Transformational Leadership and Teacher Job Satisfaction. A Critical Investigation of Public Primary Schools in Belgut Sub-County, Kenya

Essay, 2017

19 Pages, Grade: 4




Background to the Study

Statement of the Problem

Purpose of the Study

Research Questions

Research Hypothesis

Justification of the Study

Significance of the Study

Theoretical Framework

Conceptual Framework

Head teachers’ Inspirational Motivational Strategies and its Effect on Teachers’ Job Satisfaction in Belgut Sub County Public Primary Schools

Head teachers’ Idealised Influence on Teachers’ Job Satisfaction in Belgut Sub County Public Primary Schools

Teachers’ opinion on Application of Idealized Influence by Head teachers in Public Primary Schools

Frequency to which head teachers gave teachers room to share their opinion and views


Inspirational Motivational Strategies and its Effect on Teachers’ Job Satisfaction in Belgut Sub County Public Primary Schools

Head teachers’ Idealized Influence on Teachers’ Job Satisfaction in Belgut Sub County Public Primary Schools




The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of transformational leadership by head teachers in Belgut Sub County and its relationship to teacher job satisfaction. This study was conceived after the realization that there had been increased cases of teacher attrition (transfers and resignation) in the past three years. For example, teachers’ transfers had been increasing by 5.2 percent annually while teachers resigning from their jobs had been on a steady increase. The objectives of the study were to establish the extent to which head teachers apply inspirational motivational approaches and idealized influence, on teachers’ job satisfaction in Belgut Sub County primary schools. The theoretical framework for this study was based on transformational leadership theory developed by Burns (1978) and elaborated by Bass (1985). The study adopted an ex post facto and descriptive survey research designs. The study was conducted in Belgut Sub County, Belgut County. The target population for the study comprised of 52 head teachers and 667 teachers employed by TSC. The sample size studied comprised of 16 head teachers who were purposively selected and 200 teachers who were selected using stratified and simple random sampling methods. The study used questionnaires to collect data. The research instruments were tested for validity and reliability prior to being used in the field. The data collected from the field was analyzed using mixed method approaches. Statistical Package for Social Sciences aided in data entry, coding and analysis of quantitative data from questionnaires. In presenting analysed quantitative data, descriptive statistics indicating frequency, percentages, means, and standard deviations were executed to analyze the data quantitatively while inferential statistics: multiple regression analysis and T-test correlation were used to check on the relationship between various transformational leadership strategies and teachers job satisfaction. For qualitative data, themes and sub-themes were used to classify data from interviews. Tables, graphs and pie charts were used for presentation of the analyzed data. The results of the study showed that 58.3% of teachers’ job satisfaction was explained by transformational leadership style exhibited by head teachers in public primary schools in Belgut Sub County. Correlation results on the independent variables showed that there was significant correlation (p<0.01) between; inspirational motivation (r=0.627), and idealized influence (r=0.643) and job satisfaction of teachers. The study recommends that head teachers should be role models, they need to be ensuring effective communication between them and teachers, they need to provide and articulate clear vision to teachers and support continuous professional development programmes for teachers in their schools. The study is significant to head teachers, teachers, school board of management, and Ministry of Education and future researchers.

Background to the Study

Leadership has roots in the beginning of civilization [1]. [11] Observed that former Egyptian rulers, Greek heroes, and biblical patriarchs all had one thing in common which was leadership. The organizational focus of the leader has evolved over this same period. Early organizations with authoritarian leaders who believed employees were intrinsically lazy transitioned into way to make work environments more conducive to increased productivity rates [11]. Today, organizations are transforming into places where people are empowered, encouraged, and supported in their personal and professional growth throughout their careers [12]. This is because leaders are facing greater challenges than ever before due to the increased environmental complexity and the changing nature of the organization [9].

[12] Suggested that traditional power, derived from a leader’s position in a bureaucratic, hierarchical structure, is becoming obsolete and that effective leader’s work from the “inside out” to transform their organization and workers. [11] indicated that the job of the transformational leaders was not to make every decision within the organization, but to ensure that collaborative decision-making occurs. Transformational leadership is the kind of leadership required to lead fundamental reform movements and that its absence in our school system more than any factor is the reason behind the slow pace of school reform [10].

[11] wrote that transformational leadership is very consistent with the trends in educational reform, such as teacher empowerment, distributed leadership and organizational learning. Stewart added that this model values the organizational capacity to transform itself through a shared vision, a shared commitment to school change and to support changes in learning. Transformational leadership has been proposed as the means by which large scale educational reform can be implemented at all levels within a school organization [8].

[8] further noted that in this changing and complex era of school reform, transformational leadership has the potential for building commitment, fostering growth in the leadership capacities of teachers, principals and superintendants and creating the conditions for school success. Transformational leadership motivates individuals to work together to change organizations to create sustainable productivity [8]. Transformational leaders look at where the organization should be heading and determine how to handle internal and external change and employee needs to reach that goal.

Leadership theories and typologies have emerged in the field of education, as well as related fields, which attempt to explicate the leadership process. In the field of leadership studies, transformational leadership has been the theory of choice for the past several decades. The theory originated with [6], was expanded by [2], and has been further refined by [5]. As conceived by [6], the transformational leader asks followers to transcend their own self-interests for the good of the group, organization, or society; to consider their long-term needs to develop themselves, as opposed to their immediate needs; and to become more aware of what is really important. Through this interaction, followers are converted into leaders. [3] concluded that transformational leadership is closer to the ne plus ultra that people have in mind when they describe their ideal leader and is more likely to provide a role model with whom subordinates want to identify with.

Inspirational Motivation- refers to the head teachers’ ability to motivate and inspire stakeholders in primary school by communicating high expectations and encouraging team spirit amongst them.

Idealized Influence- refers to head teachers’ demonstration of high moral standards, setting of achievable goals and meeting the needs of others before meeting personal needs in primary schools.

Job Satisfaction - refers to teachers’ pleasurable response to conditions surrounding the school environment. These include; recognition, professional development, autonomy, involvement in decision-making and co-worker relationship

Transformational Leadership -refers to leadership style that builds the leadership capacity of teachers and a unified common interest between the head teacher and teachers by influencing their behaviours, feelings and thoughts to impart personal change in them. This leadership is characterised by the behavioural attributes of charisma, intellectual stimulation and individualized consideration.

Statement of the Problem

Statistics from [13] in Belgut Sub County show that in the past three years (2011-2013) public primary schools had experienced teacher attrition at an alarming rate. For example, 15 teachers left the teaching profession due to death, disciplinary action or promotion to other sectors in the year 2011. The number rose to 19 in the year 2012, while in 2013 a total of 24 teachers left primary school teaching altogether. Moreover, statistics further revealed that teachers transfer rate within the district and outside had increased marginally over the past five years with 42 teachers seeking transfers to schools within the district, while 13 sought transfers outside the district in 2013 [13]. The ideal state according to the Education Policy is that a teacher should serve in a station for five consecutive years before seeking for a transfer, yet among the cases cited above; many of the teachers sought transfers as early as after serving for one year. This perhaps is because head teachers are not applying the right kind of leadership on the teachers.

Performance of schools in the Kenya Certificate of Primary Education (KCPE) examinations had also been low with some schools average performance being below 200 marks for the past three years [13]. From the background information it is clear that leadership in schools has a significant influence on teachers’ job satisfaction, commitment and consequently their performance of which will be reflected in learners’ good performance in their KCPE examinations. It has not been ascertained well whether the increased cases of teachers’ attrition: resignation and transfers, could be associated with whether head teachers apply transformational leadership approaches in boosting teacher job satisfaction in Belgut Sub County. There are minimal research findings in the area that have focused on transformational leadership. This study determined the extent to which transformational leadership strategies; inspirational motivation and idealized influence determine job satisfaction among teachers in schools.

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study was to establish the influence of transformational leadership style on teacher job satisfaction in public primary schools in Belgut Sub County.

Objectives of the study

The objectives of the study were;

1. To determine the influence of head teachers’ inspirational motivational strategies and its effect on teachers’ job satisfaction in Belgut sub county primary schools.

2. To assess head teachers’ idealized influence on teachers’ job satisfaction in Belgut Sub County primary schools.

Research Questions

The following were the study research questions;

1. What is the influence of the head teachers’ inspirational motivational strategies on teachers’ job satisfaction in Belgut Sub County primary schools?

2. How does head teachers’ idealised influence affect teachers’ job satisfaction in Belgut Sub County primary schools?

Research Hypothesis

The study had the following null hypotheses:

H01 There is no significant relationship between inspirational motivation provided by head teachers and teachers’ job satisfaction

H02 There is no significant relationship between head teachers idealised influence and teachers’ job satisfaction

Justification of the Study

The rational for conducting this study was based on the principle that leadership is a fundamental aspect of management because it has an important bearing on several activities in an institution that can lead to attainment of educational outcomes. It is for this reason that scholars and practitioners proposed effective leadership in organisations (learning institutions included) in order to propel the wheel of change in ensuring success {[4]; [12]; [14]}. With the changing world, there has been demand that leaders should be accountable for their organisations existence and this cannot be exempted to schools. Therefore studying transformational leadership behaviours of head teachers in primary schools towards promoting teachers job satisfaction represent the most effective leadership style and principle contributor to the realisation of satisfaction among teachers in primary schools.

Significance of the Study

It is expected that the findings of the study might be significant to head teachers, teachers, Ministry of Education officials, the TSC, and future researchers. At first, results of this study may contribute towards better training of head teachers in leadership skills and therefore enhance their leadership strategies. The head teachers will also see the relevance of attending to individual needs of teachers, developing the teachers’ talents and allocating responsibilities according to their individual differences. Secondly, the policy makers in the Ministry of Education, the Directorate of Quality Assurance and Standards and Kenya Institute of Curriculum Development (KICD) will use the relevance of transformational leadership strategy to improve job satisfaction of employees and performance at large. Lastly, this study will generate a lot of literature for future and ongoing studies in this area.


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Transformational Leadership and Teacher Job Satisfaction. A Critical Investigation of Public Primary Schools in Belgut Sub-County, Kenya
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transformational, leadership, teacher, satisfaction, critical, investigation, public, primary, schools, belgut, sub-county, kenya
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Dr. Joshua Gichaba Manduku (Author)Ernest Kirui (Author)Augustine Cheruiyot (Author), 2017, Transformational Leadership and Teacher Job Satisfaction. A Critical Investigation of Public Primary Schools in Belgut Sub-County, Kenya, Munich, GRIN Verlag,


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