Proximate Analysis of Three Common Kola Varieties In Nigeria

Research Paper (postgraduate), 2017
9 Pages, Grade: 3.0



1. Introduction

2. Methodology
2.1 Collection of Samples
2.2 Sample Treatment
2.3 Digestion of Sample
2.4 Determination of Percentage Moisture
2.5 Determination of Percentage Crude Protein
2.6 Extraction of Caffeine

3. Results

4. Discussion

5. Conclusion



Three (3) varieties of Kola, Cola acuminata, Cola nitida and Garcinia kola which are tropical African crops were obtained from Ifon-Osun, Osun State, Nigeria. This was with a view to carrying out the proximate analysis of the seeds. The seeds were collected, cured by the traditional method of wrapping in fresh banana leaves to reduce the amount of moisture lost and thereafter kept for two weeks in the laboratory before used. Proximate analysis of the species was carried out using the methods of Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) 1990 with little modification. The results obtained showed that Cola nitida had 62.83 % moisture, 2.83 % ash, 7.72 % crude protein and 2.42 % caffeine. Cola acuminata had 54.33 % moisture, 2.89 % ash, 8.68 % crude protein and 2.65 % caffeine, while, Garcinia kola had 49.16 % moisture, 2.9%ash, 8.67 % crude protein and 2.96 % caffeine.

Key words : Caffein, Cola, Diarrhea, Pharmacological and proximate analysis

1. Introduction

Plants serve as an indispensable constituent of human diet, supplying the body with mineral salts, vitamins and certain hormone precursors, in addition to protein and energy (Ibrahim and Fagbohun 2012). Thus, Kola nuts (Cola spp) and Bitter kola (Garcinia kola) which are traditional plants are often eaten as snacks especially among the elderly in Nigeria (Arogba, 1999).

Cola, a tropical African plant genus in the family Sterculiacea, comprises about one hundred and twenty five species. The genus Cola comprises trees and shrubs species (Adeyeye and Ayejuyo, 2009). Cola species are evergreen, mostly small or moderately sized trees, although, a few grow to 25 metres tall. A number of species are widely cultivated in tropical countries, especially in Africa. The leaves of Cola species are simple, entire and narrowed or rounded toward the base. The arrangement of the leaves on the stem is alternate in some species and reticulate in whorls of 3 or 4 in others. Cola acuminata and Cola nitida are the most commonly used species in the genus, with the latter having the greatest economic importance (Lovejoy, 1980). The flowers of both Cola nitida and Cola acuminata have white or coloured perianth. Typically, the trees bear two types of flowers; male, with anthers fused into a single column or a hermaphrodite with one or two rings of anthers at the base of a superior ovary. After fertilization, the ovary divides forming separate fruiting carpels or follicles, usually five to ten in number (Adesuyi et al., 2012). Fruits are sessile, placed at the end of a short peduncle, from which they radiate in star shaped fashion. As the fruits increase in weight, the stem hangs vertically and the follicles are borne horizontally or ascending in recurred fashion containing one to ten seeds. The nuts of a small number of Cola species, including Cola nitida and Cola acuminata, are good to eat, though, most species produce seeds that are hard inedible. Most of the seeds consist of cotyledons and the seeds readily split into two halves in Cola nitida whilst in Cola acuminata, the cotyledon sometimes splits into as many as six (Muhammed and Fatima, 2014). Kola nut is chewed in many West African cultures, either individually or in group settings and it is often used ceremonially (Arogba, 1999).

Garcinia kola belonging to the family Clusiaceae, is known in commerce as bitter kola. On chewing, Garcinia kola seed has a bitter astringent and resinous taste, somewhat resembling that of raw coffee, followed by a slight sweetness. Bitter kola is a highly valued ingredient in African ethno medicine because of its varied and numerous uses which are social and medicinal. Medicinal plants such as G. kola are believed to be an important source of new chemical substances with potential therapeutic benefits (Adeyeye and Ayejuyo, 2009). Garcinia kola is a dicotyledonous plant found in moist rain forests and swamps and grows as a medium sized tree up to a height of about 12 m high. It is cultivated through the seedlings or with cuttings. It grows more easily using the cuttings.

Traditionally, these nuts are chewed to stimulate the flow of saliva, but are now widely consumed as snacks in West and Central Africa. However, unlike other kola-nuts, bitter kola is believed to clean digestive system without side effect such as abdominal problem, even when a lot of the nuts are eaten. In folk medicine, bitter kola is dried, ground and mixed with honey to make traditional cough syrup (Eleyinmi et al., 2006).

The plant is also used as a source of alkaloids in pharmaceutical industries (Opeke, 1992). They are also used in the preparation of cola drinks such as Coca-kola, which are refreshing or stimulating substitutes for tea or coffee. Prior to the advent of stronger drugs, kola nut was utilized to treat various maladies and medical condition, including aphrodisiac, digestion, headache treatment, increase appetite, increase energy and to relieve diarrhea (Ogutuga 1975). Extracts of kola nuts bark have also been tested on various pathogenic bacteria such as: Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli and showed inhibitory activity against these organisms (Ebana et al., 1991).

Plants generally are a primary source of medicines, fibre, food, shelters and other items in everyday use by humans with roots, stems, leaves, flowers, fruits and seeds providing food for humans (Ibrahim and Fagbohun 2012). Therefore, the present investigation was carried out with a view to determining the proximate analysis of Cola acuminata Schott & Endl., Cola nitida Schott & Endl., and Garcinia kola Heckel collected from Ifon-Osun, Osun State, Nigeria.

2. Methodology

2.1 Collection of Samples

Freshly collected kola nuts which include Cola acuminata, Cola nitida and Garcinia k ola seeds were obtained from Ifon-Osun, Osun State, Nigeria. Cured by the traditional method of wrapping in fresh banana leaves to reduce the amount of moisture and thereafter kept for two weeks at room temperature in the laboratory before used.

2.2 Sample Treatment

The three varieties of the kola nuts were separately splitted-open, washed using distilled water and then kept in a capped container for further analysis.

2.3 Digestion of Sample

About 2 g of the pre-treated sample was weighed and heated in a Muffle furnace for 8 hours at a temperature of 550 oC, then, 1 g weighed out ashed sample was digested with 20 ml of perchloric acid, nitric acid, sulphuric acid and hydrochloric acid respectively. The digested samples were stored in a 100 ml volumetric flask prior to analysis. The same procedure was used for the other kola nut species.

2.4 Determination of Percentage Moisture

Moisture content was determined by the method of AOAC (1990). The moisture content was calculated as the loss in weight of the dried sample in an oven until a constant weight was obtained and was cooled in a desiccator.

The percentage (%) moisture content by weight was calculated using formula;

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2.5 Determination of Percentage Crude Protein

The percentage crude proteins of the samples were determined by micro Kjedahl using the method of AOAC (1990). The total nitrogen estimated by the Kjedahl method in a volumetric method is given by the formula below;

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Proximate Analysis of Three Common Kola Varieties In Nigeria
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Caffein, Cola, Diarrhea, Pharmacological, proximate analysis
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Adekunle Jelili Olaoye (Author)Isa M. O. (Author)Fakorede O. K. (Author)Adedokun A. K. (Author)Adeosun N. O. (Author), 2017, Proximate Analysis of Three Common Kola Varieties In Nigeria, Munich, GRIN Verlag,


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