Composite Flour Technology. A Review


Research Paper (postgraduate), 2004

46 Pages, Grade: 3.85


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Chapter-I INTRODUCTION

Composite Flours containing wheat and legumes have proven practical uses and are being utilized in many parts of the world to improve the nutritional and functional properties of flour. Basically, composite flour technology refers to the process of mixing wheat flour with cereals or legumes to make use of local raw materials to produce high quality food products in an economical way. In many cases, this implies the partial substitution of wheat flour in a staple diet with other cereals or flour derived from legumes as a mean of diversifying and upgrading the local agricultural food products (UNECA, 1985).For economic and social reasons, the Indian sub-continent heavily depends on pulses as sources of proteins, minerals and vitamins in the daily diets of the people. Chickpea, pigeon pea, mung bean, urd bean, lentil and field pea are the pulse crops of significant dietary and economic importance in the region (Singh, 1999). In addition to nutritionally important, these are also being recognized as having therapeutic and medicinal properties Legumes are second to cereals as important sources of dietary fibers. Some legumes provide a significant quantity of dietary fiber when consumed as whole grains and thus proved as hypocholesterolemic (Singh et a/., 1983). Moreover, augment in fiber content of the diet results in easiest bowel movement, reduction in serum and liver cholesterol level and bene6cial effects to the diabetics (Murthy and Urs1985; Toma and Curtis, 1986). The studies have indicated that dietary fiber may protect against cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and obesity (Spilter, 2001).The number of hypercholesterolemic and hyperglycemic people is increasing rapidly in Pakistan; the foremost reasons are high blood cholesterol and glucose level in the body. Edible fibers have gained its importance in lowering the blood glucose and cholesterol. In order to improve the nutrition and health of the people especially diabetic and heart patients, it is imperative to mix wheat flour with suitable edible materials containing dietary fiber which lower the serum cholesterol and glycemic index. Soluble fibers have been shown to reduce the postprandial glycaemia in normal and diabetic humans. They also reduce the low density lipoproteins (LDL) cholesterol due to increased fecal loss while high density lipoproteins (HDL) cholesterol levels were unchanged (Marcin, 1984). A study conducted on Wistar rats indicated that guar gum diets signi6cantly lower the levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, reduced feed intake and body weight gain.Moreover guar gum caused a 10% increase in the small intestinal length. The results suggested that guar gum could potentially be effective to control cholesterol and obesity (Frias and Sgarbieri, 1999). Owing to the enormous functions of guar gum. it has been observed that the U.S imports more than 96 million Ib of guar gum from India and Pakistan annually (Pszczola, 2003).Dietary fiber adds no calories to the diet. Water-soluble dietary fiber acts like a sponge and absorbs water in the intestine, mixes the food into gel and thereby slows down the rate of digestion and absorption. Cholesterol lowering effects are most often associated with gelling, mucilaginous, viscous fibers such as guar gum and pectin as well as legumes. Likewise glycemic index of pulses and legumes have generally ranged from 20 to 50% of that of white bread (Pomeranz, 1988). I g of soluble Dietary fiber can lower total cholesterol by about 0.045mmof/L (Brown et a/., 1999). There was a 29% less risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) for each additional l0g of cereal fiber eaten daily. The only cardiovascular risk factor that has been shown to be modifiable by soluble dietary fiber is the level of serum cholesterol (Rimm et a/., 1996).It is generally accepted that a diet high in fiber, particularly soluble fiber, is useful in the management of weight loss, plasma glucose and cholesterol concentration in individuals. Among the cereals, wheat holds a unique position due to its ability to form dough and is being used for the preparation of several products. In Pakistan, 80% of the wheat flour produced is utilized in the form of unleavened flat bread locally known as “Chapati` and its culinary variations while the rest 20% is used for bakery products. The wheat for making quality Chapati should have lofty kernel weight, plump grains, fight colored bran and a protein content of 10.5 to 11% (Kent and Evers, 1994). More than 60% of the total daily requirement of protein and calories of Pakistani people are met through wheat (Bun et aI., 1997). Since majority of the Pakistani population belongs to the low income group their diet comprises primarily of chapati with less of other nutrient stuff. When a staple food that is consumed regularly by the masses is used as a vehicle, high population coverage can easily be achieved (Albedo and Jaime,1998). Therefore, chapaties prepared by blending wheat flour with lentil chickpea and guar gum can be beneficial for the normal individuals as well as hypercholesterolemic and hyperglycemic patients.. Cholesterol is an animal sterol best known for its association with atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. High level of LDL cholesterol deposits on the interior of blood vessels resulting hardened arteries, narrowing of the blood vessels and coronary heart disease. High levels of HDL cholesterol have been shown to reduce some of the harmful effects of LDL cholesterol HDL picks up and transports cholesterol in the blood back to the liver, which leads to its elimination from the body. HDL can help to keep LDL cholesterol from building up in the walls of the arteries (Awan, 1993).Open studies in hypercholesterolemia with guar gum have shown 10% to 15% reductions in serum total cholesterol and 10% to 20% in serum concentration of low density lipoprotein cholesterol after short term treatment.Intake of 159 guar gum daily considerably reduces serum concentrations of total and LDL cholesterol without attenuation over two years of treatment (Salenius etaI., 1995). The effect of guar gum in capsule form significantly lowered serum total cholesterol 16.6% and LDL cholesterol 25.6% (Khan et aI., 1g81). In another study, 44% reduction in LDL cholesterol and 22% decrease in triglycerides were observed in guinea pigs by feeding soluble fiber diet containing 2.59 /l0g of guar gum, 5g /100g of psyllium and 5g/ l00g of pectin diet (Roy et aI., 2000).HDL cholesterol was found to be non-significant by feeding 2..l0g/day soluble fiber (Brown et aI., 1999). In a similar manner, 24.56% reduction in serum glucose by incorporating guar in bread was reported by Jenkins et aI 1977).Chickpea cakes prepared by replacing 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of wheat flour did not alter the levels of serum proteins, globulins or albumins but had a lowering effect on the serum glucose and cholesterol levels of rats (Lasztity and Sharobeem, 1992). In another study, 82.1% reduction in postprandial plasma glucose level in human has been observed by adding chickpea flour in their diet (Dilawari et aI., 1981). On the basis of research data, several major diabetes associations from the United States, England and Canada have suggested that definite benefits can be obtained by increasing the consumption of high fiber foods even though this encompasses both soluble and insoluble fiber, it does indicate the positive effect of high fiber diets on glycemic response (HWC, 1985).Dietary fiber certainly has some potential in the management of weight loss. This effect is derived from the potential influence of fiber on several aspects of food intake and nutrient availability (Vahouny, 1982). The effects on weight loss are often deduced from effects on satiety, decreased caloric intake and increased fecal excretion of energy in the form of fat and nitrogen (Leeds, 1985;Vahouny, 1985; Wisker et a/. 1985). It is further concluded that gel forming fibers such as guar gum and pectin are more effective in promoting weight reduction than non-gel forming fibers like wheat bran (Krothiewski and Smith, 1985).In Pakistan, to control obesity, cholesterol and diabetes, little efforts are being carried out through diet diversification programs. It is the dire need to increase dietary fiber in the diet of vulnerable group by blending high dietary fiber commodities in the staple diet to reduce the threat of cholesterol and glycemic indices. For this purpose, research trials were conducted on male Sprague Dawley rats to find out the impact of composite flour chapaties containing different levels of lentil, chickpea and guar gum on their serum profile to attain the conclusions Accordingly the present project was planned with the following objectives:

The prospects of blending wheat flour with lentil, chickpea and guar gum in different combinations.

1. To assess the chemical and rheological properties of composite flours.
2. To study the effect of selected treatments of composite flour on feed intake ,water intake and gain in body weight of Sprague Dawley rats.
3. To establish the offed of selected treatments on serum profile with special emphasis on cholesterol and glucose through efficacy studies in rats.
4. Develop a model through canonical correlation using stepwise regression to determine the contribution of different parameters towards dependent variables i.e. total chapati score, cholesterol and glucose.
5. Evaluate sensoric attributes of chapaties prepared from different blends.

ABSTRACT

Composite flour samples were tested for chapati making by blending commercial wheat flour (atta) with legumes like lentil, chickpea & guar gum in diverse magnitude to explore their hypocholesterolemic and hypoglycemic worth. Mean squares for proximate analysis of composite flours showed momentous differences in moisture, protein and fat while fiber, ash and NFE differed non significantly due to two month storage period. Means for acidity, peroxide value & phytic acid varied from 0.193 to O.320%, 0.537 to 0.999 mq/Kg and 0.877 to0.597%, respectively. The amount of dietary fiber differed consistently in composite flours and increases with the progressive increase in these legumes especially guar gum. The total chapati scores were found to be highest 45.27 in Tl0 (guar gum 3%) followed by 42.87 & 4027 for Ts (guar gum 2%) and T1(commercial wheat flour), respectively. It was also observed that T14 (chickpea + guar gum 1%) acquired 39.87 scores showing non-significant differences with control. It is noteworthy to point out that guar gum gave whiter look and puffiness to the end product. Significant boost in dietary fiber was observed in the resultant chapaties due to me adding up of legumes. Maximum dietary fiber 8.16% was observed in chapaties prepared from Tl0 followed by 7.48% in Ts. Moreover T14 a\so exhibited a dietary fiber content of 7.28% with non- significant differences with T16. Percent increase in dietary fiber was 35.32% in Tl0 followed by 24.05% in Ts and 20.73% in T14 as compared to control. Three best composite f\our samples Tl0, T5 and T14 along with Tl were chosen for efficacy studies in male 5prague Dawley rats. Feed intake and gain in body weight showed a declining tendency by addition of guar gum. There Is a progressive mounting trend in water consumption by increasing guar gum in the diet. It is concluded from the current exploration that guar gum 3% followed by guar gum 2% by amalgamation in chapati is supportive for weight loss program.It was further observed that Tm showed a significant decline (17.19%) in serum cholesterol followed by T14 (13,23%) and Ts (12.33%) as contrast to control. It is advisable that adding up of guar gum 3% followed by chickpea 5%+ guar gum 1% and guar gum 2% in the chapaties are helpful to reduce the blood cholesterol level. Drop in LDL and triglycerides were significant while non- significant differences were observed for HDL level. Percent diminish of serum glucose in different groups of rats with reference to control explicated that T14 showed utmost (14.57%) followed by Tl0 and T5 i.e. 11.84% and 9.80% reduction in glucose, respectively. It was notable that addition of chickpea 5% + guar gum 1% followed by guar gum 3% and guar gum 2% in the chapaties are helpful to reduce the blood glycemic index. It is concluded that mere is 12-17% reduction in cholesterol, and 10-14% decline in glucose by applying the selected treatments.Canonical analysis also revealed existence of high correlation between dependent and independent variables. It is suggested that ingestion of 5chapaties weighing l00g each per day prepared from selected composlte flours provides an additional 5-8g of dietary fiber that would be supportive for hypercholesterolemic and hyperglycemic individuals.

Chapter-II REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Studies on the composite flours containing wheat and legumes have been carried out in various parts of the globe to explore their therapeutic and medicinal role. Legumes are not only important to improve the nutritional status of the diet but also for the preparation of fiber enriched products. In addition to their indispensable role in lowering serum cholesterol and glucose levels, are also thought to be helpful in weight loss programs. Guar gum, lentil and chickpea are important in the staple diet considering the above mentioned purposes. The literature available pertaining to different aspects of the present study has been reviewed under the following headings.

2.1. Importance of Composite Flours
2.2. Chemical and Microbial Characteristics of Flours
2.3. Dietary Fiber
2.4. Dough Rheological Properties
2.5,Chapati Baking Quality
2.6. Physical Parameters
2.7. Serum Bio-Chemical Profile
2.8. Multivariate Analysis

2.1. Importance of Composite Flours

Cereal grains and legumes play an important role in supplying the nutrients, as well as over 70% of the daily energy requirements (Edwards et a/.,1971). Initially the composite flour technology refers to the process of mixing wheat flour with cereals and legumes to make use of local raw material to produce high quality food products in an economical way.The functional and health benefits of guar gum are well documented in a wide range of studies. Consumption of composite flour bread prepared with 5% guar gum and 5% wheat bran decreased the level of postprandial blood glucose when compared to the level of fasting blood glucose. The effect of guar gum on reduction in postprandial glycaemia was due to delayed passage of guar gum containing meal through the stomach and small intestine, also might be due to the viscous nature of the meal resisting the propulsive and mixing effects of the gastrointestinal contractions, thereby reducing access of the glucose to the absorptive epithelium. This could contribute to the observed reduction in postprandial glycaemia as stated in previous studies after incorporating guar gum into a meal (Brown et al., 1988; Uro and Azrag, 2001).Legume consumption appears to lower serum cholesterol. Mixed legumes 1209 were substituted by foods having equivalent calories, fat, protein, and carbohydrate. Mean serum LDL cholesterol was significantly lowered during legume consumption (126 vs. 138 mg/dl) (Duane, 1997). Some soluble polysaccharides have been explored as possible ingredients in the development of 'functional foods" because of their ability to reduce plasma cholesterol and consequently contribute to the reduction of the risk of cardiovascular disease. The hypocholesterolemic effect of three different hydrocolloids (guar gum,xanthan gum and pre gelatinized com starch) was studied at 1.6% concentration in an assay on rats. Cellulose was used as control. In the amt stage of the experiment, all animals were fed on hypercholesterolemic diet that produced a mean concentration of total cholesterol (6.2 mmol/L) significantly higher than in the group fed on control diet (1.0 mmol/L). Later on serum cholesterol concentrations were reduced to 1.43, 1.41, 1 64 and 1.42 mmol/L for the diets containing guar gum, xanthan gum, pre gelatinized corn starch and cellulose,respectively (Castroetal.,2003).Cereal-pulses combinations have been employed for the production of various products. In addition to being nutritionally important, pulses are being recognized as having therapeutical and medicinal properties. Atherosclerosis is characterized by massive accumulation of cholesterol in the arteries that form the heart of an atheromatous plaque. Epidemiological studies (Goldrick et a/., 1970;Lewis et 'a/., 1974) have indicated a high level of plasma cholesterol as an important risk factor. There was a continued search for agents which can lower the blood cholesterol level. Some legumes are known to be hypocholesterolemic (Singh et aI., 1983). The hypocholesterolemic characteristics of the legumes could be attributed to the nature of their carbohydrates, proteins and unsaturated fats. However involvement of dietary 6ber in lowering the blood cholesterol level has also been reported (Krifchevsky and Story, 1974). Pulses when consumed as whole grains may provide significant quantity of dietary fiber and thus proved good hypocholesterolemic agents (Mathur et a/., 1984). According to an earlier epidemiological survey, it was revealed that people of low socio-.economic status consuming a major diet of chickpea had relatively low incidence of ischemic heart disease because it possesses a cholesterol lowering effects in human. In Pakistan, chickpea flour was blended with wheat flour to bake "basin! roti" that is unleavened bread commonly consumed by diabetic patients (Raza, 2003).Wheat flour can be enriched with pulses up to 10%, winged bean Dour up to 20 % and cowpea up to 20% level to produce bread of acceptable quality (Chatterjee and Abrol, 1975; Okaka and Potter, 1977; Kailasapathy et a/., 1985).Information on the fortification of wheat flour with edible legumes for the preparation d chapati is rather scanty. Decorticated chickpea flour was successfully used for chapati by Chaudhry and Muller (1970). Wheat flour was supplemented with 10-20 % chickpea flour and observed that it did not alter the overall acceptability of the Egyptian bread and produced a significantly higher protein efficiency ratio (Shehata and Fryer, 1970).Legumes in the form of 'dhal are identified as major sources of protein in India,Pakistan and Middle East. Various proportions of soya, horse beam, chickpea and groundnut Pours were used with sodium stearoyl lactylate (SSL) in wheat flour for making chapati. In softness, 5% soya Dour plus 0.5% SSL proved to be the most satisfactory blend The organoleptic tests showed chickpea, soyabean, horse bean and groundnut were suitable for blending wheat flour (Khaneta/., 1972). Work had also been conducted on protein supplemented cereals based Pakistani diet. The chapati flour was supplemented with decorticated masoor, moong, gram and groundnut flour and was used in cooked as well as in uncooked forms The nutritive values of wheat flour in term of NPU, BV, NPR and PER both in the uncooked and cooked states were enhanced by supplementation with the protein sources which improved the pattern of limiting amino acids. The digestibility of wheat flour, however, decreased by supplementation with these sources (Ilahi, 197B). Biological value and digestibility of wheat flour was significantly improved by supplementation with lentil flours at different levels of protein utilization (Yasmin, 1976; Gilani et a/.,1986).It is apparent that composite flour prepared by blending wheat and legumes in proper proportions can supply the required amino acids to the consumer. At the same time this combination may increase the fiber content of the diet resulting in easiest bowel movement, reduction in cholesterol level in serum and liver and beneficial effects to the diabetics (Murthy and Urs,1905;Toma and Curtis, 1986). Composite four prepared by blending chickpea flour with wheat flour at the rate of 10, 15 and 20% influenced the digestibility and retention of nitrogen. .Growth rate was also increased with increasing levels of gram flour (Kausar,1976; Firdous et al., 1977). Experimental bread made of wheat flour supplemented with 5, 10 and 15% chickpea flour was analyzed for their proximal chemical composition and amino acids content. When 15% chickpea flour was added, crude dietary fiber and protein increased from 0.36% to 0 55% and from 14% to 17.6%, respectively. The lysine content was also increased as the level of supplementation raised. Biological quality of proteins was measured in raw as protein efficiency ratio (PER) as well as apparent digestibility resulting in an increase of PER values from 0 90 to 1.34 and small variations in bread protein digestibility. Bread nutritive value was significantly improved by adding chickpea flour (Estevez et a/., 1987). In another study, the feasibility of adding chickpea flour substituting part of wheat flour in yeast leavened bread making in order to increase the protein value was examined. Wheat flour was blended with 5%, 10% and 15% of chickpea flour. Addition of chickpea flour increased protein, dietary fiber, ash and fat content in the blends, without causing a severe effect on quality, even at the 15% level of substitution. Blends showed an increase in maltose content. Furthermore, breads prepared were of good quality even without the use of maturing agents (Figuerola et a/., 1987).Physical properties of dough made from combinations of wheat flour by replacing 0. 5, 10, 15, and 20% chickpea flour were studied in the farinograph and extensograph. Egyptian bread made with the flour combinations was scored for aroma, crust and crumb color, texture, flavor, and overall acceptability.Physical properties of the dough were not elected to any extent by levels of chickpea flour. Percent weight gain of rats fed on 20% chickpea flour diets was significantly higher than that of rats fed on diets with 0, 10, and 15% chickpea flour. There was a significant increase in feed consumption at 15 and 20% levels of chickpea flour. Chickpea cakes were prepared by replacing 0, 25, 50 75 and 100% of wheat flour with chickpea flour. Moreover, chickpea cakes had a lowering effect on the serum glucose levels of rats. Chickpea cakes did not affect liver function and showed hypocholesterolemic effect in the rats serum (Lasztity and Sharobeem, 1992).Guar bread rolls have been prepared using a bread mix. Four bread rolls per day provided 15 g guar. The method was satisfactory for home baking providing a regular supply of guar in small quantities can be made available (HUI et aI., 1984). The effects of monodiglyceride (MDG), diacetyl tartaric ester of monoglycerides (DATEM), guar gum (GG), and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) on the rheological properties of whole wheat flour dough and the functional properties of the final product were investigated. Whole wheat bread with a high volume, good crumb grain, and excellent shelf life was produced using 0.3 parts`MDG, 0.6 parts DATEM, 0.15 parts GG, and 0.6 parts CMC. The results suggested that emulsifiers and hydrocolloids can recombined as baking improver, contributing to optimum functional properties of whole wheat bread (Mauler and Seidel, 1993).Guar wheat breads prepared to investigate the effect of guar gum on fasting plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations in healthy volunteers with moderately raised plasma cholesterol concentrations (range: 52-8.0 mmol/L) showed significant reduction (10%) in total plasma cholesterol concentration after the guar treatment CP < 0.001), mainly because of a reduction in LDL cholesterol fraction. No changes in plasma HDL cholesterol concentrations were observed (Blake et a/.,1997). Fiber supplementation (Guar Gum, Gum Arabic, Locust Bean Gum,Pectin and Oat Fiber) also reduced triglyceride concentrations by 42 % (Freed,2000).

2.2. Chemical and Microbial Characteristics of Flours

Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the most important cereal crop of world in terms of both area cultivated and amount of grains produced. In Pakistan, wheat varieties have been found to contain, on an average, moisture 9.69 to 10.3506,protein 9.57 to 14.3%, crude fat 1.87 to 2.93%, ash 1. 88 to 2.03% and crude fiber 0.98 to 1.43% (Khan et aI., 1987). Comparison of chemical composition of legume flours and their concentrates with durum wheat semolina showed that all legume flours contained significantly higher protein, ash, fiber and fat contents than the durum semolina (Bahnassey et al., 1986).Chickpea is valued for its nutritive seeds with high protein content 25.3-28 9 %, after dehulling (Hulse, 1991). The mean value of protein (25 A vs.24 A%), fat (3.7 vs. 5.1%), carbohydrate (47A vs. 55%), crude 6ber (11.2 vs.3 9%), ash (3.2 vs 2 8%) and caloric value (327 vs 365 kcaVlOO g) were for desi vs kabuli chickpeas, respectively. Moreover, the chickpea products contained 21.1% protein, 3.1% fat, 53.4 % carbohydrate, 11.1% fiber and 5.9% ash (Khan et al., 1995). in another study, it was found that chickpea seed has 38 59% carbohydrate, 3% crude 6ber, 4.8-5.5% oil, 3% ash, 0 2% calcium and 0 3% phosphorus Digestibility of protein varies from 76-78% and for carbohydrate from 57-60% (Huisman and Van der Pool, 1994). Raw whole seeds of chickpea contain per 100 g: 357 calories, 4.5-15 7% moisture, 14 9-24.6 g protein, 3.8-6 A % fat, 2 1-11.7 g fiber, 2-4.8 g ash (Duke, 1981).Lentil contains Cg/100 g) protein 25, carbohydrate 56, fat 1 0, crude fiber 3 7 and ash 33 Lentil also contains major as well as trace elements and vitamins, including thiamin, riboflavin and niacin (Pirman, 1998).Guar gum contains 75% soluble 6ber, 7.6% insoluble fibers, 2.16% crudeprotein, 0.78% fat, 0.54% ash and 9.55% moisture content (Frias and Sgarbiefi,1999).Moisture of flour vary from 11% to 15% depending upon the storage conditions and hygroscopic nature of the starch (Whiteley, 1970). The water content also influences the storage stability of wheat flour. It should be below 14% to prevent microbial growth and chemical changes during storage (Pyler,1971). In another study, flour of wheat cultivate grown in Saudi Arabia were analyzed and found to contain moisture 10.0 %, protein 14.2-16.0%, crude fat 1. 1-1 5%, crude dietary fiber 0.4-0.390, ash 0.7 % and nitrogen free extract 83.6-81 5%,respedively (Khatchadourian et a/., 1985). The protein content of flour on an average was 1% less than protein content of the wheat grains from which it was milled (Redman, 1971). Ash and crude fiber content of white wheat flour were 0.39-0.78% and 0.27- 0.9'o/o, respectively (Paliwal and Singh, 1985). It has been reported that wheat proteins largely govern the Dours water absorption capacity,oxidation requirements, mixing and fermentation tolerance (Pyler, 1967).The whole wheat Dour contained moisture 10.2-10.4%, protein 9 45-11 Ald/o and ash 1.65-1.67% (Nagi et aI., 1984). Similarly 7.7% moisture, 10.60%protein and 1.58% ash in whole wheat Dour were observed by leelavathi et a/.(1984). In another study, it was found that ash content in bread flour varied widely (0 31-0 65%) whereas protein content (9 6-11.2%) and moisture content (10-13.6%) did not differ significantly amongst different flour samples (Parades et a/., 1987). Taneja et a/. (1983) analyzed four Indian wheat varieties and found that moisture, ash, crude protein, ether extrad and crude fiber contents ranged between 7.88 8.96%, 1 43-1.79%, 10 11-11.7790, 1.74-2.93% and 0 98-1 82,respedively depending on method of milling and extraction rate of flour. The nutritive value of wheat grains and whole wheat flour is almost identical. The factors like class, variety, environment i.e. climate, soil and cultural practices affect the composition of the wheat grain. The whole wheat flour generally contains 13% moisture, 69% carbohydrate, 12.2% protein, 2.3% fat and 2.0%fiber (FAQ 1989).High fiber bread Wntaining 5% guar gum and 5% wheat bran was compared with normal bread and concluded that high fiber bread contained more moisture, more ash, more fat, and more protein than the normal bread (Uro and Azrag, 2001).Moisture content of flour is very important regarding its shelf life, lower the flour moisture, the boner its storage stability. The deterioration of baking qualify will also be lowered which can be credited to retarded respiration and activity of microorganisms at lower moisture content (Staudt and Zeigler, 1973). Wheat from various climates was tested and found moisture content within range of 89% while in flour of different extraction rates, the moisture varied between 13-15.5%. In endosperm, bran & germ, moisture contents were 14, 13.3 and 11.7%,respectively (Kent and Amos, 1967). In a similar study, different varieties of wheat were analyzed and it was found that protein content was significantly affected by different wheat cultivars. The protein content varied from 11.82 to 14.10% in whole wheat variety (Randhawa, 2001).The moisture content of wheat flour is also influenced by the milling techniques as well as storage conditions. The absolute moisture content in grain and flour is less important than relative humidity with which the food is in hygroscopic equilibrium. Depending on the prevailing RH, the stored produce either release moisture or absorbs moisture from the surrounding Fat deterioration during storage might be due to the activation of lipase enzyme, which splits up the fat into free fatty acids and glycerol in the presence of moisture and other factors like light and heat. Extraction rate of flour also affect the chemical composition of wheat Dour. Protein contents in wheat flours of 72% and 80% extraction rates were 8 to 13% and 8 to 14%, respectively. Crude fiber content varied from 0.1 to 0.4% in straight grade flour, 1.8 to 2.5% in whole wheat flour and 9 to 12% in wheat bran. Moreover, it was reported that protein content 10 to 15% in whole meal flour and 12 to 16% in wheat bran (Kirk and Sawyer, 1991). Islam et a/. (1998) tested eleven wheat varieties for pizza production. The ash content in whole wheat flour of these varieties ranged from 1.51 to 2 05 % Khan et a/. (1987) demonstrated that the average ash content of whole wheat flour was 1.7% as compared to 0.9% for commercial and laboratory milled wheat flour.Leelavathi et al. (1984) concluded that due to storage, rancidity developed in whole wheat flour but it was comparatively less than resultant atta which had bluer taste and odor. At moisture content higher than 12 %, risk of fat oxidation and development of rancidity increased which was catalyzed by presence of metal ions such as Cu++ and Fe++. Acidity of flour increased from 33 to 37 mmole/kg during three months of storage (Haruska and Machova, 2002). The increase in flour acidity may be attributed to the accumulation of linoleic and linolenic acids during storage which are then oxidized (Kent and Evers, 1994). An increase in rancidity from 1.4 to 2.91% after 8 weeks of storage has been observed (Misfa et al., 2000).Phytate constitutes 1-2% of weight of many cereals (Torre et al., 1991).Anjum et a/. (2002) determined 2.23% phytic acid and 52.50 ppm iron in whole wheat flour of Pakistani wheats while Robin et al. (1977) observed the offed of storage on iron content. They reported reduction of iron from 41 to 39 ppm during 3 months of storage in yellow corn flour. The reduction in iron and phytic acid content has also been observed due to humid and hot condition persisted during storage or reactions of iron with other food components such as proteins, phytic acid and carbohydrates (Misfa et al., 2000).Molds are very widely spread in nature and may be found growing on cereals and cereal products causing spoilage (Jay, 1990). The growth of molds requires an adequate supply of moisture but if generally possesses the ability to thrive at lower moisture content than that is required by the bacteria and yeasts.It is known that most of the molds are aerobic and require 18% moisture content for growth. The moisture content less than 15% and relative humidity less than 80% are suitable to reduce molds growth during storage (Barton, 1938). Relative humidity caused a more rapid drying off the microorganisms than reduction in the temperature (Kent and Amos, 1930). Wheat was much less contaminated with molds than flour and molds counts ranged from 98 to 870 per g. The variation in fungal content of flour during storage was quite different than the bacterial count It was related to the moisture content of flour(SoenenandPinguair,1937).Higher initial moisture content contributes more towards spoilage of grain and flour (Sinha et a/., 1988). If the moisture content of flour is 16% or higher, the fungi present increase rapidly in numbers and bacterial population diminishes {Baden, 1938). It is observed that pH of flour has also substantial Offer on the development of molds and bacteria during storage. The pH of normal fresh flour was not favorable for mold growth and tended to decrease as storage proceeded. Although moistened flour contained a high fungal count; microscopic examination revealed normal mycelial growth of fungi. The number of colony forming units of molds/g sample varied from 1.2x104 to 99x 107 of highly deteriorated grains of cereals (Stenwig and Liven, 1988). The quality of flours and other milled products was satisfactory except for coliform counts, that were unacceptably higher for infant foods (M=102/g) and in some cases for adult food (M=102/g) and for molds counts which are always more than 102/g (Potus and Suchet, 1989).

2.3. Dietary Fiber.

Dietary fiber is edible food material that passes through the intestinal tract undigested. It comes from the portion of plants that is not digested by enzymes in the intestinal tract. Bacteria in the lower gut, however, may metabolize part of it.Plants have varying amounts and kinds of fiber including pectin, gum, mucilage, cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin. There are two main types of dietary fiber; soluble and insoluble. These two types of fiber vary in foods and quite different effects on human health. Soluble fiber acts like a gel and insoluble fiber adds bulk or softens stool. Insoluble fiber is effective in increasing feeling of fullness, stool size, bulk and helps to reduce constipation and hemorrhoids. It includes wheat bran, whole cereal grains and vegetables (peas, cooked carrots and tomato sauces). On the other hand, soluble fiber forms a gelatin like substance in the intestine and increases the water content in stool. Researchers have suggested that soluble fiber decreases blood cholesterol and sugar after meals for diabetics. These abnormal pockets usually form because of a diet that is too low in fiber (Yeager, 1998).Total dietary fiber includes all food components that are not broken down by human alimentary tract enzymes to fragments. It includes hemicelluloses, pectic substances, gums, mucilages, cellulose and lignin as well as undigested protein and lipid. It should be noted that some of these are soluble materials without a fibrous structure (Heaton,1983).The main contributors for fiber intake are cereal, fruits and vegetables (peas, cooked carrots and tomato sauces).An inverse association between fiber and coronary disease has been reported (Rimm et a/., 1996).Cereal fiber had a stronger association with reduced coronary death than vegetable or fruit fiber. A high fiber diet significantly reduced morbidity and mortality from coronary head disease. A l0g greater daily intake of fiber appeared to lower the risk of coronary death by 17% (Morris et a/.,1977;KhawandBarrett,1987). Frolich and Asp(1981) investigated the content and variability of dietary fiber in cereals, whole grain rye flour and four different milling fractions of wheat collected from nine mills in Norway. Soluble and insoluble dietary fiber was determined with an enzymatic method corresponding to the physiological definition of dietary fiber. The average values for dietary fiber in different products were 3.6% for wheat flour, 14.4% for whole grain wheat flour, 52.2% for wheat bran type 1 (including both outer layers and germ), 59.3% for wheat bran type 2(almost only outer layers), and 16.8% for whole grain rye flour. Considerable variation ` was found in the dietary fiber content of flours from different mills,whereas that of brans was almost constant. In another study it was observed that wheat flour (70-80% extraction) has dietary 6ber content 3.6% while whole grain flour contains 14.4% on dry weight basis consisting of 1-3% of soluble fiber (Frolich and Hestangen, 1983). Wheat contains 12% of total fiber out of which 11% is insoluble while the remaining 1-3% comprised of soluble fiber (Anonymous,1998).In case of legumes, total dietary 6ber content ranged from 10.7-14.3% (Dalgetty and Baik, 2001).Chickpea and lentil have dietary fiber content 16.3% and 15 9%, respectively (Achremowicz et a/., 2000). Guar gum, a great source of dietary fiber contains 80% total dietary fiber, almost in the soluble form.(Anonymous, 1998). In another study it has been found that guar gum provides approximately 85% dietary fiber on dry weight basis and research has shown that all dietary fiber is present as soluble form, it may help to lower cholesterol and glucose levels (Pszczola.2003).Low dietary fiber is linked to many illnesses such as hemorrhoids, diabetes, heart disease, appendicitis and chronic constipation. Chronic constipation is the biggest GI (gastrointestinal) complaint particularly among older people. It is possible that too much fiber may reduce the amount of calcium,iron, zinc, copper and magnesium that is absorbed from foods.. Deficiencies of these nutrients could result if the amount of fiber in me diet is excessive,especially in young children (Fadey and Dixie, 1993). Fiber can be helpful in reducing the glucose and cholesterol levels by reducing their absorption in the body (Shem et a/., 1998). To examine the offed of dietary fiber on the plasma cholesterol concentration, male Sprague Dawley rats were fed on a fiber-free (FF) diet or on an FF diet supplemented with 5% or 10% dietary fiber. Compared with the rats fed on the FF diet, a significant reduction in the plasma cholesterol concentration was observed in the rats fed on guar gum (GG) after 21 days feeding period (Nishimura et a/., 2000). The mechanism responsible for the cholesterol lowering effect is partly related to enhanced excretion of bile acids into faeces, hypotriacylglycerolaemic effects are associated with decreased absorption of dietary lipids and decreased activity of fatty acid synthase in the liver (Yamamoto, 2001). A statistically significant reduction in serum total cholesterol (7.27 ::t: 0.24 Venus 8.23 ::I:: 0.26 mmol/L) has been observed in male subjects receiving 15 g/day guar gum which was mainly due to a reduction in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration (4.70 ::t:0 19 versus 5.32 :I:: 0 23 mmoVL) as compared with placebo (Arc et al., 1984).One gram of soluble fiber from oats, psyllium, pectin, or guar gum produced changes in total cholesterol of -0 037, -0.028, -0 070, and -0 026 mmcl/L (-1.42, -1.10 -2.69, and - 1.13 mg/dL), respedively, and in LDL cholesterol of -0.032,-0 029, -0 055, and -0 033 mmoVL (-1 23, -1.11, -1 96, and -1 20 mg/dL),respectively (8rown et a/. , 1999).Low blood cholesterol levels (below 200 mg/dL) have been associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease. The body eliminates cholesterol through the excretion of bile acids. Some types of fiber, however, appear to have a greater effect than others. The 6ber found in oats is more effective in lowering blood cholesterol levels than the fiber found in wheat. Pectin also has a similar effect (Slavin, lggO).The blood cholesterol lowering effeds of a dietary supplement of water soluble fibers (guar gum, pectin) and non-water-soluble fibers (Soya, pea, maize bran) in subjects with mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia (LDL cholesterol 3.37- 4.92 mmoV L) has been investigated. After stabilization for g weeks on a National Cholesterol Education Program step 1 diet, subjects were randomly assigned to receive 20g/day of the fiber supplement (n=82) for 15 weeks and then to receive the fiber supplement for 36 weeks. The efficacy analysis included the 125 subjects (58 fibers; 67 placebos) and 102 (52 6ber and 50 placebo) completed the 15 weeks comparative phase. It was concluded that the fiber supplement provides significant and sustained reduction in LDL-C without reducing HDL-C or increasing triglycerides over the 51 weeks treatment period (Knopp et a/., Iggg). Fifteen patients (7male + 8 female) of average age 65, were given 10 g of soluble 6ber. Fiber consisted of guar gum, gum Arabic, locust bean gum, pectin, and oat fiber. During the 12 weeks, the high-fiber diet and supplementation reduced plasma total cholesterol concentrations by 12 percent triglyceride concentrations by 42 percent, raised high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations by 6 percent (Freed, 2000). Soluble fiber such as guargum may exert cholesterol-lowering effects. GG in the diet at a level of 5% elicited a significant lowering of plasma cholesterol during the absorptive period (Moriceau et a/., 2000). Phytic acid has been categorized as an anti- nutritional component in cereals and legumes. Phytic acid is the 1,2,3,4,5,6- hexaphosphate of myoinositol that occurs in discrete regions of cereal grains and accounts for as much as 85% of the total phosphorous content of grains. Research has traditionally focused on its unique structure that gives the ability to bind minerals, proteins and starch resulting in detrimental effects. Phytic acid (PA) has also been attributed to high phosphorus excretion by mono gastric animals and the resuming environmental problems of phosphorus pollution of water and soil. All of these concerns are valid, the development of phytases has offered solutions to overcome some of these adverse effects. With more understanding of the effect of phytic acid, many of the adverse effects can be overcome.

In addition, recent research has proposed that the same properties that labeled phytic sold as an ant nutritional may in fact be responsible for a wide range of benefits. Many new areas for phytic acid utiliza6on including medical and industrial applications have been proposed. Phytates reduce the bioavailability of minerals, and the solubility, functionality and digestibility of proteins and carbohydrates. Chickpea and lentil have been reported having 0.29% and 0.35% phytic acid content, respectively (Maher, 2000; Lori et a/., 2001).The rate of absorption of carbohydrates from the small intestine plays a major role in determining the metabolic effects of dietary carbohydrates. Anti- nutritional factor lectin and phytates reduce the rate of absorption. The rate of absorption can also be manipulated by the use of specific enzyme inhibitors and by increasing the number and frequency of meals holding caloric intake constant (Jenkins et a/, 1995).

2.4. Dough Rheological Properties

Physical dough properties of wheat flour mainly depend on its protein quantity and quality. It is generally believed that the mechanical and rheological properties of dough play an important role in governing the quality of baked products. Therefore, numerous machines/equipment have been devised to obtain objective data about me rheological properties of the dough in order to assess its behavior in various bakery products (Bloksma and Bushuk, 1988). The rheological characteristics propelled the dough properties during processing and the quality of the final product {spies, 1990; Lindahal, 1990) It has been reported that when the protein decreased below about 12%, mixing increased primarily because of greater difficulty in forming a continuous phase of protein (Finney et a/., 1g87). Both quantity and quality of protein influence water absorption (Holas and Tipples, 1978; Finney, 1964; MacRitchie, 1964). Water absorption increases when level of starch damage increases (Farrand, 1972;Holas and Tipples, 1978). Similarly Matz (1972) reported that the increase in protein content increased the water absorption. In another study it was reported that water absorption of wheat Dour of Indo-Pakistani varieties ranged from 60-76percent (Nurul Islam and Johansen, 1987). Simon (1987) observed that the flour with higher water absorption would give more favorable products, because the product may remain soft for a longer time, texture and grain may improve and dough cost is reduced. The rheological characteristics of wheat flours dough form the basis for understanding the dough handling properties in bakery. The water absorption has been considered as important characteristics of the wheat flour (Sonars and Rubenthaler, 1975). Corbellini et a/. (1999) have explained about the range of dough development time for hexaploid wheat from <90 to 240 seconds. It has been stated that dough development time might be associated with reduced farinographic stability and high degree of softening (Borghi et a/., 1996).The rheological characteristics of the flour as influenced by the addition of guar gum at the levels of 0.5, 1.0 and 1 5 % were studied Mixographic and Farinographic characteristics showed gradual increase in water absorption (49 to 52%) in commercial flour and laboratory milled flour as the level of guar gum used increased to 1 5% in the bread formulation. It is interesting to note that in water solution as the guar gum level increased from 0.5 to 1, 2 and 3 %, the viscosity (cps) increased tremendously from 300 to 2000, 25000 and 90000 units, respectively. Evidently this viscosity changes will have a significant bearing on the dough consistency and Wnsaguently, if's handling properties (Venkateswara et al., 1985). Similarly, the effect of guar gum on the rheological properties of whole wheat Dour dough and the functional properties of the final product were investigated it was found that whole wheat bread with a high volume, good crumb grain, and excellent shelf life was produced using 0.15 parts GG (Mauler and Seibel, 1993).Dough characteristics of whole wheat flour and resultant atta during storage showed that the water used for making the chapati dough of optimum consistency decreased by about 3.0 % at the end of storage period of four months in both the samples. The dough development time and dough stability were however not affected due to storage in case of whole wheat atta while a considerable increase in the above characteristics was observed in the resultant atta. The dough development time increased from 6 to 10 minutes while dough stability increased from 3.5 to 7 minutes in the resultant atta after four month of storage (Leelavathi et aI., 1984). In a similar study, farinograms of different resultant atta and whole wheat atta showed higher dough development time and dough stability for whole wheat atta. The excessively high dough development time may be due to the presence of higher moisture content of the bran particles in the atta which may interfere in the quicker development of gluten (Haridas Raoet a/., 1983).The physical, rheological and baking properties of decorticated cracked broad beans-wheat composite flours and the acceptability of the bread were evaluated by sensory tests. Decorticated cracked broad beans flour (DCBF) was used to replace 5%, 1O%, 15% and 20% of the wheat flour (WF) in bread. The farinographic studies showed that water absorption, arrival time and dough development time increased as the amount of DCBF increased, while dough stability time increased at 5% and 10% and decreased at 15% and 20% of DCBF substitution. Also, the extensographic energy of the dough decreased as DCBF substitution increased, while the ratio between resistance and extensibility increased. A reduction in diameter and weight of bread loaf was observed as the amount of DCBF increased. The sensory properties of _Balady' bread showed that at 5% and 10% DCBF substitution, the _Balady' loaves did not show any significant differences (P> O.05). It was concluded that the replacement of bread .Pour (WF) up to 10% with decorticated cracked broad beans flour produced acceptable bread (Abdel-Kader, 2000).

2.5. Chapati Baking Quality

Generally, chapati is prepared from whole wheat flour obtained by grinding wheat in a disk mill (locally known as chakki). Conditions for preparation of chapati with respect to recipe, dough consistency, thickness, size, shape of the dough sheet, and baking conditions vary widely in different regions and laboratories. Chapati quality can be assessed from its softness and flexibility which may be affected by flour protein quantity and quality. The taste and flavor are also influenced by the amount of sugar in the flour as well as diastatic enzyme required to hydrolyze starch into sugar. Therefore, flour with higher diastatic activity is required for good quality chapati (Singh and Bailey, 1940;Sinha et a/., 1968; Shurpalekar and Prabhavathi, 1976). The chapati quality is also influenced by the dough consistency, which in turn depends mainly on the quantity of water added (Austin and Ram, 1971).Nutritional quality of chapaties can be improved by compositing cereal flours. The efficiency ratio was improved by blending with soya flour (Linden and Walker, 1984). Replacement of wheatflour upto 25% with barley did not affect the chapati quality adversely (Sidhu et aI., 1990). Wheat, sorghum and bajra have good chapati/roti making quality for carbohydrate profile. Polysaccharide fractions {water-soluble, barium hydroxide-soluble, alkali-soluble and insoluble) were isolated from these cereals and also from wheat bran, their carbohydrate profile was studied and concluded that contents of dietary ahem varied between the cereals and wheat bran (Nandini and Saomath, 2001).The quality of chapati is also affected by extraction rate of flour. The chapaties made from resultant atta were more leathery and chewy than that made from whole meal atta (WMA). This can be attributed to the presence of higher amounts of gluten forming proteins (Haridas Rao et a/., 1983).Different legumes were added for the preparation of composite flour chapaties to enhance the protein value of the product. Addition of these legumes resulted an increase in the level of protein as well as the mineral elements. Moreover sensoric attributes reflects that chapaties prepared with the blend containing up to 10 % of various legumes were acceptable (Siddique, lg8g). In another study, chickpea flour was blended with wheat flour to prepare composite flour chapaties and concluded that a chapab of good qualify can be made by adding chickpea even upto 10% (Qayyum et aI., 2003). Habib and Bun (2003) conducted a research by adding guar gum, a source of soluble dietary fiber in the chapaties, the staple diet of the local people. Research trials were conducted by adding guar gum in different combinations to determine the hypocholesterolemic and hypoglycemic effect of the selected dietetic chapaties and observed a significant role of guar gum towards lowering of serum biochemical profile.The chapaties prepared from whole wheat flour with soya fortified flour(90:10) had higher protein, iron and calcium and was comparatively softer than whole wheat flour chapaties (Rawat et aI., 19g4). The chapaties made from composite flour showed higher extensibility even after 24 hours storage. Some of the additives like wet gluten also signi6cantly improved the texture of chapati (Gujral and Pathak, 2002).The baking properties of blends containing 5, 10, and 20% of the legume flours with a hard red spring wheat flour were investigated. Loaf volume of bread decreased as the level of legume flour was increased. Bread containing 5 or 10% legume flour showed a whiter crumb color as compared to the control loaf (Appolonia, 1977).

2.6. Physical Parameters

Dietary fiber may have some potential in the management of weight loss.This effect is derived from the potential influence of fiber on several aspects of food intake and nutrient availability (Vahouny, 1982). The effects on weight loss are often deduced from effects on satiety, decreased caloric intake and increased fecal excretion of energy in the form of fat and nitrogen (Leeds, 1985;Vahouny, 1985; Wisker et a/., 1985). It is further concluded that gel forming fibers such as guar gum and pectin, are more effective in promoting weight reduction than non-gel forming fibers like wheat bran (Krothiewski and Smith, 1985).Supplementing a normal diet with gel-forming fibers, such as guar gum leads to an increased satiation probably due to slow gastric emptying A long tam studied had confirmed the usefulness of viscous fibers as an adjunct to regular dietary treatment of obesity (Smith, 1987). In a similar study, the long term effects of guar gum in male adolescent rats were studied. Metabolic studies including food, water intake, faeces-urine output, bodyweight and carbohydrate tolerance were performed eight times during the 67 weeks. The guar gum group consumed less diet throughout the entire study and gained less weight over the first 20 weeks as compared to the cellulose and bran groups. (Track et a/., 1985).The effects of guar gum derived from the endosperm of Cyamopsis tetmgonolobus (75% soluble 6ber, 7.6 insoluble fiber, 2.96% crudeprotein) on food intake levels and weight reduction were studied. Diets containing 0,10 and 20 % (w/w) guar gum were fed to normal male wisiar rats (107.0 :;t: 9.3 g) for 60 days.Rats fed on guar gum had reduced food intake and body weight gain as well as lowered levels of blood serum cholesterol and triacylglycerols (Frias and Sgarbieri, 1999).In another study, an insoluble fiber (cellulose) and four soluble fibers (guar gum, carboxymethyl cellulose, mustard mucilage, and oat beta-glucan) were added separately to a fiber free solid diet and fed to Sprague Daw!ey rats for 10 days. Guar gum reduced me food intake, whereas cellulose increased it (Begin et aI., 1989; Yamada et aI., 2003). Guar gum (10 and 20g/Kg in diet) can slow the mechanical disruption of food in the stomach and thereby impede the delivery of nutrients to the small intestine (Blackburn and Johnson, 1981).Body weight is. also affected by the consumption of dietary fiber such as guar gum, It was noticed that body weight was significantly reduced during guar gum treatment (l0g twice daily) even though the patients were asked to maintain their normal dietary habits (Krotkiewski, 1984). In another study, the effect of dietary fiber (cellulose, guar gum, partially hydrolyzed guar gum (GG),glucomannan and highly methoxilated pectin) on body weight reduction was investigated in eight months old Sprague Dawley rats which showed a significant decrease in weight gain (Yamada et a/., 2003). Modified guar gum has appeared to affect appetite and body weight (BW) loss in humans. Semi solid meal with GG reduced the body weight i.e. 5 6: t: 1.0 kg Gaur gum addition to a semi solid meal prevented an increase in appetite, hunger and desire to eat (Kovacs et a/., 2001).A significant decrease in body weight (62.9 :;t: 2.9 vs. 604 :t: 2 2 kg in paired comparison) in subjects receiving guar gum was observed in middle aged hypocholesterolemic females (Tuomilehto et aI., 1989). In contrast, a gain in body weight of rats fed on fortified samples of wheat with gram flour was reported by Anwar (1980). Comparative diets containing 0, 50 and l00 g/Kg GG were fed to male Wistar rats for 21 days. Weight gain over the balanced period and food conversion ratio decreased linearly with increasing GG intake (Seal and Namers,2001). Moreover, fiber consisted of guar gum, gum arabic, locust bean gum, pectin, and oat fiber reduced body weight by 6 pounds (Freed, 2000).

It was found that the gain in body weight of animals fed on diets with pulse starches (red gram, black gram, green gram, bengal gram) was significantly lower as compared to body weight gain with cereal starches (maize, wheat, rice, jowar, ragi) diet (Rao and Rao,1978). A study conducted on Wistar rats indicated that guar gum diet significantly decreased the level of cholesterol, triglycerides and body weight gain. Moreover guargum caused a 10% increase in the small intestinal length..The results suggested that guar gum could potentially be effective to control cholesterol and obesity (Frias and Sgarbieri, 1999). In another study, serum TC was signficantly reduced after three months of dietary fiber supplement ingestion. In a controlled study, 15% reduction In TC was achieved using a natural dietary fiber while 23% decrease in serum TC was noted by using 40 mg provastatin per day after four weeks. Also 31% decrease was observed in serum LDL in type 2-A hypercholesterolemia (MHani et a/., 1995; Jawtot et a/., 1995).The effect of feeding peas (Pisum satinum) and chickpeas (Cicer anetinum) on body weight was studied. Casein was used as the protein source in the control diets. Rats fed on processed chickpeas and those fed on casein had similar body weight gain (8WG), and both groups had greater 8WG than rats fed on Peas 'NVang and McIntosh, 1996). Guar gum induced a significant decrease in weight gain (Yamadaeta/.,2003).Raw legume feeding resulted in greater pancreatic and small intestine weight relative to body weight (Wang and McIntosh, 1996). Diets containing 0, 10 and 20 % (w/w) guar gum (75% soluble fiber, 7.6 insoluble fibers) were fed to normal male wistar rats (107 0 ::t: 9.3 g) for 60 days which showed 10% increase in small intestine length (Frias and Sgarbieri, 1999). In another study, significant increase in small intestinal length was found in guar supplemented rats (Johnson eta/.,1984).

2.7. Serum Blo-Chemical Profile

Cholesterol is the main sterol found in body tissues. Two sources contribute to the amount of cholesterol in the human body. First, the liver manufactures about 80 percent it. Second, people consume it by eating animal products such as meat, eggs and dairy products. There are various types of cholesterol, including LDL cholesterol which is a bad form of cholesterol, HDLcholesterol which is considered as a good form of cholesterol and triglycerides, a form of fat carried through the bloodstream (James and Claude, 1998). High levels of HDL cholesterol have been shown to reduce some of the harmful effects of LDL cholesterol. HDL picks up and transports cholesterol in the blood back to the liver,-which leads to its elimination from the body. HDL cholesterol prevents LDL accumulation in the walls of the aderies (Awan. 1993).Normal levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and HDL cholesterol were 102, 78, 45.5 and 41 mg/dl, respectively Khosla et aI., 1995).Similarly serum total cholesterol, HDL, albumin and total protein levels were 100.39 mg/dL, 42.54 mg/dL, 2.9 g/dL and 6.28 g/dL, respectively in rats (Rehman et al., 2001). Normal glucose level 103:t:8 mg/dL and triglycerides level 72::I::6 mg/dL in rats were observed by Kusunoki et a/. (2000). The mean values for total protein contents in Sprague Dawley rats ranged between 6.27-6 46 g/dL(Habib and Sun, 2003). Estimation of serum cholesterol and other blood parameters has also been studied in cattle &r ats (Brennanetal.,1996).Hematological clinical chemistry values for male Sprague Dawley rats of different age groups for organ weights like lungs, liver, head, spleen, kidney (right) and kidney (left) were 0, 66-1.16, 4.06 4.68, 0, 44-0, 54, 0, 26-37, 0.45-0.53 and 0, 43-0.55 g/l00g, respectively.

Similarly values for cholesterol, glucose, total protein and albumin ranged from 75.4 134.1 mg/dL, 120 7.249.0 mg/dL, 6 3.8 2 g/dL and 3.4 3.7g/dl ,respectively(TTL,1998).Cholesterol lowering effects are most often associated with gelling,mucilaginous, viscous fibers such as guar gum and pectin as well as legumes. Likewise glycemic index (GI) of pulses and legumes generally ranged from 20-50% of white bread i.e. 72;:I:6 while chickpea and lentil have 36::I::5 and 29::t:3,respectively (Pomeranz, 1988). Bengal gram results in 82.1% glucose reduction as compared to wheat, rice and rajmah (Dilawari et a/., 1981). One gram of soluble fiber can lower total cholesterol by about 0.O45mmoVL (Brown et al.,1999). There was a 29% lower risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) for each additional 109 of cereal fiber eaten daily. The only cardiovascular risk factor that has been shown to be modi6able by dietary soluble 6ber is the level of serum cholesterol (Rimm et al., 1996). Raising dietary cholesterol results in higher plasma cholesterol concentrations that is associated with increased risk of CHD caused by atherosclerosis, a process characterized by endothelial dysfunction in association with hypertension, diabetes, smoking, and elevated homocysteine concentrations and cholesterol deposition in macrophages and smooth muscle cells in the arterial wall as the result of elevated LDL and decreased HDL (Qulntao et a/.,1971; Kushi et a/.1985, BeynenandKatan ; 1985; AnitschkowandChalatow,1991). Open studies in hypercholesterolemia with guargumhaveshown10%to15% reductions in serum total cholesterol and 10% to 20% in serum concentration of low density lipoprotein cholesterol after short term treatment.Ingestion of 15 g guar gum daily considerably reduces serum concentrations of total and LDL cholesterol without attenuation over two years of treatment (Salenius et a/., 1995). The effect of guar gum in capsule form significantly lowered serum total cholesterol 16.6% and LDL cholesterol 25.6% (Khan et al., 1981). In another study, 44% reduction in LDL cholesterol and 22% decrease in triglycerides were observed in guinea pigs by feeding soluble fiber diet containing 2.59 /l00g of guar gum, 5g /l00g of psyllium and 5g/ l00g of pectin diet (Roy et al., 2000). HDL cholesterol was found to be non-significant by feeding 2-l0g/day soluble fiber (Brown et a/., 1g99). In a similar manner, 24.56% reduction in serum glucose by incorporating guar in bread was reported by Jenkins et a/. (1977). In another study, 82.1% reduction in postprandial plasma glucose level in human has been observed by adding chickpea flour in their diet (Dilawarietat,1981).Dietary intervention trials have shown reduction in plasma cholesterol concentrations which is beneficial for coronary atherosclerosis (Gould et at,1992; Ornish et at, 1998). Lowering LDL cholesterol to <3.4 mmol/L (130 mg/dL) is of significant benefit with regard to CHD risk reduction in patients with or without CHD having average or elevated concentrations of LDL cholesterol. If is more beneficial to reduce LDL cholesterol concentrations to <2.6 mmol/L (100 mg/dL), or possibly to as low as 2.0 mmol/L (80 mg/dL), in those with CHD (Pin et at 1999). American Heart Asociation panel has recommended to get triacylglycerol values <2.2 mmoUL (200 mg/dL) and HDL-cholesterol values >0.9 mmoUL (35 mg/dL) in patients with CHD (Pearson et a/., 1994). European Atherosclerosis Society has recommended an LDL- cholesterol goal of <2 mmo`IlL (115 mg/dL) in all subjects who have CHD or a CHD risk of 20%. Their secondary goals are to get triacylglycerol concentrations to <3 mmoUL (175 mg/dL) and HDL cholesterol to >1.0 mmol/L (40 mg/dL) (Wood et at, 1998). The evidence from the intervention trials also indicates that for every 10/o increase in HDL cholesterol concentration with medication, there is a 3% reduction in CHD risk (Frick et at,1987; Manninen et at, 1988; Pedersen et at, 1998; Robins et at, 2001).Cholesterol lowering can be achieved with daily consumption of 8-36 g guargum and 100-150 g dried beans or legumes and LDL cholesterol can also be reduced by 5-10%. It is thought that soluble fiber lowers blood cholesterol by binding bile acids, which are made from cholesterol to digest dietary fats, and then excreting them (Glore et at, 1994). The effect of guar gum on the uptake cholesterol (0.1 m M) from a solution of micelles was determined. The results revealed that in the presence of guar throughout the whole incubation medium,the uptake of cholesterol was reduced to approximately 40% of control values (Gee et a/., 1983). In another study, guar gum has shown 10% to 15% reductions in serum concentration of low cholesterol and 10% to 20% in serum concentration of low density lipoprotein cholesterol after short term treatment. Similarly, 15g guar gum daily connsiderably reduces serum concentrations of total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol without attenuation over two years of treatment (Salenius et a/., 1995). The effectiveness of an instant haw beverage with guar gum as carrier in regulating lipid disturbance, enhancing antioxidant enzyme activity and immune function showed significantly reduced total serum cholesterol (9.6%), triglyceride (12.1%) and 18% LDL (Chen et a/., 2002). It has been reported that 4 weeks guar gum supplementation in diet of nine type 1 diabetic patients, serum total cholesterol level decreased by 21% (Ebeling et a/.,1988).The effect of solid and liquid forms of guar gum on plasma cholesterol reduction is similar (Superko et a/., 1988). Total serum cholesterol levels were significantly reduced following long-term treatment of guar gum (Krotkiewski,1984). It has been proved through clinical trials that, when used alone, guar gum may reduce serum total cholesterol by 10 to 15% (Todd et al., 1990; Uusitupa et a/., 1984). Cholesterol levels especially low density lipoprotein (LDL) decreased by 11.5% and plasma cholesterol levels 9.6% by eating guar gum (Turner et al.,1990). A marked improvement (23%) has been found in HDL/LDL ratio during guar gum treatment (Tuomilehtoeta/.,1989).Hypocholesterolemic effects of guar gum have been compared with other dietary fibers, The effects of guar gum (GG) and microcrystalline cellulose (MC) on metabolic control and serum lipids were compared in a double blind, cross- over trial in 18 poorly controlled Type 2 diabetic patients. Serum cholesterol was lowered by 10% during GG treatment. The effects of guar granules sprinkled over food on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism were studied in 18 patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Five gram guar granules were sprinkled over food at each main meal for 4 weeks. Total plasma cholesterol decreased from 5 79 ::t: 0.29 to 5 19 ::f:: 0.22 mmol/L (10.36%) after the guar treatment period Fuessfeta/.,1987;Niemietal.,1988).The effect of guar gum and oat fiber source on plasma lipoproteins and cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic adults showed that guar gum induced a reduction in total cholesterol of 26 :t: 10 mg/dL and in low density lipoprotein cholesterol 25 :t: 9 mg/dl (Spiller et al., 19f91).The hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia could be controlled by a herbal powder consisting of guar gum ,Methi, Tundika and Meshasringi. The herbal powder was given twice daily before main meals for four weeks. Serum total and LDL cholesterol fell down significantly(BhardwajetaI.,1994).The effect of feeding legumes containing peas (Pisum sativum) and chickpeas (Cicer anefinum) on plasma cholesterol resulted decrease cholesterol concentrations in rats than in those fed on casein (Wang and Mclntosh,1996).The chickpea was non effective than the control diet containing casein in the normalization of triglycerides as well as for LDL cholesterol levels (Zulef et a/., 1999). A differential hypocholesterolemic effect between dietary casein and chickpea intake In a model of hypercholesterolemia induced by the diet was found, with beneficial effects on the lipid metabolism when legume was included in the diet as compared to casein. This suggests apparently for the first time, that chickpea consumption may have a corrective function in some alterations of the lipid profile (Zulet and Martinez, 1995).The potential positive effects of chickpea in diabetes therapy and its role as biological active food supplements have been proved (Zuleteta/.,1999).A study was performed to examine the rate of digestion of available carbohydrate in legumes and ifs mixtures with cereals including lentil (Lens esculenta), pea(Pisum sativum), bean (Phaseolus vulgans, var todola), rice (Ory;za sativa) and spaghetti.The bean-spaghetti based meal and the lentil based meal showed glycemic index mean values of 76.8 and 493, respectively (Araya et a/., 2003).Metabolic response to shod and long-term guar gum consumption were studied in adolescent and adult rats. For the long-term study, male adolescent rats were divided into four groups (n = 60/group) and fed on guar gum, cellulose,or bran diet for 67 weeks. Reduced plasma glucose excursions were measured for only the guar gum group (Track et a/., 1985). Addition of guar to an intragastric glucose load (1 g/kg) markedly delayed the rise in plasma glucose levels when concentration of the gum was adequate (10 mg/mL). Guar gum can reduce fasting blood glucose from 11.4 ::f: 3.7 mmol/f to 9 5 :f: 3.9 mmol/L in rats (Daumerie and Henquin, 1982; Lalor et a/., 1990). Moreover, guar by-products (GBP) affect carbohydrate tolerance in rats. Both 1% and 10% GBP suspensions administered immediately before a glucose challenge (1 g/kg body weight) caused a 31% reduction in the integrated plasma glucose response area during a 180 minutes test. These studies demonstrate the ability of GBP suspensions to significantly reduce the plasma glucose (Chiu and Track, 1985).Guar gum showed greater viscosity than the other gums during acidification and/or alkalinization and also showed larger effects on plasma glucose levels 35% reduction in maximum rise in plasma glucose) and on the area under the curve of plasma glucose(Brenellieta/.,l997).Postprandial glycaemia and rise in serum insulin after carbohydrate containing meals were reduced by the addition of guar flour or pectin, or both.After a liquid test meal (four subjects) blood glucose was reduced from 6.33 :t 0.19 mmol/L (114 t mg/dL), in the control subjects to 4 77 ::t: O 17 mmoUL (86 :t: 3mg/dL) by addition of guar gum (Jenkins et a/., 1g77). In another study guar gum was given to type 2 diabetic patients which resulted in blood glucose reduction (Russo et a/., 2003). In another investigation, twenty-eight insulin-dependent diabetics were treated with different dietary regimes for three periods of three months. Initially they used a white flour bread (run-in period), then their daily bread ration was enriched with guar gum (mean dose: 29 g), and then with wheat bran (mean dose: 33 g) in a randomized crossover pattern. Mean postprandial blood glucose decreased from 12.0 :t: 3.8 mmol/L to 9.7 :t 2.8 mmol/L in the guar (Vealer et al., 1g86).Guar gum can be effectively used to reduce postprandial blood glucose (Bhardwaj et a/., 1994). The acute effect of a single dose of guar gum has been verified to reduce the peak postprandial whole blood glucose levels (about 10%).Following long-term treatment, a further reduction was seen in the obese subjects with the highest postprandial glucose levels (Krotkiewski, 1g84). Clinical impact of dietary fiber supplementation for the reduction of postprandial blood glucose showed 17 % decrease in mean daily plasma glucose concentrations while the area under the curve for 2 hour plasma glucose concentrations reduced by 36 percent (Freed 2000).

2.8. Multivariate Analysis

Different statistical techniques are employed on different quality parameters to find the correlation among them with end use. With easy access to software, more statistical procedures have been introduced to predict quality of different commodities. These techniques are used extensively by the plant breeders rather than the cereal chemists. However recent review on this aspect is given below.Ng and Bushuk (1988) used stepwise multiple regression analysis to generate the prediction equation for flour baking strength index from 8 high molecular weight subunits in the range of 96.3-147.4 kDa (r2 = 0.675; P<0 01).The predicted values were found to agree with actual values within the 95% confidence limit for different sets of eight varieties. They concluded that selection on the basis of HMW subunit composition should be useful in breeding programmes for screening genotype for flour baking quality.Stepwise multiple regressions indicated that from 27..95% of the variability in steamed bread quality can be explained by protein content and dough mixing strength. Preliminary results suggested that determination of high molecular weight glutenin and gliadin proteins through electrophoresis might be used to predict steamed bread quality (Lukow et aI., 1990).The application of canonical analysis which is multivariate statistical approach has shown that the measured biochemical components were able to explain more than 90% of the variation in major quality attributes such as dough handling and other dough characteristics. It has been further emphasized that assay of numerous biochemical components together with multivariate approaches may be required to develop effective predictive models for observed variation in wheat flour end use qualify (Graybosch et aI., 1993).Bun et aI. (2001) developed predictive models for end use qualify of spring wheats through canonical analysis. For 30 spring wheat cultivars, the bread loaf volume, the total bread baking score and total chapati scores were considered as dependent variables and 16 other quality attributes were regarded as independent variables. A stepwise regression indicated that dough development time, dough stability, fiber, water absorption and test weight showed significant contribution towards total chapati score. The canonical correlations were computed between the two groups of variables. The first group comprised of dependent variables (bread loaf volume, bread scores and chapati scores) and the second comprised of 21 independent variables. The squared multiple regression of each variable in the first set with all the variables in the second set indicated that 57.13% variation in chapati scores was explained by the variables in the second set, where as 50.74% of the variation in the bread loaf volume and 34% of the variation in the total bread score was explained by the variables included in the second set. The results of canonical analysis revealed high correlation between the end use quality characteristics and other physico-chemical, rheological and protein components of wheat cultivate. Similary Ahmad (2001) also applied the stepwise regression pattern of various attributes contributing significantly towards lysine, total Chapati score and cookie baking quality by considering these as dependent variables.Canonical variate analysis (CVA) is used when there is more interest to show difference between groups than between individuals. The variability in large number of variables is firstly reduced to a smaller set of variables that accounts for most of the variability. The new set of variables is called canonical vectors.With this approach a set of directions is obtained in such a way that the ratio between groups variability to within group variability in each direction is maximized (Digby et aI., 1989).

SUMMARY

Composite flour samples were prepared by blending commercial wheat Hour (attn) with various legumes i.e lentil, chickpea and guar gum in different proportions for the preparation of chapati. Legumes when consumed provide significant magnitude of dietary dietary fiber matter is supportive to manage serum cholesterol and glucose. Current research was conducted to explore the hypocholesterolemic and hypoglycemic worth of dietary fiber. The univariate and mulffvariate statistical techniques were applied for boner understanding of the results. The conclusive approach drawn from the present invesHffa6ons is summarized below.

Mean squares for proximate assay of composite flours showed significant differences due to storage on moisture, protein and fat while fiber, ash and NFE differed non significantly. Means for moisture showed an increasing trend while in protein and fat a declining tendency was observed with storage. Likewise treatments proved a momentous contribution for crude protein, crude fat, crude oder, ash and NFE that varied from 12.75 to 14.03%, 1.39 to 1.93%, 1.92 to 2.15, 1.34 to 1.50 and 80.67 to 82.350/o, respectively in different composite Dour samples Acidity, peroxide value and phytic add varied significantly due to storage and their means diverse from 0.193 to 0.320%, 0.537 to 0 999 mEq/Kg and 0.677 to 0 597%, respectively from initiation to end of study period. The interaction was found to be non -significant for all of these characteristics.

Highly significant variations were observed for dietary Oder among dMerent composite Hour samples. Dietary Oder was found to be maximum 8.85% in Tlo (guar gum 3%) followed by 8.15% in Ts (guar gum 2 %) and 8.10% in Tis (chickpea 10% + guar gum 1%) where as the lowest amount 6.720/o was established in Tl (commercial wheat flour). The treatment T14 (chickpea 5%+ guar gum 1%) was observed to hold a value of 7.90% for this aNn.bute. Percent increase for this trait was found to be 31.70%, 21.28% and 20.54 for Tm Ts and Tls, respectively while T14 exhibited 17.56% increase in dietary Dber

Rheological behavior of the composite flour illustrated a highly significant effect of storage and treatments on water absorption, dough development time and dough stability while interaction was found to be non - significant water absorption, dough development time and dough stability vary from 65.51 to 63.5790, 4.73 to 6.63 minutes end 4.7 to 5.90 minutes, respectively during the entire period. Means for mold count in flour samples at different storage intervals showed significant variations. Mounting trend in mold count was found in the flour samples up to 60 days of storage. Different sensoric attributes of chapati such as color, flavor, taste, texture, chewing ability, folding ability and total chapati scores were affected significantly due to storage and treatments. A declining movement in the scores for all sensory characteristics was observed during two month study period. Means for chapati scores were 39.38, 36 80 and 32.03 at 0, 30 and 60 days. The total chapati scores were found to be highest 45.27 in Tl0 (guar gum 3%) followed by 42.87 and 40.27 for T5 (guar gum 2%) end Tl (commercial wheat flour), respectively. However, it was also observed T14 (chickpea 5%+ guar gum 1%)also acquired 39,87 scores showing non-significant differences with control. Flour sample Tl0(chickpea 10% +guar gum 1%) ranked at the bottom One for total chapati scores.

Some important observations were also recorded during the sensory testing that chapati containing guar gum 3% end guar gum 2% gained even higher scores than the chapati from commercial wheel Hour. If is notable to point out that guar gum gave whiter look end puffiness to the end product. Moreover the chapaties remained acceptable from selected flour samples stored up to 60 days. Significant increase in dietary fiber content was observed in the resultant chapaties due to the addition of legumes. Maximum dietary Oder 8.16% was observed in chapaties Prepared from Tl0 (guar gum 3%) followed by 7.48% in T5 (guar gum 2%) and 7.43% in T11 (chickpea 10%+ guar gum 1%) where as lowest dietary fiber content (6 03%) was found in chapaties prepared from Tl (commercial wheat flour).Moreover T14 (chickpea 5% + guar gum 1%) also exhibited a dietary fiber content of 7.28% with non- significant differences with T16. Percent increase in dietary fiber was 35.32% in Tl0 (guar gum 3%) followed by 24 05% in T5 (guar gum %) and 20.73% in Ti5 (chickpea 5% + guar gum 1%) as contrast to control. There is a progressive boost in dietary fiber with adding up of guar gum.

Three best composite flour samples Tic (guar gum 3%), To (guar gum 2%)and T14 (chickpea 5% + guar gum 1%) along with Tl (commercial wheat flour)were selected for further efficacy studies. The diets prepared from composite flour chapaties were fed to the rats for a period d 8 weeks. Feed intake and water consumption were measured on daily basis whereas gain in body weight of individual rats in each group was evaluated weekly to and out the effect of individual diet on these parameters. Percent decrease of feed intake in different groups of rats explored that guar gum 3% resulted in 6.89% reduction in feed intake followed by decrease of 3.97% and 123% for guar gum 2% and chickpea 5%+ guar gum 1%, respectively as compared to rats fed on control diet. There is a progressive increasing trend in water consumption by increasing guar gum in the diet. Regarding gain in body weight, It was established that rats fed on guar gum 3% showed highest ,decline 7.90% followed by 5.89% noted for guar gum 2%. After 4th week decreasing trend for gain in body weight was observed in all groups of rats but this decrease was more pronounced in rats fed on guar gum 3%. It is concluded from the present exploration that guar gum 3% followed by guar gum 2% by amalgamation in chapati is supportive for the management of weight loss and obesity.

Mean squares for organs weight of different groups of rats explicated that diets prepared from selected treatments of composite flours had momentous effect on intestine weight and intestine length of rat where as liver, heart, lungs, spleen and kidneys remained unaffected. Percent enlargement in intestine length in different groups of rats showed that guar gum 3% resulted in maximum increase (6.36%), followed by guar gum 2% (5 45%) with reference to control.

Mean squares of serum biochemical profile in relation to cholesterol, LDL and triglycerides showed that these biochemical parameters were affected significantly by the diets prepared from various composite flour chapaties. Mean values for serum cholesterol was found to be maximum i.e. 99.58 mg/dL in control group followed by 87.30 and 86.41 mg/dL in rats fed on diets conntaining guar gum 2% and chickpea 5%+ guar gum 1%, respectively with non significant differences with each other. Lowest serum cholesterol was observed in rats fed on guar gum 3% (62.46 mg/dL). Diminishing trend in the cholesterol with progressive increase in guar gum concentration was observed. It is further concluded that guar gum 3% showed a signi6cant redudlon (17.19%) in serum cholesterol followed by chickpea 5%+ guar gum 1% (13.23%) and guar gum 2% (12.33%) as contrast to control. On the basis of present study, it is advisable that adding up of guar gum 3% followed by chickpea 5%+ guar gum 1% and guar gum 2% in the chapaties are helpful to reduce the cholesterol level of hypercholesterolemic individuals.

Drop in LDL and triglycerides were significant while non - significant differences were observed for HDL level. Maximum LDL cholesterol was found to be 43.54 mg/dL in control group followed by 34.27, 31.72 and 30.62 mg/dL in groups fed on guar gum 2%, chickpea 5% + guar gum 1% and guar gum 3%,respectively. Percent decline of LDL wn6rmed that guar gum 3% showed maximum reduction (29.67%) followed by chickpea 5% + guar gum 1% (27.15%) and guar gum 2% (21 29%). However, Percent decrease of triglycerides in different groups of rats concluded that guar gum 3% showed a maximum reduction (26.43%) followed by guar gum 2% (24.94%) and chickpea 5%+ guar gum 1% (12.29%) with reference to control. Mean squares for the glucose, serum protein and albumin of different groups of rats indicated that all these traits were significantly affected by the treatments. Mean values for glucose concentration was found to be maximum i.e. 112 50 mg/dL in control group followed by 101.70 and 99.41 mg/dL in groups fed on diets containing guar gum 2% and guar gum 3%, respectively. Lowest glucose concentration (96.11 mg/dL) was observed in rats fed on chickpea 5%+ guar gum 1%. Percent decrease of glucose concentration in different groups of rats with reference to control explicated that chickpea 5% + guar gum 1% showed maximum reduction (14.57%) followed by guar gum 3% and guar gum 2% which showed 11.64% and 9.60% reduction in glucose, respectively. It has been observed that for lowering serum glucose, chickpea in combination with guar gum gave better results than guar gum alone. It is concluded that adding up of chickpea 5% + guar gum 1% followed by guar gum 3% and guar gum 2% in the chapa6es are supportive to reduce the glucose level of hyperglycemic persons.

Momentous differences regarding protein were observed in different groups of rats. Means for serum protein were 6 33, 6 39, 6 30 and 6 32 g/dL in rats fed on control, chickpea 5%+ g6ar gum 1%, guar gum 3% and guar gum 2% containing diets, respectively.

Simple correlation coefficient among different variables derived from chemical, rheological, sensoric properties, and serum biochemical parameters proved that dietary Nber have an inverse correlation with LDL, triglycerides and glucose while total chapati score was positively correlated (PsO.01) to dietary fiber and negatively correlated to feed intake and gain in body weight.Canonical correlation between total chapati score, cholesterol and glucose showed in three groups for eigen value 1.0000, 1.0000 and 0.99928, is 1 0000, 1 0000 and 0 99964, respectively indicate a strong relaUonship between three main qualify indices with all other variables in second set. The main positive contributors are dietary Nber and texture. Out of 13 variables 7 were found to be negative The second pair is mainly contributed by phytic acid and LDL. Dough development time and peroxide value possessed me largest negative coefficients. In the third pair albumin and crude fiber has the largest negative coefficient. Seven variables were found to be negative contributors whereas the six had the posdive contribution.

The present investigation suggests that different chemical, theological and sensory characteristics are variable among different composite flours and influenced by storage. The amount of dietary fiber differed consistently due to the presence of lentil, chickpea and guar gum in composite flours and increases with the progressive increase of these legumes especially guar gum. Decrease in total chapati scores ranged from 39.38 to 32.03 during two month storage. Feed intake and gain in body weight showed a declining trend by adding up of guar gum. Significant reduction in cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides and glucose was observed due to the addition of dietary dietary fiber in the form of guar gum and chickpea. It is concluded that there is 12-17% reduction in cholesterol and 10-14% decline in glucose by the addition of selected treatments. Canonical analysis also revealed existence of high correlation between dependent variables and other independent variables. The addition of guar gum and chickpea improves the level of dietary 6ber with special reference to soluble fibers that play a key role to lower cholesterol and glucose nevertheless research trials will be conducted on humans. It is suggested that ingestion of 5 chapab.es (weighing lOOg each) per day prepared from composite flours containing guar gum 3% followed by chickpea 5% + guar gum 1% and guar gum 2% provides an additional 5.-8g of dietary 6ber that would be supportive in lowering cholesterol and glucose in hypercholesterolemic and hyperglycemic individuals. The informations derived from various quality assays and statistical methods offer a guideline for the researchers to understand the role of dietary fiber in a better way.

RECOMMENDATIONS

Composite flour technology must be encouraged for its therapeutic significance at national level with effective qualify monitoring system.

Amalgamation of guargum 3% and chickpea 5% + guargum 1% in wheat flour should be prescribed to lower down blood cholesterol and glucose levels respectively.

Chapaties prepared from selected composite flours ought to be introduced in weight loss programs.

It is advisable that ingestion of these chapaties per day made from selected composite flour would be supportive for hypercholesterolemic and hyperglycemic individuals

Further research is needed to explore some new sources of dietary fiber with special reference to soluble fiber like pectin in different combinations to overcome the existing dilemma.

The adding up of guargum and chickpea certainly elevates the dietary fiber status nevertheless community based research trials will be conducted for its enhanced meticulousness.

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Title
Composite Flour Technology. A Review
College
University of agriculture Faisalabad  (Institute of Food Science and Technology)
Course
PhD
Grade
3.85
Author
Year
2004
Pages
46
Catalog Number
V355596
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9783668442917
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Language
English
Tags
composite, flour, technology, reviews, flours
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Naureen Naeem (Author), 2004, Composite Flour Technology. A Review, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/355596

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Title: Composite Flour Technology. A Review



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