecommunication sector in
Bangladesh (Das, 2013).
The report has been divided into two parts. The first part will discuss about the literature
review and conceptual frame of the study. In the second part, a very crucial part called
"methodology" will be talked over. The survey will include 30 respondents from whom
primary data will be collected. The researcher has also decided to use convenience sampling
method for fulfilling the purpose of this research.

Table of Contents
1.0 Title ... 1
1.1 Background of problem ... 1
2.0 Literature Review ... 2
2.1 Introduction ... 2
2.2 Employee performance recognition technique ... 3
2.3 Customer satisfaction ... 4
2.4 SERVQUAL Model ... 6
2.5 Impact of Employee recognition technique in telecommunication industry in Bangladesh ... 7
2.6 Customer satisfaction in telecommunication industry in Bangladesh ... 11
2.7 Impact of employee recognition technique on customer satisfaction in telecommunication
industry in Bangladesh ... 13
2.8 Funneling of literature review ... 16
2.9 Contextual variables ... 17
2.10 Conceptual framework ... 18
2.11 Conclusion ... 18
3.0 Research Methodology ... 19
3.1 Introduction ... 19
3.2 Research Questions ... 19
3.3 Research methods framework ... 19
3.4 Research onion ... 20
3.5 Research Paradigm ... 20
3.5.1 Justification for choosing positivism research paradigm ... 20
3.6 Research Approach ... 20
3.6.1 Justification of choosing Deductive research approach ... 21
3.7 Research Design ... 21
3.7.1 Justification of choosing descriptive research design ... 21
3.8 Research strategy ... 22
3.9 Sampling methods ... 22
3.10 Hypothesis development ... 23

3.11 Data collection methods ... 23
3.12 Research Methods ... 24
3.12.1 Justification of choosing qualitative and quantitative research methods ... 24
3.13Data Analysis ... 24
3.14 Research Instrument ... 25
3.14.1 Online survey questionnaire ... 25
3.14.2 In-depth Interviews ... 25
3.14.3 Justification of research instrument ... 25
3.14.4 Pilot Study ... 26
3.14.5 Data Analysis and Statistical Tool ... 26
3.15 Methodological Review ... 26
3.16 Research Ethic ... 26
3.17 Research Limitations ... 27
3.18 How validity and reliability is achieved ... 27
3.19 Conclusion ... 27
4.0 References ... 28

1.0 Title
The impact of employee performance recognition techniques on telecommunication sector in
1.1 Background of problem
It has been noticed by many experts that the competition among the companies those are
included in the telecommunication sector is getting more and more intense in Bangladesh. A
recent trend has been prevalent in this sector that is to improve the capability and for the
purpose of improving the condition of the ecology; the companies in this industry are
highlighting an improved level of customer satisfaction and a number of customer services
(Afzal et al. 2014).
According to the results of a study conducted on telecommunication sector in Bangladesh
customer satisfaction can be measured with the help of considering some serious factors such
as the services that are provided in the customer care. The results were based on a
comparative study among different telecommunication companies in Bangladesh. It is
required that information about different customer care of different companies in Dhaka city
is collected in order to see the level of service given to individual customer. The study
concluded that level of customer satisfaction is significantly dependent on customer support
activities and they both are positively correlated (Ethica, 2013).
Another research on telecommunication industry in Bangladesh has shown that if
appropriately planned, controlled and scrutinized, the method of determining customer
satisfaction is likely to be proved valuable to any telecommunication company. There was
another research that was done in china for the purpose of finding out the degree of
contentment among different types of customers in mobile telecommunication market. This
situation signifies that greater amount of customer satisfaction will pave the way of superior
consumer commitment to the service provider. This will also result in a progressive influence
on profitability (Ferdous, and Rahaman, 2010).
Hossain, (2013) refers thatwith the help of survey method, a specialist in the field of
telecommunication tried to build a framework that would help to explain customer
satisfaction. This framework would also help to understand the services encounter that
encompasses disappointment and retrieval with the help of a varied scheme experiment. It
offers a guideline for the purpose of evaluating by the means of disconfirmation and observed

fairness, the way service disappointment setting and service retrieval characteristics effect
consumer assessments while impacting contentment with the service disappointment or
retrieval come across. Admission of guilt and regret, quick retrieval and recompense of the
disappointment bears a favorable consequence on consumer's view.
Huddleston, (1999) refers that for the purpose of founding appropriate balance between
service disappointment and the retrievals as an operative answer to the customers, some
strategies that are imperative for the management. The study recommended that a firm should
concentrate on its customers only in the beginning phase of relationship building as it
requires understanding the customer properly to build strong relationship with them.
Johnson, and Gustafsson, (2000) said that the number of the subscribers has been increasing
radically. Because of the advent of Smartphone user, the sum of telecom service consumers is
mounting in Bangladesh. From the present scenario, it has been come to light that about
11.23 million people of Bangladesh are now reaping the benefits of different telecom services
in Bangladesh. It has been noticed that the number of the users is rising at an average rate of
14 percent. It has been estimated by many expert in the telecom industry in Bangladesh that
the percent of increment of the users of telecommunication is very much likely to increase
with the help of the government of Bangladesh. The ingress of some new operators in the
recent years has also made the sector more competitive thus customers are getting more
value-added service.
Organizations must identify major variables of customer satisfaction and dissatisfaction in
order to secure customer satisfaction. The issues that may affect customer satisfaction are
responsive employees, well-mannered employees, expert employees, cooperative employees
and package quality. The importance of quality and its progressive relationship with
satisfaction was highlight by some customer satisfaction. The maintenance of remaining
customers and the desirability of new ones is influence by the product quality(Byerly, 2012)
2.0 Literature Review
2.1 Introduction
Literature review shows important facets of past history related to a research. This part also
focuses on the past findings and analysis that have been prepared by different scholars. In this

part the researcher is going to enlighten some facts and information, which have already been
revealed, on the topic of the research. More specifically, this part is going to emphasize on
the concept of employee performance recognition techniques and customer satisfaction,
SERVQUAL model, impact of employee recognition technique in telecommunication
industry in Bangladesh, the degree and important variables related to consumer contentment
among the telecom companies which are currently operating in Bangladesh and how this
degree and variables are impacted through different employee recognition techniques used in
this industry. Conceptual framework will also be given in the last part of literature review.
2.2 Employee performance recognition technique
Huddleston (1999) refers that the most effective way of attaining sustainability in the market
is to create a workforce that can guide the firm to the fulfillment of its objectives. For that
purpose, many scholars of business have named various factors. Among those factors
employees' positive involvement in performance can contribute in the most significant wayto
the organizational success. It has been established as a fact that there is only one way of being
the most successful achiever of market share and loyalty of consumers and it is the best
valued service of the providers. The degree of gratification achieved by the employees in a
job significantly impacts their excellence of service transfer. If an individual feels satisfied
with his job, he or she can provide the best presentation otherwise his presentation become
very pitiable that is never expected to any organization or any institute.
Every employee of an organization has been given tasks. They are also responsible for ethical
tasks. Somehow this is subjective ethics that is considered to have a significant impact on
generally accepted behavior. This has been observed that the scrutinizing of the variables that
impact employee performance significantly, for example enthusiasm, presentation
measurement actions are not always successful in making a reliable outcome (Chandok and
Gupta, 2014).
Stanimirovand Zhechev (2005.) said that there are both the optimistic and the adverse results
that are on the surface. It may be observed that outcomes derived from a presentation
scrutinizing device are affirmative while considering a specific circumstance but in case of
other circumstance, it may yield unfavorable outcomes. Some experts consider it easy for a
researcher together comments and responses from consumers for the purpose of scrutinizing
the presentation of personnel working in telecommunication industry. By measuring the
responses in work, employees should not only be assessed but also those responses can be
helpful in determining the latent needs of the staffs that are yet to recognized by the firms.

Lee et al, (2012) said that to get satisfaction among employees, employee performance
recognition is the best way. This way is occasionally identified like such a way that conveys
greeting for their actions. It can be proven significant for the mental satisfaction of the
employees that he/she has been given thanks for the tasks done by him/her. It is beneficial for
a firm to understand the momentous actions of the employees even if those performances
may not be so important for the organization. Simply uttering the words "thanks you" is not
enough all the time. Employees will feel more motivated if they are given promotions,
rewards, stated direction and increase in payment etc. it has been established by numerous
studies that clap or recognition for what an employee has done for his organizations best
fitted in places that are open to all so that everyone knows about the performance of the
employee. There is another benefit of this technique which is-other staffs also get motivation
to work harder for the firm from this kind of occasions.
However, it should not trust especially on monetary compensation schemes in case a firm has
the intention to drastically improve its performance. Customer's feedback plays a vital role
for employee's performance measurement. Customer will provide good feedback about
employees if service provider delivers good service to customer otherwise it may be
contradictory. This is a theory that can be realized in an appropriate manner provided the
personnel of the firm are getting the desired outputs from the firm. If the firms can ensure
justified treatment to their personnel then customer contentment would be a general outcome
(Alam and Rubel, 2014).
2.3 Customer satisfaction
Now-a-days the vital objective of an organization is to satisfy a group of target customers
with the help of reasonable advantage. It is one of the biggest experiments that an
organization faces. To achieve returns, an organization should build profitable relationships
with customers. Augmenting the level of customer satisfaction and emerging positive
customer relationship can be termed as factors that can enable firms to be financially well-
managed. Customer satisfaction is meaningfully affected by consumer's motivation to pay.
Higher customer satisfaction results in frequent purchases (Bruce, 2006).
Normally, Customer satisfaction is associated with market value of the product and
organization. Customer's response towards the assessment of perceived difference between
earlier expectations and real performance is known as Customer satisfaction. Satisfaction
generally depends on the insights of individuals; it cannot be built based on only the quality
of products or services. Various customers will articulate different points of satisfaction

though the product or service experience is same. If excellence of the service is appropriately
structured client will be contentedly the quality of the service. This additionally provides a
large amount of adequacy for the firm. Clients' fulfillment generally relies on upon
representative presentation in the firm (Chowdhury, 2009).
Generally client gratifications termed like the analysis of feelings regarding the product or
service at the after intake of a particular product or service. If the customers feel very comfort
with the service, it will be positive indication for the service producer. It is because it can
create reliability between consumer and the service producer. However, the characteristics of
package excellence can be said to be very complex. It is because it rest on diverse client
insights. It can be easy to a customer but multipart to the other customer. So every company
tries to get most common features for its product and services (Shihab, 2006).
Various authors concurred that service quality is thinking assessment which can offer
fulfillment to the clients. On states of the excellence of service consumer contentment ought
to be analyzing which can be given to the clients with the help of the service that are joined
with the goods or service. The significant sources are informal suggestions and incessant
buying actions for which clients' fulfillment is thought to endure an awesome significance in
all sort of firms (Dong and Sangyup, 2009). To create and convey the right offerings, telecom
industry chiefs' are impacted by the variables influencing service excellence and consumer
contentment. service is the main a part of an offering of telecom industry that is impalpable
and mixed.
Safiullah, (2014) refers that general accomplishment of this industry relies on upon the nature
of service that is marketed to the clients. Many studies have revealed that placated clients
from service marketed by telecom industry is prone to utilize the facility for all time and
never attempt to change to different service providers regardless of the possibility that it is
suggested by different companions and relatives. The correspondence services' net benefits
can be multiplied if the administrators' measure of faithful client increments from 56.80 to
74.90%. In this case, communal links assume an imperative part in choice of administrator's
service packs. Right around 80% clients know data about service bundle from social locales
and television promoting. More often than not, they are impacted by thinking about service
bundle office appeared on television promoting. A minor bit of aggregate clients are impacted
by companion's gathering client. A large portion of the telecom business makes themselves

client focused where there is a convincing conviction that client and client's advantage is the
most important thing for those firms.
It can be said that correspondence administrators that place significant importance on client
concentration, acquire more benefit and gives preferable service excellence over those
administrators that focuses on other concentration in their procedures. Contentment is
constantly determined from numerous bases as it can't be provided based on a single basis. It
is said that there are two sorts of fulfillment, for example, Facility involvement fulfillment
and general fulfillment. Facility involvement fulfillment touches base from particular service
experiences and general fulfillment in view of numerous service involvements and happen
stances which are experienced by client (Cicerone, 2009).
2.4 SERVQUAL Model
Johnson, and Gustafsson, (2000) said that this model explains that reasons behind the claim
that is `quality can be termed as difference between the estimated and alleged performance'.
Lee, (2014) refers that as apparent service excellence can be said as client's perceived
analysis of complete excellence regarding to the quality of service. It can be said as the
reality of service. It is because it focuses on the revealing of the contrast between expectation
and reality of the service.
Dong and Sangyup, (2009) said that there area many model that have been designed for the
purpose of examining the contrast between service anticipation and reality. Among all those
models, SERVQUAL can be said as one of the best models that have come to existence for
the purpose of measuring the level of excellence of service offered. There are many facets of
a service. But this theory has incorporated only five service dimensions that have been
regarded as the part and parcel of service quality by almost all the experts in this field. These
dimensions are discussed below:
Tangible ­ tangible can be referred to as presence of amenities, tools, staffs and
resources that helps communication.
Reliability ­ It is the aptitude of the service provider to carry out service that was
assured previously with reliability and precision.
Responsiveness ­ It is the readiness of the service provider to offer assistance to the
consumers. Giving quick service can also be termed as responsiveness.
Assurance ­ It encompasses the facts, information and gallantry of service providers.
It can be also termed as their aptitude to bear faith and sureness.

Empathy ­ It is referred to as the ability of the provider to show the kindness and
customized devotion to each customer.
The gauging idea of the contrast flanked by predictions and interpretations with the help of
fissure mark of SERVQUAL can be demonstrated as very convenient and appropriate for the
purpose of gauging degree of the excellence of service. This is a kind of service gauging
model that can be used to any firm with due alteration because of the variation in service.
Many believe that this theory can be used as a beneficial tool for scrutinizing the crack of
service in an effective way with a view to renovate the aspects of services as per the demands
of the clients (Connection, 2015). Showing desires are really being encountered as well as
permits marketers to scrutinize to find out the components of the service that are being
provided to the customers with having no impact on their satisfaction (George, and
Weimerskirch, 1994).
2.5 Impact of Employee recognition technique in telecommunication industry in
Gerson (1993) refers that worker is the utmost significant subject in every company. For their
efforts that help the firms to go ahead in the market, personnel are motivated with several
things provided by the organization. They are good monetary advantages and to be acclaimed
in the workplace. Motivation and gratitude may be overlapping, synonymously used for each
other for many people. Therefore these two are not the same. Motivations have potential
orientation that the motivation offering expert makes the personnel put more effort for the
purpose of accomplishing success through attaining their objectives assigned by their boss,
Hayes, (2008) refers that it is unfortunate that numerous marketers have no keenness to
notice that this can attract the dishonest and unethical individuals. To remember, they can
come up short that inspirations cross the threshold of the general population into a value-
based association with the company while acknowledgment enters them into transformational
the other way around the firm. They possess distinctive insight that is related to connection
outward and inborn separately, however inspirations and acknowledgment both move the
representatives in a hierarchical perspective. Along these lines acknowledgment has inner
focus related to connection and fiscal compensates plainly have outer knowledge of
connection. To wreck the intrinsic inspiration, a number of imagined and ideas that contend
that use of fiscal motivating forces can really assist, which can somehow or another be
present in a firm.

At present numerous firms are reaping the benefit of concepts that are essentially not related
to monetary arrangements to identify those personnel who have done craved worker
practices. It has been seen by many studies that companies require frameworks that is
designed in a way to inspire employees and that containing representative acknowledgment
and acknowledgment at spot that promote higher worker assurance and execution levels than
even motivators. Not at all like motivating forces, monetary reward makes a profound and
long haul possession among the workers for the firm(Connection, 2015).
Garrison, (2007) refers that inside of the whole firm, perceiving great execution fabricates
inspiration straightforwardly. It has been observed that representative acknowledgment has
catching impacts. Representatives get to be dynamic when they see different representatives
being remunerated for the work and it proceed as hawser of response. Other than these
representatives rehash optimistic doings with the intention of being their work as valued as
He et al, (2011) refers that as an apparatus of inspiration, there is no general understanding
between the businesses and the workers over inescapability of the acknowledgment. In the
event that their endeavors are not valued personnel would get the feeling that they have not
been valued by the firms. However, managers might only realize that representatives are
simply liable for the occupation they are salaried to conduct. This might make defensive
environment and high trusts with low demonstration and impetus. Numerous procedures can
help to recognizing the worker's information in the organizations as opposed to keeping up
chose common methods for doing it. Other than there is a contention that culture of an
association influences the viability of a strategy utilized for non-money related
Nyasha (2014) refers that every day it can be dug in to predominant-subordinate
collaborations in the firm that make the subordinate perceive that their commitment is
esteemed. They have that they are perceived for their one of kind qualities. To planning and
present diverse scope of plans from scope of casual, spontaneous and formal organized based,
non-budgetary acknowledgment has assortment. To recognize the exertion of workers by
means of boss couple of samples are discussed here-
Managers "thank you" to the staffs: Managers officially lettering to record their appreciations
to distinguish worker(s). Acknowledgement in open conference concerning their hard work
may include-

1. Announcing worker of the month or year.
2. Praising in administrative newssheet.
3. Founded on workers' competence and proficiency prizes impacts on
Not just non-money acknowledgment honors are all the more rousing additionally
conservative contrasted with money motivating forces. A creator found in his examination on
two telecom commercial enterprises that money inspirations, most likely upgraded deals
execution by 15 percent yet just through extra expense was 13 percent. Taking into account
non-money related acknowledgment rewards, it can be likewise said that it improves deals
execution to the same level however against expense of just four percent (Dong and Sangyup,
Henniga, (2004) refers that there have another comparative hypothesis beyond their
exploration, they have revealed a fact that is based just non-monetary acknowledgment prizes
can not only be just have higher inspiration to money remunerates additionally from the
business point of view, it is beneficial for the company also because the money of the
company is not spent for the purpose of motivating employees. With the similar perspective
managers are swinging to acknowledgment projects to motivation profitability. In this
circumstance both non-money acknowledgment are practical and vital for keeping workers
locked into the organization.
More like acourse of inspiration, a part of significant work, a specialist of self-improvement
and Community for working environment mental wellbeing is essential nature for worker
acknowledgment. In other exploration discoveries it has demonstrated that nonattendance of
feeling of acknowledgment among the workforce in the associations signs danger of
enthusiastic misery and a hostility towards the service (Fisher, 2008).
Heldenbrand, and Simms (2012) said that in exemplary behavioral service, the utilization of
acknowledgment under fantastic behavioral service acknowledgment is delegated a
characteristic strengthen taking into account support hypothesis. In light of generally
relevance acknowledgment may be an effective strengthen to enhance execution if gave on an

unexpected premise in overseeing worker conduct. It has be more clearly discussed with the
help of an instance-
After the basic worker execution practices are distinguished, measured and practically
dissected the authoritative conduct alteration then the mediation step can three unexpectedly
apply acknowledgment to reinforce and quicken the recognized practices with coming about
execution change.
Johnson, and Gustafsson, (2000) said that a recognized execution conduct may be profitable
utilization of unmoving time amid deterrent upkeep in an assembling setting. It may be the
manager saying to a laborer from the unforeseen acknowledgment that while your hardware
was being overhauled by the support folks the researcher saw that you assisted him. For this
situation, one must be mindful so as to comprehend that the credit did not contain a "sappy"
thank you or influenced esteem for performing what his director recognized" that he had
made a special effort with the mean to give help to another laborer. The laborer will tend to
rehash this helping conduct later on as a result of this current director's acknowledgment. The
boss giving restrictive acknowledgment as a positive backing will reinforce the laborer's
conduct and improve the efficiency of the unit as opposed to getting no quality for this
helping conduct or a rebuffing benefit of working harder.
Jyoti, and Sharma, (2012) said that in an service setting, for example, telecom administrator,
a recognized execution conduct of tellers may be giving client's data about different items
that the telecom administrator offers. When it is in the assembling case above, after watching
this conduct the administrator would convey restrictive acknowledgment by saying
something like, "I caught your clarification to Mr. X about how to get, use and the benefits of
a charge card. I'll wager we will be adding him to our check card business." This condition is
a positive fortify for the service conduct prompting expanded execution. Throughout the
years countless have confirmed this restrictive is without a doubt a capable positive
strengthen for worker practices led to execution change in both assembling.

ChungKiHan (2011) allude that utilizing the O.B. Mod. Methodology and acknowledgment
as the intercession in the course of recent years examines, a late meta-investigation
discovered a normal of 15 percent execution change in service applications. A study uncovers
that a firm typically appreciates a normal increment of 41 percent in assembling and 30
percent in service associations when acknowledgment was joined with execution input.
2.6 Customer satisfaction in telecommunication industry in Bangladesh
Uddin et al, (2012) allude that an investigation of portable telecom service measured
consumer loyalty by thinking seriously about specific components including client care. The
correlation among Grameen Telephone, Banglalink, Airtel and Robi was made. The versatile
administrators set impressive significance to the issue of client bolster found in the
consequences of the study. A positive revision between consumer loyalty and client backing
is likewise there. The pattern of fulfillment gets to be more grounded when client backing
gets to be more extensive. In a study found that the procedure of observing consumer loyalty
can be advantageous to any cordiality endeavor if legitimately outlined, directed and broke
Solnet (2006) alludes that in versatile telecom market in India, a study to discover the
fulfillment level of the clients that the opposition between telecom administrators turned out
to be more serious in India. Be that as it may it is found that to enhance the capacity and for
economical improvement in the focused environment, the telecom working service was
underlining a ton to the consumer loyalty and client benefits that is means as more elevated
amount of consumer loyalty lead to more prominent client faithfulness, which thusly
positively affects productivity.
Thusyanthy and Senthilnathan (2004.) said that with respect to their customer this includes
some level of ability to buy or acknowledge their item which is all the more enthusiastically
accomplished while the customer has acknowledgment or even yearning for the service
coordinated effort. The association wishes if the client is to have the learning then the
specialists must give it which is a more conceivable result though the laborers are included in
their characters.

Wang and Lo (2002) allude that the individual outside issues can influence the level of
fulfillment for clients and laborers. These people's qualities are race, religion, sex, national
root, capacity, wellbeing, training level, sexual introduction and age change.
Willis et al, (2012) allude that distinctive studies declare diverse results on the fulfillment, for
example, a great wellbeing client fulfilled than those with varying qualities. Ladies are
distinctively more fulfilled than men in the workplace. Whites are more satisfied than non-
white identities. However the study has additionally proposed that workplaces with higher
staffing levels and all the more exceedingly taught staffs result in larger amounts of
expansion in presentation.
Xevelonakis and Som (2012) allude that some creator to portray consumer loyalty and the
services experience including disappointment and recuperation through blended outline test
utilizing review technique attempted to add to a model. From the study they give a system to
considering how benefit disappointment connection and service recuperation qualities impact
client assessments however disconfirmation and saw equity though the service
disappointment or recuperation experienced with the affecting fulfillment. In that study it
additionally observed that conciliatory sentiment, rapid, recuperation and pay of the
disappointment positively affected client's observation. For setting up legitimate fit between
service disappointment and the recuperations as a successful reaction to the clients, this
concentrate likewise gave rules to the service at last.
Spirou (2000) alludes that concentrating on the part of consumer loyalty; a dynamic model of
the length of time of service supplier client relationship was created by a creator. In the
model presume that there is a positive relationship between the consumer loyalty and the
length of time of the relationship. It likewise proposed that due to the clients considered
earlier aggregate fulfillment vigorously, an association ought to concentrate on clients in the
early phases of relationship and the length of time of the relationship relied on upon the
acceptable level. The relationship was prone to be short if clients experienced were not
attractive. As the lifetime incomes from an individual client relied on upon the length of time

of his relationship, the adjustments in consumer loyalty could have essential money related
ramifications for the association.
2.7 Impact of employee recognition technique on customer satisfaction in
telecommunication industry in Bangladesh
Leong (2002) alludes that in telecom industry service quality and consumer loyalty, service
quality is a standout amongst the most imperative parts of the client experience. All the time
most association screens their services quality to enhance client maintenance and faithfulness
and to guarantee greatest consumer loyalty. By legitimately taking care of the client requests
and desires and giving services which are up to the business sector measures, consumer
loyalty is accomplished.
Rohshan (2012) alludes that the client positive utilization experience guarantees that general
his affections for the items or services expended are sure. In spite of the fact that repurchase
client maintenance or dedication is not ensured by their fulfillment. As an in number
indicator of client maintenance and consumer loyalty by numerous hierarchical analysts,
service quality has been recommended. The drive of the consumer loyalty that effects client
unwaveringness is known as service quality.
Bhutto et al, (2012) alludes that it is a key component for consumer loyalty. For telecom
industry it is a vital device for enlarging their pay and piece of the overall industry. Telecom
industry improve consumer loyalty betterly with better environment. Telecom industry gives
services by consolidating the standard client and unpredictable client properties in services
bundle. They tries to make an in number and long haul association with both standard and
unpredictable clients.
Scarborough and Somers (2006) said that in basic words normal client implies that individual
who are utilizing the service of the administrator routinely and sporadic client is similar to a
butterfly who tries to utilize distinctive administrator services at once. However all
administrators covet that their shoppers get an outstanding and positive chief impression.

Mir (2012) alludes that to increase greatest advantage, concentrating on this specific
measurement will help them. To accomplish the client's consideration service quality is the
key as well. To achieve their impression of service shifting practices and mentalities of
clients request high service quality. There have a direct relationship among service quality,
achievement and productivity of business.
Rogers (1998) alludes that Grameen Telephone has put intensely in quality service and
consequently they earned gigantic benefits each year. Grameen Telephone considered both
consistent and sporadic parts of service quality similarly essential in the accomplishment of
association. Diverse territories environment and society serve as an aide for business on the
best way to adjust their strategies in worldwide point of view for a specific territory. They
need to roll out improvements in the setup of their clients cares outlets. Telecom industry
takes after indistinguishable office atmosphere setups and introduces comparative service
hardware everywhere throughout the globe to keep up a standard for the most part. However,
as indicated by social adjusting needs of specific territories up to some degree will make
clients feel more great and faithful.
Serkey et al, (2007) alludes that service quality effects on consumer loyalty and client
reliability. There have a critical relationship between unwavering quality of serviceover
fulfillment level of clients. The previous chapter uncovers an expanded level of positive
relationship among service quality, consumer loyalty and execution. Where web managing in
the middle of client and worker is the main center, Innovative advancement greatly affects
the decision of service bundle standard and services promoting systems.
Mohr and Henson (1996) said that it immediately enhances the association as drew in
workers shake an association's main concern by tumbling functional misfortunes and
expanding efficiency with more fulfilled clients. To perform well representatives who are
inspired and settle on better choice and are more master at critical thinking, that additionally
prompts more noteworthy hierarchical profitability. As the firm advances, representatives'
perspective to their firm additionally advances, in this way creating change in real life with

the firm to upsurge. A common relationship between included representatives and placated
clients has been appeared in the late study on workers and clients fulfillment.
Nayab (2013) said that in this study the representatives depicted as being most satisfied with
their work experience even the clients were likewise fulfilled by their services. Analyst has
also characterizes utilizing consumer loyalty information and representative delight
information from a course of action of supermarkets that though worker fulfillment does not
touch client mark of value or quality, it has a huge, optimisticfirmfor watched service and
aggregate deals. While it is offering stock or dispersing social services, anservice association
endeavors forthe purpose of accomplishing the reason for trades in conclusion.
Matin and Kibria (2014) said that in another study scientist characterizes utilizing consumer
loyalty information and worker delight information from a course of action of supermarkets
that while representative fulfillment does not touch client rating of value or quality, this has a
critical, constructive alliance to watched service and aggregate deals. While it is offering
stock or conveying service related to the society, a company that is related to providing
service endeavors to accomplish the reason for their business finally.
Mahmud et al, (2012) said this has created numerous planned upper hands including
expanding of efficiency and improved income creation from new services. Affirmation and
Consumer loyalty notwithstanding standard client, there ought to be the best activity for
correspondence that is trailed by Grameen Telephone. They have an in number system
around the nation. Other than this other administrator, for example, Banglalink, Airtel, Robi
why should attempting give such sort of system to their customer. They suggest that these
fundamentally upgrade consumer loyalty.
Lucas (2009) alludes that it is trusted that the fulfillment level of clients can be upgraded
essentially if the workers of telecom industry show reliable conduct. It might likewise
absolutely impact to be a long haul client for the administrator.

Compassion and consumer loyalty is an idealistic and imperative relationship in the middle of
client and worker. It is proposed in a study that if a hole is left in compassion, clients may
stay unsatisfied with service quality. The vast majority of the clients are definitively affected
by compassion. No one but compassion can give an office to make a long haul association
with a client generally the organization may confront an incredible issues (Afzal et al. 2014).
A researcher observationally analyzed the part of compassion in service quality and its
impact on consumer loyalty. It was built up that those clients who are dealt with determinedly
are all the more regularly guests and inclined to forget any errors that may happen. Giving
client a touch of significance for business it makes an enthusiastic association with client. It
likewise prompts hold and foundation of new client's pool. Through sympathy client
unwaveringness can be won and can assume part in change of service quality, client
steadfastness and consumer loyalty. Additionally, the service circumstance sways with
comprehension and steadfastness on devotion as a moderate comprehension works in the
middle of value and consumer loyalty. In this manner it can change the conduct of client
(Shihab, 2006).
2.8 Funneling of literature review
Huddleston (1999) has given a very popular explanation of how job satisfaction of the
employees in the organization can be proven effective for the increase in service delivery
quality. However, the study does not give any clear explanation of how employee job
satisfaction can be achieved. The study also gave less priority to the performance recognition
strategies as monetary reward is the best motivator according to the author. Similarly, Bruce
(2006) has proven that customer satisfaction may have a tremendous good impact on the
future and profits of the organization. The author suggested improving the quality of product
or services offered to the customers. Unfortunately, it was not clearly mentioned that hoe
employee performance recognition techniques can be used to motivate employees who in turn
will yield improved service quality and customer satisfaction.
Chowdhury (2009) referred that the customer satisfaction is associated with the market value
of a firm and its products. He also claimed that if the perceived benefits of a product or
service exceed the perceived costs of that product or service, the customer is delighted and
satisfied. Here the author also tried to explain how satisfaction may vary from person to

person. But the reason of this difference among different customers' satisfaction remained
Gerson (1993) established an excellent argument on how employees can be motivated. He
claimed that appreciation and performance recognition is similarly important as monetary
reward for an employee. He proved that there is little chance for monetary reward to make an
employee loyal to the company. On the other hand, when employees' performances are
recognized, they started to feel an unseen bond with the organization. Thus they thrive to
improve the overall performance of the organization. But, the theory does not tell the
performance recognition techniques that are suitable for a number of specific situations.
Nyasha (2014) has discussed many aspects of employee performance recognition techniques
in great detail. She showed how each of these techniques can be used in different situations
that yield increase the level of motivation of the employees to work hard toward the main
organization goal which is achieving customer satisfaction. She made a comparison between
cash and non-cash reward to show how non-cash reward better serve the organizational goals.
She showed how managers may play vital role in positively reinforcing good behavior only
by appreciation of the employees' good deeds. This is one of the most famous writings on
employee performance recognition techniques.
Rohshan (2012) has discussed the common practices in the large telecommunication
companies in Bangladesh. He said that, employee performance recognition technique is a
new concept in our country. Before the popularity, managers would consider the monetary
rewards given to the employees to be enough. But as the development of the business
environment in Bangladesh, many telecommunication companies are now adopting the
practice of employee performance recognition techniques very seriously as they are of least
cost but their impact on the motivational level of the employee is huge.
2.9 Contextual variables
There are two main conceptual variables in this study. One is the employee recognition
techniques and the other one is the customer satisfaction. In this study, employee
performance recognition technique is the independent variable and customer satisfaction is
the dependent variable. It is because the level of customer satisfaction achieved by a
telecommunication company in Bangladesh depends on the level of practicing employee
performance recognition techniques by the company.

Figure 1: Conceptual variable (own)
2.10 Conceptual framework
Figure 2: Conceptual Framework (own)
2.11 Conclusion
The researcher has discussed various aspects of literature review that are related to the impact
of employee recognition technique on customer satisfaction in telecommunication industry in
Impact of employee
performance recognition
techniques on
Sector in Bangladesh
improved employee
engagement in providing
Increase in the level of
service offered to the
customers' perceived
benefits exceeds
perceived cost of the
Customer satisfaction

Bangladesh. It has been clear from the discussion that employees play a vital role in
increasing the level of customer satisfaction in telecommunication industry in Bangladesh.
Therefore, it is imperative for all the companies in the industry such as Grameenphone,
Teletalk, Robi, and others to keep their employees motivated through employee performance
recognition techniques for the purpose of achieving competitive advantage in the market by
enlarging the base of satisfied customers. The factors have already been determined that have
the potential to increase customer satisfaction. A conceptual framework has also been drawn
on which the companies in the telecommunication sector must focus.
3.0 Research Methodology
3.1 Introduction
The way of scientific techniques that can support the researcher so that the researcher is
conducted in the right way is known as Research methodology. Methodology is considered to
be the blue print of a research. In this part, the research is going to discuss how the research is
going to be carried out. This part includes research questions, framework for the research,
paradigm of the research, hypothesis, unit of analysis, data collection methods, interpreting
the findings and its methods and reliability and validity can be achieved.
3.2 Research Questions
The researcher has tried to ascertain the methodology of this research for the purpose of
explaining the way the research is going to be carried out. The researcher has also discussed
the research design for discovering employee performance recognition techniques that are
used in the telecommunication sector in Bangladesh and its impact on customer satisfaction.
The research questions that are related to this research have been clearly spoken by the
researcher and they are given below:
How employee performance recognition techniques impacts the service in
telecommunication industry in Bangladesh.
2. How employee performance recognition techniques impacts customer satisfaction in
telecommunication industry in Bangladesh.
3.3 Research methods framework
Through the research framework, elementary concepts of the research methodology can be
explained. To conduct the research the researcher has the responsibility of choosing positive
type of research ideas, logical research method or approach and also the descriptive research

design. The researcher selects both the qualitative and quantitative research methods to
conduct the research properly
(Ferdous, and Rahaman, 2010)
The researcher has also taken some decisions in this report so that accurate results are derived
from the research. The researcher selects not only the primary sources of data but also the
secondary sources of data to conduct the research. The research ethics and reliability that is
necessary for the validity of the research have also been maintained by the researcher. The
research ethics and reliability have been cited during the both primary and secondary data
(Chandok and Gupta, 2014)
3.4 Research onion
Research methodology is as comparable as an onion that is developed by Saunders et al.
According to the theory every step is the reflection of the examination. From external side to
internal side this theory works. Through the research onion theory, elementary research
methodology framework is shown. Research onion is a theory that can be beneficial for the
researcher to rationally perform the research work it can be easily said
(Bruce, 2006)
3.5 Research Paradigm
As a continuing process research paradigm can be termed. Human intellectual concerns are
processed by research paradigm that is basically the truth of intellectuals' past actions. On the
type of information that is related to the research study, research paradigm is focused.
Generally there are three kinds of research paradigm that are used in research practice. The
three kinds of research paradigm are Axiology, Ontology and Epistemology. Almost all the
researchers are motivated to use positivism, pragmatism and interpretevism research
paradigm. In this report, positivism research paradigm has been selected
(Alam and Rubel,
3.5.1 Justification for choosing positivism research paradigm
The nature to use rationality and decision to examine furtive facts has in positivism research
paradigm. Typically research paradigm is concerned with thorough opinion and based on
scientific process. It can be used to support the researcher to disclose the actual truths about
the research that is being studied for this reason. To disclose the truths about the impact of
employee performance recognition techniques on customer satisfaction in telecommunication
sector in Bangladesh, this report will be conducted.
3.6 Research Approach
For the purpose of choosing the way of research, Research approach can be shown as a
technique which can be valuable to the researcher. Generally for research practice, Most of

the researcher uses two kinds of research approach. The research approaches are inductive
research approach and deductive research approach. To get a better understanding of the
research study, deductive research approach can be beneficial. On the other hand inductive
observation is the core of research approach, this is the research approach that is used in a
research in case of there is a lack of data that is necessary for leading the research. I am going
to use deductive research approach for the purpose of this research(Chowdhury, 2009).
3.6.1 Justification of choosing Deductive research approach
On current theory, this kind of research approach is recognized. To use hypothesis, theory,
authorization and observation, this research approach can be proven worthy to the researcher.
New theory has to be framed in case of inductive research approach. Using deductive
research approach also becomes easy for graphically and statistically presentation of the
gathered information. Through this research approach quantitative data can be properly
exemplified. It can be said with assurance that deductive research approach is more
appropriate for the researcher to complete this report compared to inductive research
approach for all the benefits of deductive research approach that have been discussed earlier.
3.7 Research Design
Nayab (2013) said that technique which has the ability to support the researcher by allowing
him to make a research framework is known as research design. Firstly a researcher uses his
knowledge for choosing research design. Then he must examine research aims and research
objectives carefully so that research design does not reverse with them. To use research
practice, there are two types of research design. First one is explanatory research design and
second type is descriptive research design. Descriptive research design will be used for this
3.7.1 Justification of choosing descriptive research design
Usually descriptive research design is used in formal research. In organized research study,
descriptive research is common. To benefit highly dependable and valid information through
inspecting, descriptive research design can help the researcher. There are many features
available in descriptive research. Descriptive research design gives the opportunity to work
with a large number of the sample size for the purpose of collecting primary data that is one
of the most important for this study. The research design does not influence the research
study for refining or modifying the facts exposed from the study in an unconventional

3.8 Research strategy
Serkey et al, (2007) refers that research strategy is the processes that describe how the
researcher moves out the research. In research strategy, some procedures and practices are
available that the researcher uses for leading the research. The researcher has decided to use
non probability sampling methods for taking decision about whom to include in the sample
size in this report. Both the qualitative and the quantitative methods will use for examining
primary data.
3.9 Sampling methods
Solnet (2006) refers that sampling is a method that helps to determine which part of the
population is going to be included in the sample size. Sampling method commands to select
the sample from the population to use in researching process. In sampling methods, there
have two types that are used in research to determine the sample size. The first one is
probability sampling methods and the second is non-probability sampling method. It has been
decided that non-probability sampling will be used in this case. From different parts of
Dhaka,the respondents have been selected, 30 respondents have been selected for completing
the survey for this research. Here non-probability sampling have used because it is impossible
for me to increase the sample size as it takes a lot of time and cashfor conducting survey on
large scale. Dhaka is selected by the researcher as it is the core business area for
telecommunication companies such as Grameenphone, Banglalink, Robi, Airtel etc. in
Bangladesh. I have decided to use non-probability sampling method that means every
customer of these telecommunication companies doesn't have the equal chance of being
included in the sample. There are many types of non-sampling method, now the question is
which one the researcher has used and why. The answer is ­ the researcher has used
convenience sampling method. It is a non-probability method where the sample is selected
from the portion of the population that is easy to reach or access. Because of the time, energy
and money saving the researcher have used this method. Besides this the researcher wants to
use them in other parts of the research.
Using likert scale, questionnaire has been designed. The scale consists of 5 point for the
research (Wang and Lo, 2002). To understand the respondents about how to answer the
questions, it was very hard for the researcher. But the researcher has seen that people tend to
assign fewer marks for indicating poor performance or when they want to upset with
something. They were also explained by me about the neutral point of the likert scale. The
likert scale numbering is as the following-

Strongly Agree = 5
Agree = 4
Neutral = 3
Disagree = 2
Strongly Disagree = 1
To complete this research simple descriptive statistics such as percentage, mean, weighted
mean, standard deviation and Z-test have been used.
3.10 Hypothesis development
Rogers (1998) refers that hypothesis is termed asa guess or planned justification that has been
prepared based on partial proof which is considered as a beginning argument for more
In this investigation, the level of significance is 0.01 which has been decided by the
researcher's subjective knowledge. Hypothesis of this study is given below:
: There is no Impact of employee performance recognition techniques on
telecommunication sector in Bangladesh.
: There is a significant Impact of employee performance recognition techniques on
telecommunication sector in Bangladesh.
3.11 Data collection methods
In this research study, it will use both the primary and secondary data collection techniques to
collect the data. Based on the data from primary data collection and secondary data collection
the report will be prepared. Generally primary data is not found or published from anywhere
(Ethica, 2013). So to get this kind of data, a researcher must be collect reasonable data by
own-self. However there are some sources that can be used as primary data source such as
interview, observation and survey etc (Fisher, 2008).
On the other hand secondary data indicates that kind of data which are not made from the
efforts of the researcher; instead, it has been created as the result of someone else's work and
has been published on articles, journals, newspaper, internet or any other source. Based on
both the primary and the secondary sources of data, this research study will be done. Using a
cautiously designed questionnaire the researcher gathers primary data. For the purpose of
collecting first hand primary data interviewing respondents have also been used. Then the

researcher accumulates secondary data from different sources such as books, journals and
blogs again (George, and Weimerskirch, 1994).
3.12 Research Methods
Hayes, (2008) refers that through the research methods primary data is examined. It has been
said previously that primary data is collected from primary data sources. Everyone knows
that there are fundamentally two kinds of research methods. The methods are qualitative
research method and the quantitative research methods. The research will be conducted using
both the quantitative and the qualitative methods for analyzing the data collected from
different data sources in this report. Using qualitative methods examining primary data has
been done. From the survey process will be done with the help of quantities methods, the
analysis of the primary data collected.
3.12.1 Justification of choosing qualitative and quantitative research methods
It has been mentioned previously that the report will be done with the help of both the
qualitative and the quantitative methods, in this research study. Theresearcher has decided to
use qualitative research methods already. It is because for the purpose of collecting primary
data, there are 30 respondents selected. From those respondents, quantities methods have also
been used as the researcher has to analyze the data collected.
3.13Data Analysis
Bhutto et al, (2012) refers that it must be entered into SPSS to analyze the data and the data
should from the closed questions in the questionnaires coded. Here, we use cross tabulations
and descriptive statistic to analyze the data as these provide laborious and simple way of
arranging and presentation of data results.
ANOVA test, regression test, Pearson's correlation test will be done for this research. 20%
plus of the expected regularities are smaller than five when the tests are run Chi square
analysis is considered inappropriate. The data which are collected from the close ended
questions will be input in the excel sheet and it will be analyzed physically using content
analysis from main frame.
Stanimirov and Zhechev (2005.) said that in the analysis of data Z- value statistic will also be
used. The interviews are also analyzed manually using an informal approach. The interviews
are initially broken down into broad categories adopting an inductive approach and organized
into themes then using the text of the voice of the interviewees. Outcome of the literature
review is the basis for these themes. The identification of patterns and emergence of themes

in the data are supported by this process. Generally based these text themes are compared and
contrasted and further refinement of these themes occurred until key themes are identified
that ensured meaning is made of the text. In research design the most suitable choice is that in
which a complementary role is played by the qualitative text.
3.14 Research Instrument
Wang and Lo (2002) refer that with the help of research instruments inspecting research
variables is done. To pick the right kind of tool it is important for researcher so that the
research is led as the researcher planned. The researcher decided to use online survey
questionnaire and in-depth interviews to serve the purpose of this research.
3.14.1 Online survey questionnaire
ChungKiHan (2011) refer that online survey questionnaire can be defined as a structural
organize question that is use to data collection. Typically it is close ended in nature. The
researcher developed the questionnaire for his research. It consists of two important parts.
These parts are demographic description and main part of the questionnaire. Using LIKERT
scale (Including as Strongly agree = 5, Agree = 4, Neutral = 3, Disagree = 2 and Strongly
disagree = 1), the questionnaire has been developed. The ordinal scale has been used for the
purpose of calculating the responses of respondents. To turning those responses into
frequencies, the scale has also helped. With the help of e-mailing the distribution process of
online survey questionnaire has been done.
In-depth Interviews
Researcher use second instrument in semi-structured and open ended interviews with
employees and experts. To add exposed replies is the main aim of respondents. The aim of
achieving benefit that the qualitative facets are also achieved which are linked to research
variables. For the purpose of completing the interview Skype has been used with the
employees. Using a questionnaire, interviews were done for the customers and 5 questions
for the employees. For the purpose of interviewing experts `Snow-ball' technique has been
used(Suchi et al, 2012).
3.14.3 Justification of research instrument
The researcher selects the online survey questionnaire and interviews via Skype because the
maximum of the respondents were not interested to talk while the office hour. Hence, the
interviewer could interview so easily. The interviewer did not go to their home physically as
they are tired after the daylong labor. Besides, there is a chance of annoyance to the
employees who are included in the sample.

3.14.4 Pilot Study
Lee (2014) refers that test that can be used for the purpose of confirming the understand
ability of the survey and interview questionnaire to the respondents is known as pilot test.
Therefore to conduct a pilot survey randomly five employees were selected. With some
industry experts of IT field the researcher has also consulted.
3.14.5 Data Analysis and Statistical Tool
According to the book written by Johnson and Gustafsson (2000) Z-test has been used as the
sample size was 30 (both for employees and customers). For inspecting the relationship
between dependent and independent variable Z-test is an effective tool. For calculating
responses of the respondents the researcher has decided to take the help of the ordinal scale.
Microsoft word and Excel10 has also used by the researcher for the purpose of conducting
quantitative analysis. To complete the findings mean, variance, standard deviation and other
statistics have been used in this research.
3.15 Methodological Review
Heldenbrand, and Simms (2012) said that when the research has been conducted effective
conclusion can be drawn reliably. To defense the respondents from any kind of bias or
manipulation the researcher has put a lot of effort. The researcher has taken the help of
Google Docs to avoid manipulation of data. When necessary it has enable to update the data
automatically without any manipulation. To use right kind of statistical data, pilot survey and
demographic section in survey questionnaire the researcher also make a good determination
so that the reliability of the research remains undisputed.
3.16 Research Ethic
Gerson (1993) refers that keeping all of the code of conduct this research report has been
prepared that is necessary to follow during leading the research. The law which is used for
any research is knows as Ethics. To make sure that no question arises in future, all the
research codes have also been maintained. With a great deal of care the questionnaire has
been prepared so that it does not harm any person's emotion in any way. Considerable
information that was collected from the different employees of telecommunication companies
such as Grameenphone, Banglalink, Robi, Airtel etc. for leading the research work properly
will not be published in this report as promised.

3.17 Research Limitations
A number of accessibility problems have been stimulated during the preparation of this
report. As many customers were unwilling to respond, many were busy with their work, it
was very much hard to collect the necessary information from those respondents. It was
found that many respondents were reluctant to talk about many topics though the
questionnaire was designed with care, which was very important for the research study.
3.18 How validity and reliability is achieved
Reliability can be termed to as an extent to which an evaluation instrument yields steady and
reliable outcomes. In this research, the researcher has decided to use multiple regression,
correlation and z value statistic. Cronbach's Alpha test will also be done to ensure that the
core integrity of the data is intact (Dong and Sangyup, 2009). If the results of the tests are
consistent to each other, it will be considered that the reliability has been ensured in this
research and the test results are reliable (Byerly, 2012).
For the purpose of ensuring validity of the research, the researcher has taken some steps. At
first, the researcher has tried tonsure that the aims and purposes of the study are unmistakably
explained. The researcher has also made sure that there is a consistency between the
measures of the evaluation and the aims and purposes(Cicerone, 2009).
3.19 Conclusion
Using step by step process the researcher has led the research. Using positivism research
attitude, deductive research approach and descriptive research design, the research has been
done. From different data sources with the help of non- probability sampling methods, data
has been collected. For this report, primary and secondary data collection methods have been
used. By quantitative methods, the analysis has been done. Therefore, it has been made sure
that almost all the research codes and research ethics has been obeyed in the completion of
this research.

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Impact of employee performance recognition techniques on customer satisfaction in the telecommunication sector of Bangladesh
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Mohsin Akm (Author), 2015, Impact of employee performance recognition techniques on customer satisfaction in the telecommunication sector of Bangladesh, Munich, GRIN Verlag,


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