Doctoral Thesis / Dissertation, 2017
Table of contents
Background to the Study
Statement of the Problem
Purpose of the Study
Significance of the Study
Scope of the Study
Operational Definition of Terms
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
The Historical Background to the Study
What then is Mentoring
Christian Mentoring Philosophy
Biblical Definition of the Church
Biblical Foundation of Mentoring for the Church Health
Mentoring in Old Testament
Jethro a mentor
Mentoring in New Testament
Christ The Perfect Example
The Holy Spirit, our Mentor
Barnabas, a model for mentoring
Paul’s mandate for mentoring
The Early Church Fathers Mentoring Concept
The Necessity for Christian mentoring
Types of Mentoring Programmes
Mentoring Goals and Objective
The Five Elements of Mentoring
Qualities of Successful Mentors
Godly Mentoring Relationship
Principles of Mentoring
Approaches that Can Sink Mentoring Relationships
Practical Realities of Mentoring
Orientation and Training for Mentor and Mentoree
Techniques of Mentoring
Mentoring Program Strategies
Building a Relationship of Trust
Signs of Fruitful Mentoring
The Benefits of the Mentoring Relationship
Population and Sampling Techniques
Delimitation of the Study
Description of Research Tools
Procedure for Data Analysing
DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
Discussion of Findings
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Dedicated to my caring and very supportive wife Olarinre Jumoke Adekanbi, children and Christheirs Nigeria Venture.
All glory to God for his faithfulness, healing and for the completion of this doctoral project. The God of love and grace has helped me meet many blessed people especially during my work on the project. Let me first of all thank Prof S. P. Ango, my supervisor, for his prompt attention and insightful contributions and Rev. Stephen O.
Y. Baba PhD my second supervisor. I profoundly thank all the staff and faculties of ECWA Theological Seminary, Igbaja and the professors in Doctor of Ministry program, especially the distinguished professors, J. B. Lawal, Rev. Dr. Taiwo Lateju, and Dr. Timothy Olonode. I also appreciate Pastor James O. Adeyanju and Pastor Adetoyese for proofreading this project. My thanks go to all my fellow D. Min 2016 set whom I met in Igbaja. I equally appreciate Heila Mare, the faculty of Theology librarian, of Stellenbosch University in Cape Town who helped in sourcing for relevant books.
My thanks go to Frist Baptist Church Mafoluku, that supported me spiritually and financially, showing love and grace to me whenever I need to go to schools, especially, I thank Rev. Dr E. A. Awotunde, my Conference President and spiritual father. He taught me to be patient and to love God’s people. He also showed me how to minister by providing exemplary principles and methods. My thanks also go to Dns R. A. Ogunwale, and my Uncle, Dn. Engr. G. A. Adekanbi for their support and advice on this project. Thanks to my members for their love and prayer for the success of this course.
Finally, I cannot adequately express my gratitude to my parents; the late Pa S.A. and F. A. Adekanbi and Late Dn E.O. and H.I. Olaniyan, for their unstinting kindness, love, support, encouragement and care at every turn of the road. It was they who cultivated in me the gift that has enabled me to bring this work to completion. I am grateful to my parents and Christheirs Nigeria Venture, whose consultations and print resources were instrumental in the development of this project. I give glory to God who saved my life and Rev Paul Jenfa when had an accident on our way to the school on May 17th 2015. This project could have been halted, but thanks to God for saving us. Lastly, appreciation goes to my wife and our children, the level of love and her commitments cannot be measured and the understanding of our children, may His love continue to bound us to the end.
Historically, sustainable healthy church depends on strong leadership platform, this strong pastoral leadership is often lacking in our churches today. Thus, the problems addressed how mentoring opportunities for young pastors are imperative for church leadership and its connection between mentoring and church healthy growth. This project uses quantitative and descriptive methodological approach in order to gain a balanced understanding for sustaining healthy growing of the church in Lagos East Baptist Conference (LEBC) through mentoring of young ministers for healthy church and leadership development. It is descriptive survey and a cross-sectional study designed for demographic and attitudinal data collection, on the role of mentoring young ministers on healthy growth of the church. This research focused on 78 selected churches in LEBC and addressed the manner in which their unique worldview has shaped their mentoring preferences. It studies the nature of mentoring young pastors and the nature of mentoring platform needed for them to play this vital role in the church. As part of this research, current literature on the Christian mentoring principle and practice were reviewed and related to the growth of the church. It used case study research design and cases chosen represented a traditional and a hybrid approach to mentoring. It evaluated data collected from one-on-one focused interviews according to three hypotheses: a) Most healthy churches have pastors who have godly mentors.
b) Mentored pastors are organic factors in healthy sustainability of any church, and c) Pastors who are not mentored after their Seminary and Bible college training with a mentoring relationship where life experiences are mutually shared and processed tend to be detrimental to himself, family and ministry. The research found that mentoring is a hallmark to healthy church growth, and recommend denominational multiple mentoring opportunities like character formation; emotional intelligence; and skills and organizational capabilities development that meet the needs of pastors and proposed for further research on mentoree turning against their mentors.
It is believed that the foundation of church leadership must be a good character, built on integrity and uprightness. But church leadership today is filled with ministers who are immature, whose integrity are questioned. They are ego's driven and their decision making often becoming more concerned with image than reality. They underestimate obstacles and often play the blame game. They stubbornly rely on anointing without administrative skills and are not open to new ideas. They do not listen well and they lack faith in the ability of their older ministers because they are confused. Some of them believe they are untouchable due to their fame or relationship with the church members.
Many of these ministers claim competency, but their character is far short of godly standard, their moral lives are very unsatisfactory, and this in turn affects the health of the church now negatively. Without an underpinning of integrity, leadership ultimately fails. Even enormous mistakes of some leaders are overlooked or corrected. However, failures of character and integrity cannot be fixed with the speed of light even in the church.1
Nevertheless, the decency and values that should form every church’s rock solid foundation seem hard to grasp as sand. The strongest church economic boom in history has dissolved to reveal a shocking poverty of ministerial ethics and leadership.2 Some churches are very sick today, while some others are even dying. The big questions are;
why have they stopped growing? Has the church been deserting major spiritual factors
or links have been abandoned? What spiritual disease exists that has caused this recent decline? The natural declines of some churches are because of unhealthy leadership spiritually. If the church is in good health, then her leadership’s impact could not be weakening at all.
Therefore, if the church is healthy then it is an eminent church. The question is, can we afford not to be concerned about shocking poverty of ministerial ethics and leadership failures besieging the future of the community of faith the church? No! Then, we must do something decisive. The church ministries today are very explosive and its continuity strongly depends on the right leadership and comprehensive followership, which is the bedrock of any sustainable healthy and eminent church and leadership in any organization and our conference.
Li Hung Chang wrote and quoted by Oswald that, “there are only three kinds of people in the world- those who are immovable; those who are movable; and those who move them.”3 Leadership is a force to reckon with in any growing organisation or union, the church of Christ inclusive. “It’s easy enough to state your values and personal integrity during the good times,” says Bill George, headed that “but what really counts is how you perform under extreme pressure. That is when the character and value of a person are determined, it is during this time that you establish your moral compass; a sense of right and wrong.”4
John W. Stanko asserts that we have “so many leaders … so little leadership.”5
This project observes that we have so many ministers and so little mentors. Where are the mentors? This is a universal problem in human society, when the means to an end become the end. The demand is always higher than the supply. The demands for godly mentors are higher today that many of our Seminaries and Bible colleges are really trying in character formation, which is not enough criteria for successful ministries.
The problem with the church leadership today is no longer the quantity of leadership but the quality of her leadership. The church is in need of ministers who are theologically balance, godly in character, emotionally stable, and competent in their ministerial roles. However, many young pastors available only depended on their Seminary and Bible college knowledge for the ministry but that is not enough to have a successful ministry, the godly relationship with godly mentoring is lacking.
Therefore, a close relationship must be established so that the more mature pastors can share the specific things needed such as wisdom, knowledge, insights, values, experience, resources, and skills with the less experienced pastors of the church while Christ the head and cause His church to grow and sustain the growth. According to Matt Schmucker, “Pastoring a church can feel a lot like a new marriage. Moreover, young, inexperienced pastors can make many of the same rookie mistakes new husbands make. So how do you know which issues are essential and which are not? Which hill are you willing to die on?”6
Many people expect ministers today, as in the past, to be an example of perfection. Corporately, they look to them as representing the perfect standard or model of life in thought and deeds. Their worldviews influence others in the community. Once a minister is ordained, he is placed in a special relationship with others. He serves as counsellor to many and is in a position to challenge ministerial partners to a larger vision of what church ministries can and should be. Today’s society is desperately in need of biblical perspectives for pastoral mentors. A need that must be taken tenuously for the sake of the young ministers and the church.
Their works often go through struggling seasons like anyone else, but the predicament is, they do not know whom they can talk with. Where do they go for help? What will happen if members of the congregation find out that their home life is falling apart? This work provides different mentoring ideas as a response to this thought. Ministers’ mentoring focuses on pouring into the ministers lives, in areas where they really need help, in for instance; spending time with their spouse, and the church for healthy growth.
Rick Warren maintains that “the key issue for churches in the twenty-first century should be church health, not church growth.”7 When congregations are healthy, they grow the way God intends. Healthy churches do not need gimmicks to grow they grow; spiritually through godly leadership and followership. William Drath, a research scientist at the Center for Creative Leadership in a 1996 article writes:
There are leaders, but they do not make leadership happen. And there are followers, but they are not the objects of the leader’s leadership behaviour. Leaders and followers alike participate in leadership. Leadership is a property of the relationships people form when they are doing something together. Good sets of relationships constitute good leadership, which produces good leaders and good followers.8
Mentoring is a restorative and enhancing ministry solution for pastors of all kinds. Major problems are apparent in the ministry of the pastor today; conflict, boredom, and internal problems are prevalent, as they are elsewhere in our society. While the early months of a ministerial responsibility can feel effortless and exciting, the long-term ministerial commitment involves an on-going effort and cooperation of the pastor, the church and a godly mentor.
Building healthy patterns early in one’s ministry can establish a solid foundation for the long run. It is obvious that many had worked on mentoring and its benefits, the researcher adding a stone to the edifice was, above all, a response to the need for rejuvenating Christian mentoring. He also wished to enlighten people on the causes of ministerial instability, unfaithfulness and church lukewarmness, and finally to proffer rejuvenating Christian mentoring as a solution to some pastoral challenges and subsistence of the “living stones.” The church is built by Christ, the master builder.
Most of us know that keeping a vehicle moving in the desired direction requires not only regular refuelling, but also on-going maintenance and active corrections to the steering to compensate for changes in the road. A similar situation applies to make ministerial or pastoral mentoring relationships work. While we may work hard to get the ministry started, expecting to cruise without effort or active maintenance typically leads the church to stall or crash!
Philip Yancey writes, “We push our pastors to function as psychotherapists, orators, priests, and chief executive officers. Meanwhile, we place on them a unique burden of isolation and loneliness.”9 Not only are they expected to perform a multiplicity of roles, the pressure to succeed is also incredibly great, especially when members compare them to pastors of mega-successful churches. We expect them to do everything well even ministerial wise. Moreover, we want success to come quickly.
Lucille Lavender writes “The dangerous practice of becoming all things to all people, and conforming to roles which are not real, can all have a devastating effect on the church’s health. So much so that among professionals, clergymen rank third in the number of divorces granted each year.”10 There may be a strong desire to “let go” or to ignore it, but it is obvious the problem will not just go away. It should command the attention of the church; it cries out for workable solutions.
It has been observed that, young ministers in Lagos East Baptist Conference today could perform well in the ministry if an essential lacking area is given prompt attention. The LEBC churches’ growth is utmost, mentoring the young ministers for sustainability healthy church and mature relationship with other ministers are needful. This study explores the pressures that surround minister’s personal relationships and suggests tips that can strengthen pastors in their family lives, marriage, and ministry. This research shows mentors and mentored pastors how they can provide the right conditions and understandings to keep their marriage, ministry, and congregation above-board.
This project undertakes the examination of current mentoring practices to determine what elements are necessary to meet the needs of young pastors today. This study addressed the need to help ministers to build, healthy churches through Christian mentoring relationship lifestyle and to clarify the biblical definition and purpose of the church, based on strong pastoral discipleship and her future growth. Mentoring is not a new concept; it has its roots in ancient Greece. Todd Temple observed what Karl Barth said in one of his speeches given in 1937 in Basel, Our church, our very church, still believes far too much in a good man and far too little in only good Master. Too much and too little - that is why our church is perhaps no longer the light that lightens the darkness, which is what the church ought to be. It is a much too feeble church, a liberal church, just like the German Church that was overthrown in 1933.11
This should not be allowed to continue; our church should lighten the darkness. Thus researcher believes with the right and careful choices the church can train up not only new pastors, who will move on eventually to assist other churches, but local members as well who will be here for years to come. At the same time, also believe God has blessed us to be able to assist other local churches in developing their leaders in support of Kingdom growth and its sustaining.
This project assesses the effectiveness of mentoring for sustainable healthy church in the Lagos East Baptist conference. It primarily examines some strategies for sustaining healthy church for the 21st century within Lagos East Baptist conference; offer a meaningful life that is particularly important to younger adults and the rising generations of pastors. These generations are overwhelmed by myriad ideas about what “the good life” is and what it looks like.
Since one is growing into maturity in a culture where models of moral and holistic integrity are rare, they are anxious to see actual people actually living their intentions. The central focus addressed in this project is the elements of a mentoring platform that will serve the need of the Pastors and team leaders for a healthy next generational church growth. Ideally, this work provides informational guide to help establish, maintain, and accomplish a mentorship that is somehow neglected.
Many scholarly works have been written related to this subject, but the researcher is not aware of any work of this magnitude done that covers LEBC addressing mentoring of the young pastors for sustaining healthy growing church. Also, there is a renewed interest in mentoring as both business and Christian leaders recognize its unique ability to develop her leadership. Since many desire mentoring relationships, an effective mentoring program can become a strategic tool for developing young pastors as disciples of Christ. This work proposes a pattern whereby pastors take younger ones under their wing and instruct them in the ways of Jesus and the biblical servant style pattern of church leadership.
The pattern of mentoring treated in this study is what Lagos East Baptist Conferences is attempting to establish. There are many of our young men in the seminary with sense of leadership, however, what the biblical pattern of servant leadership is all about is not clear to them. These young pastors are seeking mentors but the right leaders are not available or the church programs are not designed to take care of them as those leaders once received it.
This study complements to knowledge in the following ways:
1. This project explains how mentoring of the young pastors’ can
make a big difference in the growth of the church for the next century. Current mentoring models have worked well in the past and the cold response on the part of young pastor is puzzling to the older ones. 2. It identifies several reasons why young pastors does not find traditional mentoring programs attractive. Some of the practices valued by modern leaders are a hindrance to growth, and this study will help leaders evaluate an existing mentoring program and assess its effectiveness for pastors.
3. This study examines how some mentoring practices have changed to meet needs common to the twenty-first century. It explains what these practices are and why they are effective.
4. It offers a new worldview related to mentoring based on the needs and preferences of pastors, and it provides leaders with a model integrity, character and skills (ICS Model) for mentoring young pastor. This model can renew the younger pastor’s interest in mentoring opportunities available through the church or other Christian ministries.
5. Lastly, the reader of this project gets principles and methods on how the LEBC churches for unceasingly and healthily growth annually. However, the principles will benefit our Nation to produce the godly and morally sound leaders from church for the society that will mentor others as the light.
This work is limited to the selected associational churches in Lagos East Baptist Conference. As it is evident in the title of this project this work admittedly has limitations. Firstly, this project traces the history of Baptist church in Lagos. This brief history sketches the basic elements of its past, such as beginning, development, structure, changes and status. Secondly, it researches the recommended characteristics of growing church that are describe by famous pastors and professional leaders in this field. However, this thesis does not analyse detailed views and arguments, obstacles of the church growth, and spiritual, leadership, and organizational factors of church growth.
Furthermore, this project does a detailed study into biblical and historical foundation of mentoring. In order to accomplish this, questionnaires were distributed to LEBC members, and the data was analysed and evaluated. He used 78 selected churches for the generalization of the whole spectra in Christian of the Nigeria. Lastly, the readers of this project get gen on the principles and methods of how the LEBC has unceasingly and healthily grown annually. However, this principle will only be applied to the upcoming churches.
This project adopted historical and descriptive research methodologies that uses the quantitative approach in order to gain a balanced understanding for sustaining church growth in LEBC through Christian mentoring for an eminent church and leadership development. The research is carried out in the context of LEBC churches by means of a questionnaire and interviews, fivefold structured questionnaire was used, incorporating manly (1) closed questions: questions with set responses; (2) factual questions - the type that seek not just accuracy but better details on the issues at hand;
(3) knowledge questions: questions seeking facts and figures: (4) motivational questions: questions that will explain the informant response; and (5) opinion questions: questions that require much care then factual answers.
The hypothesis formulated for this study is that; a pastor who is not mentored
will lack effective, productive and successful ministry. Previous research finds mutual attraction, flexibility, and shared experiences to be prominent concerns for modern pastors. At the core of all three is a desire for an organic mentoring relationship instead of a formal, structured approach to mentoring. The three hypotheses tested are: a). Most healthy churches have pastors who have godly mentors. b). Mentored pastors are organic factors in healthy sustainability of any church, and c). Pastors who are not mentored after their Seminary and Bible college training with a mentoring relationship where life experiences are mutually shared and processed tend to be detrimental to himself, family and ministry. Though these elements are not the only ones necessary in a mentoring relationship, they are established as foundational to the process.
This research hopes to answer the following questions:
1. Are Jesus’ mentoring principles from the Gospels and the book of Acts tenable for leadership and church development?
2. Is Christian mentoring partnership appropriate and necessary for church growth?
3. Is The concept of mentoring young ministers very relevant to development of selected churches within LEBC?
4. Is an opportunity to choose one’s mentor most critical and beneficial to young pastor’s character and church development?
5. Are the mutual life experiences shared, major element for a mentoring relationship that will serve the needs of the Christian pastors in an informal relationship?
The following relevant terms are defined for clarification:
Christian mentoring is a dynamic, intentional relationship of trust in which one person enables another to maximize the grace of God in his life and service. The selection of mentors based on their willingness and breadth of experience, which qualifies them to give practical advice and experiential assignments.12 It is a concept that seems at once both familiar and elusive.
According to Anderson and Reese it is “triadic relationship between mentor, mentoree and the Holy Spirit, where the mentoree can discover, through the already present action of God, intimacy with God, ultimate identity as a child of God and a unique voice for kingdom responsibility.”13 Biehl defines it as, “A lifelong relationship…in which a mentor helps a protégé reach his/her God-given potential.”14
Krallmann holds this: “Operating as a facilitator…to further the full release of the trainee’s talents, [the mentor] seeks to holistically impact the latter through the totality of his/her shared life.”15 According to Mallison, “Christian mentoring is a dynamic, intentional relationship of trust in which one person enables another to maximise the grace of God in their life and service.”16 Stanley and Clinton however call it, “A relational experience in which one person empowers another by sharing God- given resources.”17 Hence the work adopted only these concept as it explain the researcher worldview.
Coaching: the word coaching and mentoring are used interchangeably in this work since both words have the same ontological origin, according to MerriamWebster’s dictionary and Greek mythology.
Mentor and Mentoring : Merriam-Webster’s dictionary defines “mentor” as a trusted counsellor or guide, tutor or coach.18 Belle Rose’s states, “the mentoring has no Christological ontological origin; rather it comes from an ancient archetype originating in Greek mythology,”19 In the Greek mythology, Mentor was a loyal friend and adviser to Odysseus, king of Ithaca. He helped raise Odysseus' son, Telemachus, while Odysseus was away fighting the Trojan War. He became his teacher, coach, counsellor, and protector, building a relationship based on affection and trust. The concept of mentoring is as old as civilization, but because it means different things in various contexts, a precise definition is challenging.20
Church: a congregation of people who are known and owned by God, bought by the blood of Christ (Acts 20:28). She is destined to bring Him glory (Eph. 3:10-11) now and until His second coming.
Healthy Church is simply the living generation Christ’s body who stand witnessing Him to the world, come what may. They are not pandering to modernity, but midwifing the future church. Tertullian was right when he writes, “ The more you kill the more we are; the blood of the martyrs is the seed of the church”.21 The witness of faith sealed by the blood of so many martyrs is the great spiritual patrimony of the Church and a shining sign of hope for its future.
Christians can join Saint Paul in saying: “We are afflicted in every way, but not crushed; perplexed, but not driven to despair; persecuted, but not forsaken; struck down, but not destroyed; always carrying in the body the death of Jesus, so that the life of Jesus may also be manifested in our bodies” (2 Cor. 4: 8-10). Thus a healthy church upholds God with his manifestation as the Son, Jesus Christ the coming King based on grace and peace.
Mentoree/Mentee/Protégé, these words are used interchangeably, at the most basic level, for a learner. He/she is one who has a desire to learn and grow through a relationship with another who possesses a particular quality, knowledge, or skill. Tobepp a candidate for mentoring, the mentee must see value in knowing another pastor to expand the mentee’s knowledge and understanding. For the purposes of this study, “mentee” means any pastor who desires a mentoring relationship.
Mentorship is a professional relationship established between two people, where a more experienced person guides less experienced person through the subject where professional development is desired.22 Therefore, for the purposes of this study, mentoring and coaching are used interchangeably as a supportive friendship; it is a growthproducing relational experience. It goes beyond support and the transfer of knowledge and seeks to promote a significant movement in a person’s perspective, understanding, and behaviour for holistic maturity.
These definition reflects the mandate of Timothy 2:1-4, which instructed older and experienced ministers to teach and train the younger ones. Hence, Christian mentoring is a professional relationship that identifies and promotes the work of Holy Spirit in another’s life, assisting them to access God’s resources and skills for their maturity, spirituality, character and ministry.
This chapter explores and clarifies the biblical, historical and theological foundations for mentoring young ministers and church growth. It also addresses the following topics: 1. Mentoring program settings and its necessity; 2. Types of mentoring programs and procedure; 3. Potential outcomes for Career Mentoring initiatives for young ministers and Synopsis of Spiritual Mentoring; 4. Information on training and education resources. This project is supported by concepts from various books, articles, and dissertations that were reviewed over time. Today’s religious and secular scholars agree that there is a significant cultural and epistemological shift in progress and the way of doing things essentially in today’s church.
The researcher disagrees with John Mallison and his school of thought that says, “Mentoring is a relatively recent term especially in Christian circles,”23 but accepts that it has been the focus of Christian community since the early church. This practice has been the case particularly with spiritual direction, pastoral counselling, supervision/tutoring and discipleship. To discover the distinctiveness of Christian mentoring it is necessary to explore how it relates to these other functions and roles. Edgar Elliston wrote in 1988:
It appears that we are falling further behind in the preparation of church leaders for the number of new churches which are now being established. Now in Africa there are more than 500 ministry training institutions and yet the continual plea is for more leaders.24
Elliston provides a rather broad summary of the leadership problems commonly found throughout the African Church as major reasons for Christian mentoring:
1. Growth is placing unmet demands on leaders in some areas.
2. Over Functioning Leaders who try to do everything and decide everything is frustrating the church in some areas.
3. Non Functioning Leaders are allowing churches to die.
4. Undertrained Leaders are not leading to their full potential in many churches.
5. Over Trained Leaders are discouraged and discouraging as well as frustrated and frustrating to the churches.
6. Inappropriately Trained leaders continue to do all of the wrong things in the wrong places, at the wrong times, and in the wrong ways.
7. Dropout Leaders continue to fill the ranks of government bureaucracies, development agencies, and private business.
8. Overextended Leaders try to meet all of the pastoral and sacramental functions of multiple congregations and seek to uphold the artificially high western standards of ministry but deny the priesthood of all believers.
9. Springboard Leaders Use church leadership-training programmes to jump into suitable positions in business, government, and para-church agencies.25
More than seventy years ago, the Quaker mystic Thomas Kelly penned these prophetic words:
Continuously renewed immediacy, not receding memory of the divine touch, lies at the base of religious living. Let us explore together the secret of a deeper devotion,… where the light within never fades, but burns, a perpetual Flame, where the wells of living water of divine revelation rise up continuously, day by day and hour by hour, steady and transfiguring. The ‘bright shoots of everlastingness’ can become a steady light within,…26
Moody however says,
I believe we are making a woeful mistake in taking so many people into the Church who have never been truly convicted of sin. Sin is just as black in a man's heart today as it ever was. I sometimes think it is blacker. For the lighter a man has, the greater his responsibility, and therefore the greater need of deep conviction.27
In the same vein Odunayo Oke, in his recent work “Leadership for Building a Prevailing Church” asserts that, “it is becoming increasingly necessary that the church of the 21st century become more strategic in the preparation of the Bride of Christ for the return of her bridegroom.”28 Thus, Paul D. Stanley and J. Robert Clinton define mentoring as “a relational experience, in which one person empowers another by sharing God-given resources.”29 From all indications, mentoring is for the patient young one. Many scholars opine, that it is one of the most effective means of developing effective Christians, and it is time consuming.
According to MacFarland, “in a culture that presses for instant results by following a few key principles, the mentoring process can seem slow. But there is no short cut for equipping people to become theologically astute, godly in character, and competent in ministry.”30 The seemingly slow pace of mentoring is offset by its universal suitability for people of all ages, all races, all nationalities and all of life.
Fred Smith in the same vein insists that, “Effective mentoring has no set formula. It is a living relationship and progresses in fits and starts.”31 Mentoring is a form of friendship, but friendship with a particular end in mind: the mentor companions and supports the protégé in discovering and claiming his or her authentic self. Mentoring relationships anchor the vision of the potential self, as the mentor offers both insight and emotional support.32 Having a relationship with a spiritual mentor is one of the best ways to progress in the lifelong work of spiritual formation. Spiritual formation is nurtured most profoundly when they are “apprenticed” to a spiritual mentor who will collaborate with God’s Holy Spirit toward spiritual development.33
Thus, it is a dynamic relationship of trust, in which one person enables another to maximise the grace of God in his/her life and service. It has a sound biblical and theological basis with Jesus as the ultimate model, retaining all that is consistent with His life and teaching.34 John H. Oak holds:
If we continue to avoid developing laypeople into better disciples of Christ, and keep the church clergy cantered with all our attention on worship and rituals, we might succeed in increasing our quantity, but we will fail to increase quality. The result will be a stagnant church… I do not believe that this is what our Lord Jesus Christ, the head of the church, would wish. The mob that disappointed the heart of Jesus in Galilee cannot be left to raise its voice inside the present church. Pure Christianity is found in one or two spoonful of leaven rather than in many bags of flour. This, I believe, is one of the greatest lessons that can be learned by daily reflecting on the 2000 years of church history. Fortunately, a growing number of church leaders perceive the significance of properly developing and fully mobilizing the laity. This is an effective way for the church to operate if it is to accomplish its role as leaven in our ever-changing, twenty-first century society.35
The researcher quite agreed with John and Odunayo “nothing could be more tragic than to see individuals (minister added) who are placed here on earth by God to fulfil some unique and glorious destiny, still wandering and floundering aimlessly with no awakened sense of divine purpose or calling. Many there are in the ministry today who parade themselves as men of God who somehow have missed that one basic ingredient which alone can give meaning, direction, purpose and dedication to life: the sense of divine destiny.”36 The church needs real leaders, who generate and sustain cultures of character in their ministries. Every one of us is capable of developing the core qualities of leadership character and becoming one of them with the godly mentoring relationship.
Ralph D. Winter moreover holds that it is important for pastors and their spouses to have a godly ministerial mentor, and occasionally retreat from the hectic pace of church life, to rest and for healthy relationship in God. He believes strongly that Christ comes to us, in and through other people. The encouragement and commitment of mentors is a powerful avenue for this to transpire. They have many things to do to keep alive and to keep going and to keep their building program in mind and all that vital stuff. They have enough to think about without thinking about the church.37
Miller simply said, one’s living is determined not so much by what life brings to us as by the attitude we bring to life; not so much by what happens to us as by the way we mind look at what happens. Circumstances and situations do colour life, but we have been given the mind to choose what the colour shall be.38 Many young pastors often want to talk with others one-on-one about personal experiences, which is often rare to be found. Over the time, the researcher observed a hunger for mentoring in these pastors but they are reluctance to participate in church mentoring programs.
The Historical Background to Nigerian Baptist Convention
The Nigerian Baptist Convention started in 1850 by Rev. Thomas Jefferson Bowen as a foreign missionary project of the Southern Baptist Convention of the United States of America that was founded in Augusta, Georgia in 1845 which was officially established in 1914.39 40 It is now completely self-governing, selfpropagating, and self-supporting. It has started other Baptist conventions in West Africa, notably in Ghana (now the Baptist Convention of Ghana), and in Sierra Leone, now the (Baptist Convention of Sierra Leone41
It is the second largest Baptist convention, affiliating with the Baptist World Alliance, and the third largest in the world, after the Southern Baptist Convention, USA, and Northern Baptist Convention, USA. Conservative estimates of the size of the Nigerian Baptist Convention claims three million baptized believers and a worshipping community of more than six million. Virtually most Nigerian Baptists belong to churches affiliated with the Nigerian Baptist Convention.42
Lagos State Baptist Conference, The Historical Development of Lagos State Baptist Conference 1973-2010 (Lagos: Lagos State Baptist Conference 2010), 6.
Lagos State Baptist Conference, The Historical Development of Lagos State Baptist Conference 1973-2010 (Lagos: Lagos State Baptist Conference 2010), 6.
Lagos East Baptist Conference
The Lagos East Baptist Conference (LEBC) was established on 30TH September, 2010 from the defunct Lagos State Baptist Conference (LSBC) and has belongs to over two hundred and fifty churches.43 They have their secretariat situated within the Compound of Baptist Academy, along Ikorodu Road in Lagos. This is the prime conference of the Nigerian Baptist Convention, leading in missions, church planting and social transformation ministry. Her missionary activities cover both national and international scopes. Ministering in schools, prisons, rehabilitation centres and villages, Lagos East Baptist Conference is set to develop a rich pastoral team and vibrant churches that would catalyse the birth of a new society44.
The vision statement of LEBC is to be a foremost missionary Church in Nigeria, Africa and beyond. Also her Mission Statement or Objectives are to produce a community of disciples who represent Christ by proclaiming the gospel, discipling others, caring for, developing member Churches to be involved in evangelism and social ministry, and collaborating with other Christian agencies. LEBC has a slogan which states: Kingdom People, Proclaim Kingdom Message.
The Core Values of LEBC include We emphasize Spiritual Growth; We believe that only a changed life can engage in kingdom work, accentuate collectivity, growth and gifts. We lay emphasis on synergy in partnership as a means to expand God’s kingdom.
LEBC’s motivation is based on Rev.12:10 and include the following points:
1. Now God has shown himself to be a mighty God, we must therefore, join in this song of triumph by declaring His might among the nations. This becomes our confident assurance when we go in His name. 2. Now, Jesus has shown Himself to be a strong and mighty Saviour whose own hands have brought salvation and power. Therefore, we choose to expand His kingdom and establish His reign in Lagos and abroad. This we shall do by proclaiming salvation today.
3. By His power, His kingdom has greatly enlarged and been established.
We believe that the salvation and strength of the church are all to be ascribed to the Living Head of the church, and to take our mandate for global mission from Him.
Now is the time of salvation. The timing by this revelation suggests urgency and propriety. Therefore, we believe that now is the time to advance against the kingdom of darkness; now is the time to declare the Good News; it may no longer be good if it is later than now. Now is the time!45 LEBC’s goals are to have an increased awareness, commitment and support to missions and evangelism; to promote holistic education through training and social ministry to empower regenerated people in God’s work; to provide vibrant, dynamic and purposeful leadership for the Conference and to promote opportunities for people to invest in mission work for smooth running of Kingdom work.46
Since the inauguration of the Lagos East Baptist Conference on the 23rd day of September 2010, she has been experiencing rapid growth. Therefore, the big concern is a pursuit for viable forthcoming churches within the conference. This project deals with the issue of Christian leadership mentoring and substantiality of body of Christ. "The kingdoms of this world have become the kingdoms of our Lord and of His Christ, and
He shall reign forever and ever!" (Rev. 11:15 NKJV). A survey of research and
literature indicates that young pastors needs pastor Christian mentoring for healthy church growth.
Mentoring is the process of developing a person to her/his maximum potential for the Lord Jesus Christ. The object of mentoring is improvement and holiness, not perfection. A mentor is someone committed to help you grow so that the process of maturing continues for a lifetime and helps you realize your God-given purpose and achieve your God given life goals.47 According to Jim Grassy, “Mentoring, discipling, and modelling cannot be replaced by governmental mandates and social gospel”48
We found it in Jesus’ calling the people to be disciples through these aspects: the call to follow, commissioned to be with Jesus, and to be sent out for mission.49 Biblically it is developing co-ministry and spiritual needs to reach to the likeness of Jesus. It is defined simply as a relationship in which a less experienced person learns from a more experienced person. For the purposes of this research, “mentoring” will indicate an intentional, psychosocial, learner-focused relationship for facilitating the growth and development of one desiring to acquire particular knowledge and skills possessed by another.
Leadership is not taught so much in a classroom, but in a one-on-one mentoring relationship with those gifted by God to lead ministries in His church. Often one meets people who are confused about what mentoring actually is. Therefore, it is essential to distinguish “mentoring” from other kinds of assistance. According to Linda Phillips-Jones, mentoring is defined in at least two ways: one by mentors’ behaviours and the other by how the mentee perceives what is going on.50
1) Designated Mentor Behaviour with Intent as Mentoring
In formal/structured or informal mentoring relationships, “mentoring” is the intentional helping that the mentors do.51 As observers, we can see the mentors purposely performing various actions aimed at helping the mentees reach goals and build competencies. For example, the mentors exert extra effort listening attentively, explaining concepts, inspiring, sharing their own life experiences, making phone calls on the mentee's behalf, arranging observations of people, loaning materials, editing the mentee's documents, coaching on tasks and projects, providing positive and corrective feedback, protecting, and giving other assistance. As opposed to coaching, mentoring usually focuses on long-term development of several areas of a mentee’s life. If the mentors are providing these types of help, we usually say that mentoring is going on, although we are assuming that the mentee is actually receiving and gaining from the help. If we measure gains made by the mentees and can attribute the gains to what the mentors did, we say more confidently that mentoring occurred.52
2) Perceived Mentoring as Mentoring
With the second definition, “mentoring” is defined by mentees.53 In a sense, mentoring is in the eyes of the mentored. When asked to recall past mentors, some people cannot remember anyone who fits that title. Others easily name a dozen “mentors” who helped them develop. Very often, the same behaviour by a mentor is perceived as mentoring or not mentoring by two different mentees. What is going on here? People have different perceptions of whether or not and how others help them. Many people define the help they receive (even when quite limited) as mentoring and call those helpers mentors. “You or I may or may not define the assistance in this way, but to these ‘mentees’, this is what occurred, and they’re happy with it.”54
Others who receive a great deal of assistance either do not recognize it or do not choose to call it mentoring. Similarly, people have different perceptions of whether and how they have mentored others. For example, one may help people all the time with their lives, and not consider it mentoring. On the other hand, some people skilfully perform all the intentional mentor behaviours mentioned above by trying their best, helping another but are not considered as a mentor and helping is not thought of as mentoring. The mentee must have some awareness of her own limitations and a growing sense there may be a different way to think and respond to events, but she does not quite know how to go about doing this.55
Mentoring today is synonymous with the process by which we guard and guide others. Mentors seemingly "adopt" those placed in their care.56 Because of Mentor's relationship with Telemachus, and the disguised Athena's encouragement and practical plans for dealing with personal dilemmas, the personal name Mentor has been adopted in English as a term meaning someone who imparts wisdom to and shares knowledge with a less experienced colleague.57
It is a form of friendship, but friendship with a particular end in mind: the mentor companions and supports the protégé in discovering and claiming his or her authentic self. Mentoring relationships anchor the vision of the potential self, as the mentor offers both insight and emotional support.58 It is always mutual in practice. The protégé is learning from the mentor, but the mentor is also learning from the protégé.
John Mallison observes in his volume mentoring to Develop Disciples & Leaders:
One of the greatest responsibilities and privileges of Kingdom leadership is to invest in the training of future leaders. The Apostle Paul was well aware of this responsibility and modelled it in his relationship with Timothy, Titus, and others. However, this model did not begin with Paul! The Bible gives us the powerful examples of Moses and Joshua, Elijah and Elisha, and our Lord’s training of the twelve. The advance of faithful ministry from generation to generation is similar to runners in a relay race who pass along the baton from runner to runner. In this case, the baton Paul refers to includes “the things you have heard from me.” This must refer to the entire apostolic testimony from the Gospel of Jesus Christ and He crucified, to the specific directions given to care for His flock. It includes orthodoxy (right doctrine) and orthopraxis (right practice).59
He further resolves:
Increasingly, those who take their Christian discipleship and service seriously are seeing the value of having a friend and advisor with whom they can share openly and to whom they can be held accountable. As the wise old sage said, “Two are better than one” (Eccles. 4:9).60
John’s definition: “Christian mentoring is a dynamic, intentional relationship of trust in which one person enables another to maximize the grace of God in their life and service.”61 Our key model here of course is Jesus; chapter two has a marvellous exposition of “The Great Commission” (Matthew 28:19,20). And of course there are many other biblical precedents. The heart of mentoring is to help in the development of a growing relationship with God. It is dynamic, involving receiving, sharing, and giving - and honesty, and accountability. And the discipline of regularly meeting.
The encouragement and commitment of mentors is a powerful avenue for this to happen. Although pastors and the contemporary church have been aware of this for many years, until recently they never had the chance to reflect on it in a careful way. While mentors certainly can teach protégés specific skills or lead them through set curricula, the most powerful aspect of mentoring is not in the doing but in the being. Ninety per cent of what we have to offer as mentors is ourselves. Our health, self- awareness, and spiritual vitality are more valuable than any program we could organize.
Paul’s connection with Timothy begins in Acts 16:1-3, where Paul requests Timothy to join him. Later Paul includes Timothy by name in greetings as a brother in Christ. Paul further mentions Timothy in Romans, then 1 Corinthians, but most clearly in his first letter to Timothy, where Paul calls Timothy “my own son in the faith.”62 This pattern of mentor relationship is one that needs reintroduction into the church today. This mentoring will endeavour to instil the servant style of leadership into potential leaders of the future church.
Thus, the researcher agrees with John H. Oak that:
The church in a period of transition should earnestly and humbly wait for the kingdom of God so that it will be perfected in the future when the Lord returns. The church has not yet arrived at its final destination but is on its pilgrimage toward the eternal city. The present church, therefore, is a signpost that announces the end, and a billboard that reveals what is to come. When the king comes, the church will inherit the kingdom and this kingdom will be realized throughout the whole universe.63
According to Ken Blanchard and Phil Hodges, “most leadership books and seminars focus on the leader’s behaviour ability and try to improve leadership style and methods.”64 Apparently mentoring young ministers is more about interaction and lifestyle than methods. These assessments will give the church leaders and potential leaders insight as to what placement is best for each individual, thereby maximizing the mentoring leadership potential for each pastor. This self-check is not to disqualify anyone but to establish a starting point from where each person can work within himself or herself to better his or her leadership ability. While not all will become a faithful minister, in the best that God has for them. As we endeavour to become a stronger servant leader based church, we must first understand what it means to be a mentor to young servant leaders.
Teresa Whitehurst likens, mentoring to teaching through behaviour, as in the case of Jesus, who knew that people were watching him, and was ever mindful that actions speak louder than words. She further cites David Perkins Ph.D., of Harvard University, who coined a term as “Symbolic conduct” to describe how our behaviour communicates our attitudes, assumptions and values:
Our symbolic conduct and side messages have an often unseen but significant impact on the behaviour of those around us…. Even though we may think we are just going about our ordinary affairs, even though we do not mean to send sweeping messages with our actions, inevitably the messages are often there. People read our behaviour “between the lines,” interpreting our behaviour for its broader motives, attitudes, and commitments.65
Jesus had a strategy for developing his followers into individuals who would become leaders in fulfilling his mission. Jesus called them to himself, taught them, modelled a lifestyle that he wanted them to follow, cared for them, and held them accountable. He also involved them in learning experiences. In Jesus ‘ministry, unmeasurable character and mental and spiritual transformations were “from the inside out”.66 Churches, too, are offering mentoring as a way of nurturing disciples and growing leaders. With so many issues confronting Christians today as they try to make sense of what it means to be a follower of Jesus in the 21st century, mentoring offers a place to gain perspective, explore issues, think through what the Bible has to say, be encouraged and receive support.
Mentoring also provides a context for taking further steps in leadership. Kerby Anderson stresses:
A Christian understanding of ethics and philosophy begins with the assumption that God exists and has revealed Himself to the human race…God’s character is the ultimate standard of right and wrong. And even though the Bible was written long before the development of genetic engineering or modern media, it nevertheless provides useful principles to evaluate the morality of social, scientific and technological issues. Biblical morality can be developed from learning to live God’s way according to biblical principles.67
According to Joseph Girona, “to understand the Good News and what it is, we have to not just listen to what Jesus says, but watch the way He lives. Most of his messages are hidden in His lifestyles, and particularly in the way He treated people.”68 We must remember that the mentored is a person that Christ has died for and is love by Him. The Apostle Paul wrote the babes in Thessalonica a nurture letter of total scripture. He reminded them how he lived and what he did and said those weeks with them.
He was their Bible with legs, their model, their spiritual parent-mentor, “like a mother caring for her little children” and like “a father” (I Thess. 2: 7, 12). When we read the first three chapters we see how Paul reminds them to “remember”, and “you know” or recall. Every believer needs a mentor with a “parent heart” to carry them if need be or help them up when they fall.
Paul, when at Miletus taking his final departure from the elders of Ephesus who had come to meet him, earnestly entreated them to take heed to feed the Church of God. For, he said, "I know this, that after my departing shall grievous wolves enter in among you, not sparing the flock, and of yourselves shall men arise, speaking perverse things to draw away disciples after them” (Acts 20: 29 NIV).
He also took occasion to warn the Saints at Thessalonica not to be deceived regarding the ushering in of the second advent of the Son of God, "for that day," he wrote to them, "shall not come, except there, come a falling away first, and that man of sin be revealed, the son of perdition; who opposes and exalts himself above all that is called God, or that is worshiped; so that he as God sits in the temple of God, showing himself that he is God." (2 Thessalonians 2:3 KJV) Hence, mentors must be prepared to prevent the church leadership from falling away from faith through Christian mentoring. This means good and wise mentors should regard every meeting with that mentee as a privilege to partake in God’s work in their lives. Peterson argues that no matter how intimate the mentoring relationship becomes or how assured we are in our own mentoring skills we will only see the top layers of a multi-layered human. Consequently, we must not assume through all our learning that we know how to direct this person. No. Only God is in charge of this person’s spiritual development and growth.
Practically, Peterson states, we must tell ourselves, “If I dominate the conversation, ignoring God’s word and presence and mercy or consigning him to a merely ceremonial position, then I am getting in the way.”69 We embrace this servant- based biblical model.70 According to Edward Sellner in his book, Mentoring: The
1 Robert l. Turknett and Carolyn N. Turknett, Decent People, Decent Company; How to Lead with Character at Work and in Life (Mountain View CA: Davies-Black Publishing, 2005), 1.
2 Turknett and Turknett, Decent People, Decent Company; How to Lead with Character at Work and in Life, 1.
3 J. Oswald Sanders, Spiritual Leadership: Principles of Excellence for Every Believer (Chicago: Moody Publisher 2007), 27.
4 Bill George, “Interview with Bill George” (15 October 2003). http://www.dupree.gatech.edu/newsroom/news/2003/impact/george/files/George Q A.pdf assessed May 12 2015.
5 John W Stanko. So many Leaders … So Little Leadership (Kaduna: Evangel Publication, 2000), ix.
6 Matt Schmucker. “Is This a Hill Worth Dying On?” www.9Marks.org. accessed May 12, 2015.
7 Rick Warren, The Purpose Driven Church (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1995), 17.
8 William Drath, “Changing Our Minds About Leadership, Issues and Observations,” Center for Creative Leadership, no. 1 (1996), 16.
9 P. Yancey, “Replenishing the Inner Pastor.” Christianity Today.Com, May 21, 2001. online accessed 12 August 2014.
10 Lucille Lavender, They Cry, too! (New York: Hawthorne Books, 1986), 88.
11 Todd Temple and Kim Twitchell, 20 th Century people who shaped the Church. (Wheaton, Illinois Tyndale House publishers, Inc. 2000), 18.
12 Shepherds Theological Seminary, Mentoring Handbook 2013 online edition, 5. Accessed on Wednesday, 18 March 2015.
13 Anderson and Reese, Spiritual Mentoring : A Guide for Seeking and Giving Direction (Downers Grove: IVP, 1999), p. 12.
14 Bobb Biehl. Mentoring: Confidence in Finding a Mentor and Becoming One (Nashville: Broadman & Holman, 1996), 19.
15 Gunter Krallmann, Mentoring for Mission (Hong Kong: Ensco, 1992), 122.
16 John Mallison, Mentoring to Develop Disciples & Leaders (Adelaide: Open Book/Lidcombe: Scripture Union, 1998), 8.
17 Paul D. Stanley and J. Robert Clinton. Connecting: The Mentoring Relationships You Need to Succeed in Life (Colorado Springs: NavPress, 1992), 33.
18 Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary: http//www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary.s.v. “Mentor.”
19 Ragins Belle Rose and Kathy E. Kram, The Handbook of Mentoring at Work (New Delhi, Singapore: Sage, 2007), 5.
20 Bozeman and Feeney note that relatively few scholars give a precise definition of mentoring and offer thirteen definitions that various researchers posit. Barry Bozeman and Mary K. Feeney, “Mentor Matching: A ‘Goodness of Fit’ Model Sharon Heron discovered this to also be true in the Christian context and argues “…there is not an overarching definition of Christian mentoring.” Sharon Jane Susanne Heron, “Mentoring in Christian Community: Issues of Definition and Evaluation” (Ph.D. diss., The Queen’s University of Belfast, 2008), 4. Hansman sees this because of the complex nature of these relationships and the increasingly important role mentoring partnerships have played in education and the market place. http://www.calpro-online.org/eric/docs/mott/mentoring1.pdf (accessed August 9, 2014).
21 Tertullian, Liber Apologeticus 50, 13.
22 NESSE Network of Early-career Scientists & Engineers Mentorship Program Tip, the materials are based on the “The Mentor’s Guide: Facilitating Effective Learning Relationship” by Lois J. Zachary.
23 Extract from John Mallison, "Mentoring to Develop Disciples and Leaders" 2-6.
24 Edgar J. Elliston, “Designing Leadership Education” (Missiology: An International Review, Vol. XVI, No. 2, April 1988), 205.
25 Elliston, Edgar J. 203-215.
26 A 12-part series of observations and reflections with Rev. Rd. Cynthia Bourgeault and Christopher www.contemplative.org Thomas Kelly the Light Within, 31. Accessed March 30, 2015
27 Dwight L. Moody The Overcoming Life and Other Sermons, 24 .
28 Odunayo Oke, Leadership for Building a Prevailing Church ( Lagos, Nigeria: Charis Ventures publication. 2015), 30.
29 Paul D Stanley, and J. Robert Clinton. Connecting: The Mentoring Relationships you need to Succeed in Life (Colorado Springs: Naves, 1992), 42.
30 Janine Petry Contributing Editor, “Gifted for Leadership” Christianity Today International. http://www.GiftedForLeadership.com. accessed August 14, 2014.
31 Fred Smith, “Making a Good Match learn the 8 characteristics of a healthy mentoring relationship.” Gifted for Leadership Christianity Today International.www.GiftedForLeadership.com. 16 accessed August 14, 2014
32 Sharon Daloz Parks. Big Questions, Worthy Dreams: Mentoring Young Adults in their Search for Meaning, Purpose and Faith. (Jossey-Bass, 2000), p. 81 http://www.resourcingchristianity.org/ accessed August 14, 2014.
33 Anderson and Reese. Spiritual Mentoring, 27.
34 Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper accessed 19th August 2014.
35 John, H. Oak. Healthy Christians makes Healthy Church. (Kaduna, Nigeria: Evangel Publishers Ltd ND), 45.
36 Odunayo Oke, Leadership for Building a Prevailing Church 50.
37 Ralph D. Winter. The Largest Stumbling Block to Leadership Development in the Global Church International Journal of Frontier Missions 20:3 fall 2003, 90.
38 Miller Quotation from Power BibleCD 2000 Online Publishing, Inc.
39 Lagos State Baptist Conference, The Historical Development of Lagos State Baptist Conference 1973-2010 (Lagos: Lagos State Baptist Conference 2010), 6.
40 Lagos State Baptist Conference, The Historical Development of Lagos State Baptist Conference 1973-2010 (Lagos: Lagos State Baptist Conference 2010), 6.
41 http://www.nigerianbaptist.org accessed 23 July, 2014.
42 http://www.nigerianbaptist.org accessed 27 Feb, 2015
43 Lagos East Baptist Conference, The Historical Development of Lagos East Baptist Conference (Lagos: Lagos East Baptist Conference 2010), Appendix C, 204-216.
44 Lagos East Baptist Conference, Her beginning http://www.lagoseastbaptistconference.org.ng/Vision+26+Mission+1 accessed 27 Feb. 2015.
45 Her motivation http://www.lagoseastbaptistconference.org.ng/Vision+26+Mission+1 assessed 27 Feb. 15.
46 Nigerian Baptist Convention, Nigerian Baptist Convention at 100 Historical Book http://ww.lagoseastbaptistconference.org.ng/About+Us accessed January 12 2015.
47 D Ralph, 90.
48 Jim, Grassi, The Spiritual Mentor (Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 2013) xvii.
49 Church Bible Commentary (Scottsdale, PA: Herald Press, 2001).
50 Linda Phillips-Jones, When is it mentoring? ccc/the mentoring group www.mentoringgroup.com retrieved February 14, 2015.
51 Linda Phillips-Jones, 2
53 Ibid, 2.
54 Ibid, 5.
55 Nancy Popp and Kathryn Portnow, “Our Developmental Perspective on Adulthood,” in Toward a New Pluralism in ABE/ESOL Classrooms: Teaching to Multiple “Cultures of Mind,” NCSALL Report #19, ed. Robert Kegan et al.: 22, http://www.ncsall.net/fileadmin/resources/research/19_c3.pdf. The authors build their case on the seminal work of Jean Piaget and the constructive-developmental theory that Robert Kegan later puts forth. The latter focuses more on inner experiences and the processes of adult transformation. Retrieved January 26, 2015.
56 William Hamilton, 1751-1804 Mentor Coach LLC
http://mentorcoach.com/coaching/origins.html Retrieved January 26, 2015.
57 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mentor Retrieved January 26, 2015.
58 Sharon Daloz Parks. Big Questions, Worthy Dreams: Mentoring Young Adults in their Search for Meaning, Purpose and Faith. (Jossey-Bass, 2000), 81.
59 John Mallison, Mentoring: to Develop Disciples and Leaders (Adelaide: Lidcombe: Scripture Union /Open Book, 1998), 37.
60 John Mallison , Mentoring: to Develop Disciples and Leaders, 8.
62 2 Timothy 1:2.
63 John, H. Oak, 74.
64 Kenneth H. Blanchard and Phil Hodges, Lead Like Jesus (Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 2005), 39.
65 Teresa Whitehurst. Jesus on Parenting (Lagos: Edysyl Christian Bookshop and Library, 2003), 22.
66 Teresa, 23.
67 Kerby Anderson, Christian Ethics in Plain Language (Nashville, Tennessee: Thomas Nelson, Inc. 2005), 20.
68 Ibid., 22.
69 Peterson, Eugene. Working with Angels: The Shape of Pastoral Ministry, (Eerdmans, 1994), 189.
70 Some ideas on Mentoring…. http://www.mentoring.org accessed on 13 Jan 2015.
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